Market Quality of Late Winter/Early Spring Peony Paeonia after Controlled Dormancy: Dummy Regression Modelling

Main Article Content

Gregory Yom Din
Menashe Cohen
Rina Kamenetsky Goldstein


There is a shortage of herbaceous peony cut flowers in the world market in late winter/early spring. The quality of these prestige flowers, when cultivated in warm climate regions and stored in cooling chambers during dormancy, is influenced by pre-dormancy, dormancy, and post dormancy conditions. In this article, various regimes of peony dormancy with constant and variable temperatures were studied. Containers with plants of cv. ‘Sarah Bernhardt’ were exposed to a pre-dormancy temperature of 15°C and, after two weeks, transferred to cooling chambers in order to keep dormancy under four constant or diurnal temperature regimes. On three different dates, plants from each treatment were transferred to a greenhouse for release from dormancy and the beginning of sprouting. During commercial harvest, data on height and thickness of flower stems, number of harvested flowers per plant, and dates of harvested flowers were collected. Using these data, the index of market quality of peony flowers was defined and regressed on dummy variables that reflected chilling regimes and dormancy duration. Statistically significant differences in market quality were shown between the treatments with the lower storage temperatures 20 C, 2-100 C, and 2-150 C, and the reference treatment with a storage temperature of 2 – 200 C. Statistically significant differences were also shown between the treatments with the shorter storage period of 6 weeks, 4 days or of 8 weeks, on the one hand, and the reference treatment with the storage of 9 weeks, 3 days, on the other. Close results were obtained for the treatments with the constant temperature of 20 C and with the diurnal alternating temperature of 2-100C. Therefore, growers can expect economic gains from saving energy during dormancy under a suitable temperature regime.

Dormancy, cooling chambers, market quality, dummy regression.

Article Details

How to Cite
Din, G., Cohen, M., & Goldstein, R. (2019). Market Quality of Late Winter/Early Spring Peony Paeonia after Controlled Dormancy: Dummy Regression Modelling. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 28(5), 1-10.
Original Research Article


Steen M. Measuring price–quantity relationships in the Dutch flower market. J Agr App Econ. 2014;46(02):299-308.

CBI Trade Statistics: Cut Flowers and Foliage; 2016.

van Rijswick C. World Floriculture Map. Rabobank Industry Note; 2015.
Available: 2015.

Kalmegh S, Singh N. Analysis of floriculture as a booming business for Indian farmers. Global J. for Research Analysis. 2017;5(10):618-620.

Ninama AP, Sipai SA, Khadayata KG, Patel PC. Floriculture in India: Problems and prospect. Advances in Life Sci. 2016;5(4):1150-1153.

Shanshan GUO, Linhong LI, Jing ZHOU, Longjin ZHOU, Xiaorui WANG, Bo WANG, Jiangfeng CHU. Analysis on opportunities and threats for agricultural sustainable development of Yunnan Province in the context of the 13th five-year plan. Agr. Sci. & Technology. 2016;17(5):1437-1441.

Moran TH. FDI and supply chains in horticulture (Vegetables, fruits and flowers, raw, packaged, cut and processed): Diversifying exports and reducing poverty in Africa, Latin America and Other Developing Economies. Center for Global Development. Available: 2016.

Hanks G. A review of production statistics for the cut-flower and foliage sector 2015. Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board, London PO BOF 002a.
Available: 2015.

Abbey M. Paeonia spp. Production and future developments. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy; 2015.

Muñoz G, Campos F, Salgado D, Galdames R, Gilchrist L, Chahin G and Andrade O. Molecular identification of Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis paeoniae and Botrytis pseudocinerea associated with gray mould disease in peonies (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) in Southern Chile. Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia. 2016;33(1): 43-47.

Ratnayake I. The experiences of New Zealand floriculture export producers in the changing international market: What can be done to strengthen the sector's capabilities? Master thesis. Auckland University of Technology; 2016.

Fitzgerald D. Peony - A future crop for Alaska? 2004.

Zhang J, Wu Y, Li D, Wang G, Li X, Xia Y. Transcriptomic analysis of the underground renewal buds during dormancy transition and release in ‘Hangbaishao’ Peony (Paeonia lactiflora). PloS one. 2015;10(3):e0119118.

Kamenetsky R, Shlomi T. Market-oriented research as a strategic tool in ornamental science. Acta Hortic. 2012;937:69-74.

Rhie YH, Jung HH, Kim KS. Chilling requirement for breaking dormancy and flowering in Paeonia lactiflora ‘Taebaek’ and ‘Mulsurae’. Hort. Environ. Biotechnol. 2012;53:277-282.

Kamenetsky R, Barzilay A, Erez A, Halevy AH. Temperature requirements for floral development of herbaceous peony cv. ‘Sarah Bernhardt’. Scientia Hortic. 2003; 97(3):309-320.

Yom Din G, Cohen M, Kamenetsky R. Database for herbaceous peony cultivated in warm climate regions: Effects of temperature on plant dormancy and growth. J. Horticulture. 2015;2(3):147.

Cohen M, Kamenetsky R, Yom Din G. Herbaceous peony in warm climate: Modelling stem elongation and growers profit responses to dormancy conditions. Information Processing Agr, 2016;3(3): 175-182.

Ogundeji AA, Jordaan H. A simulation study on the effect of climate change on crop water use and chill unit accumulation. South Afr J Sci. 2017;113(7/8):7.

Cohen M, Eitan R, Yom Din G, Kamenetsky R. Effect of constant and alternating temperature regimes on post-dormancy development of herbaceous peony. Acta Hortic. 2017;1171:89-98.

Sawan ZM. Climatic variables: Evaporation, sunshine, relative humidity, soil and air temperature and its adverse effects on cotton production. Information Processing Agr. 2018;5(1):134-148.

Suits DB. Dummy variables: Mechanics v. interpretation. Review Econ Stat. 1984; 66(1):177-180.

Byrne TG. Peonies as a potential forcing crop. Flower and nursery report for commercial growers - California University, Berkeley, Agricultural Extension Service. Available: 1988.

Iversen RR, Weiler TC. Strategies to force flowering of six herbaceous garden perennials. Hort Technology. 1994;4(1):61-65.

Fulton TA, Hall AJ, Catley JL. Chilling requirements of Paeonia cultivars. Scientia Hortic. 2001;89(3):237-248.