Main Article Content
Aims: Moringa oleifera is an edible plant. A wide variety of nutritional and medicinal virtues have been attributed to its roots, barks, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the preservation of the constituents of the powder obtained from the moringa seeds by freeze-drying comparing it with the in natura (natural extract).
Place and Duration of Study: The work was conducted at the Laboratory of Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Campina Grande, Brazil, in the period from August to November 2018.
Methodology: The seeds were peeled and macerated manually. Freeze-drying was done in a Liotop® L101 benchtop freeze drier. After dehydration the samples were disintegrated and the physical and physico-chemical constituents were evaluated before and after freeze-drying in terms of apparent density, real density, porosity, compacted density, compressibility index, Hausner factor, solubility, moisture content and activity, ash, titratable total acidity, pH, protein, lipids and carbohydrates.
Results: The in natura powder presented better results for the physical analyzes of the densities: apparent, real and compacted, however, it was observed that for the other physical parameters and physicochemical constituents the freeze-drying promoted the preservation of these in front of the in natura. Freeze-drying caused a significant reduction in moisture content, pH and lipid activity, making the powders more stable and contributing to the maintenance of their physico-chemical qualities. The inverse was observed for the ash, protein and carbohydrate contents, where freeze-drying promoted increases in their contents.
Conclusion: Freeze-drying presents as an appropriate method in the preservation of moringa constituents, with emphasis on physicochemical.
Borba LR. Viability of the use of Moringa oleifera Lam in the simplified treatment of water for small communities. 92 f. Dissertation (Master in Development and Environment) - Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa-PB; 2001.
Baptista ATA, Coldebella PF, Cardines PHF, Gomes RG, Vieira MF, Bergmasco R, Vieira MAS. Coagulation-flocculation process with ultrafiltered saline extract of Moringa oleifera for the treatment of surface water. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2015;276:166-173.
Santos JTS, Costa FSC, Soares DSC, Campos AFP, Carnelossi MAG, Nunes TP, Júnior AMO. Evaluation of lyophilized mangaba through physical-chemical parameters. Scientia Plena. 2012;8(3):1-5.
Sagar VR, Suresh KP. Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2010;47(1):15-26.
Park KJ, Park PJ, Alonso LFT, Cornejo FEP, Fabbro IMD. Drying: Fundamentals and equations. Brazilian Journal of Agroindustrial Products. 2014;16(1):93-127.
Hamid SHA, Lananan F, Khatoon H, Jusoh A, Endut A. A study of coagulating protein of Moringa oleifera in microalgae bioflocculation. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 2016; 30:1-8.
Santos DC. Obtaining umbu-caja powder by the freeze-drying process and its use in the processing of prebiotic ice creams. 296 f. Thesis (PhD in Agricultural Engineering) - Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande-PB; 2016.
Caparino OA, Tang J, Nindo CI, Sablani SS, Powers JR, Fellman JK. Effect of drying methods on the physical properties and microstructures of mango (Philippine ‘Carabao’ var.) powder. Journal of Food Engineering. 2012;111(1):135-148.
Krokida MK, Maroulis ZB. Effect of drying method on shrinkage and porosity. Drying Technology. 1997;15(10):2441-2458.
Tonon RV, Brabet C, Hubinger MD. Influence of process conditions on the physicochemical properties of açai (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) powder produced by spray drying. Journal of Food Engineering. 2008;88(3):411-418.
Hausner HH. Friction conditions in a mass of metal powder. International Journal of Powder Metallurgy. 1967;3(4):7-13.
Durigon A. Production and characterization of tomato powder by cast-tape drying. 162 f. Thesis (Doctoral Degree in Food Engineering) - Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC; 2016.
Goula AM, Adamopoulos KG. A new technique for spray drying orange juice concentrate. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2010;11:342-351.
Brazil. Chemical and physical methods for food analysis. Institute Adolfo Lutz. 4. ed. Analytical standards of the Adolfo Lutz Institute. São Paulo. 2008;1:1020,
Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal Biochemistry Physiology. 1959; 37(8):911-917.
Silva FAS, Azevedo CAV. The Assistat Software Version 7.7 and its use in the analysis of experimental data. African Journal Agricultural Research. 2016; 11(39):3733-3740.
Zea LP, Yusof YA, Aziz MG, Ling CN, Amin NAM. Compressibility and dissolution characteristics of mixed fruit tablets made from guava and pitaya fruit powders. Powder Technology. 2013;247:112-119.
Ceballos AM, Giraldo GI, Orrego CE. Effect of freezing rate on quality parameters of freeze dried soursop fruit pulp. Journal of Food Engineering. 2012; 111:360-365.
Santhalakshmy S, Bosco SJD, Francis S, Sabeena M. Effect of inlet temperature on physicochemical properties of spray-dried jamun fruit juice powder. Powder Technology. 2015;274(1) 37-43.
Ribeiro LC. Production of acerola powder: Drying methods and stability evaluation. 126 f. Dissertation (Master in Science and Food Technology) - Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE; 2014.
Fellows PJ. Food Processing Technology - Principles and Practices. São Paulo, SP, Editora Artmed. 2006;602.
Brazil. Ministry of Health. National Health Surveillance Agency - ANVISA. Resolution RDC No. 273 of September 22, 2005. Technical Regulation of Mixtures for the Preparation of Foods and Foods Ready for Consumption. 2005;4.
Passos RM, Santos DMC, Santos BS, Souza DCL, Santos JAB, Silva GF. Postharvest quality of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam) used in fresh and dry form. Magazine GEINTEC. 2012;3(1):113-120.
Temóteo JLM, Gomes EMS, Silva EVL, Correia AGS, Sousa JS. Evaluation of vitamin c, acidity and pH in acerola, caja and guava pulps of a brand marketed in Maceio-Alagoas. In: North Northeast Congress of Research and Innovation. 2012. Anais ... Palmas, Tocantins; 2012.
Oliveira GS. Application of the freeze-drying process to obtain powdered caja: evaluation of physical, physico-chemical and hygroscopic characteristics. f. Dissertation (Master degree) - Federal University of Ceara, Agricultural Sciences Center, Department of Food Technology, Post-graduation Program in Food Science and Technology, Fortaleza-CE; 2012.
Basso AM. Study of the chemical composition of jaca (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Dehydrated, in nature and lyophilized. 118 f. Dissertation (Master in Chemistry) - Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN; 2017.
Celestino SMC. Principles of food drying. Planaltina (DF): Embrapa Cerrados; 2010.
Ghribi AM, Gafsi IM, Blecker C, Danthine S, Attia H, Besbes S. Effect of drying methods on physic-chemical and functional properties of chickpea protein concentrates. Journal of Food Engineering. 2015;165:179-188.
Oberoi DPS, Sogi DS. Effect of drying methods and maltodextrin concentration on pigment contente of watermelon juice powder. Journal of Food Engineering. 2015;165:172-178.
Samoticha J, Wojdylo A, Lech K. The influence of different the drying methods on chemical composition and antioxidant activity in chokeberries. Food Science and Technology. 2016;66:484-489.