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The hormones are closely related to the emergence of gemstones contained seedlings of sugarcane, at the time of planting of the stems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the ethephon associated to the position of gemstones in the cane of sugar cane in the initial development of the culture. In March 2014, at the Rio Vermelho Plant, located in Junqueirópolis, State of São Paulo, a cane plant with a sugar cane plant was selected for seedlings with an approximate age of 11 months. Two areas with dimensions of 20x20 meters were demarcated. In one of the areas ethephon was applied. At 15 days after application, the seedlings containing 1 and 2 buds were collected to compose two independent experiments. From the area where the product was not applied, seedlings were removed for the control and application treatments of ethephon in the planting groove in pots. The gems were sent to the Faculty of Agrarian and Technological Sciences of the Paulista State University "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" - from Dracena, State of São Paulo. The seedlings came from the apex, middle and base of the canes of sugarcane. In this way, the experimental design was in a 3x3 factorial scheme, that is, the position of the seedlings in the canes of sugarcane and the modes of application of ethephon. The use of ethephon and positions of the seedlings in sugarcane stalks did not influence the Chlorophyll Index and Stomatal Conductance. The use of ethephon in the plant 15 days before planting, together with seedlings from the apex followed by the medium of the canes of sugarcane, presented better results for the ultrastructural characteristics of sugarcane foliage.
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