Effect of Increasing Elevation of Lowland Coastal Saline Soils of Sundarbans (India) on Soil Salinity and Its Seasonal Variation

Main Article Content

Tonmoy Sengupta
B. K. Bandyopadhyay
Sudipta Tripathi


The delta region of the river Ganges spreads over India (West Bengal) and Bangladesh is popularly known as Sundarbans. Crop productivity of the region is very poor. Agricultural lands of the region are mostly saline and low-lying with drainage congestion due to presence of brackish groundwater table at shallow depth and flat topography. In recent years, improvement in productivity of these lands was witnessed by farmers when the elevation of lowlands was increased through land shaping. In the present study changes in the salinity status of soil were due to raise of land elevation through land shaping was investigated for two years and 3 seasons (winter, summer and late summer). It was found that there was a considerable decrease in soil salinity due to increase in elevation of lowlands through land shaping. The salinity of original lowlands was about 200% higher than the raised lands or uplands made through land shaping. Salinity of rhizosphere soil decreased with depth and there was a strong seasonal variation of soil salinity. At all soil depths soil salinity increased as the dry season progressed from winter to late summer through summer and soil salinity was highest in the surface (0-10 cm). The depth to groundwater table and the groundwater salinity also showed strong seasonal variation and were maximum in late summer season. The drainage condition of soil improved with increasing in land elevation.

Coastal saline soil, soil salinity, seasonal variation of soil salinity, land shaping.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sengupta, T., Bandyopadhyay, B., & Tripathi, S. (2019). Effect of Increasing Elevation of Lowland Coastal Saline Soils of Sundarbans (India) on Soil Salinity and Its Seasonal Variation. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 29(5), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i530152
Original Research Article


Richards LA. Diagnosis and improvements of saline and alkali soils USDA. Agri Handbook. 1954;60.

Blaylock AD. Soil salinity, salt tolerance and growth potential of horticultural and landscape plants. Co-operative Extension Service, University of Wyoming, Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, College of Agriculture, Laramie, Wyoming; 1994.

Biswas CR, Chattopadhyay GN, Bandyopadhyay AK, Ghosh A, Chakraborty PK. Resource management through paddy-cum-fish culture in coastal saline areas. J Indian Soc Coastal Agric Res. 1990;8(1):37–41.

Bandyopadhyay BK, Maji B, Sen HS, Tyagi NK. Coastal soils of West Bengal - Their nature, distribution and characteristics. Bulletin No. 1/2003. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Canning Town, West Bengal, India; 2003.

Rahman MM, Ahsan M. Salinity constraints and agricultural productivity in coastal saline area of Bangladesh, Soil Resources in Bangladesh. Assessment and utilization proceedings of the annual workshop on soil resources. Soil Resources Development Research Institute, Dhaka; 2001.

He B, Cai Y, Ran W, Jiang H. Spatial and seasonal variations of soil salinity following vegetation restoration in coastal saline land in eastern. China Catena. 2014;118:147-53.

Chaudhary DR, Ghosh A, Boricha GN. Characterization and classification of coastal saline soils of Paradip, Orissa. Agropedology. 2008;18(2):129-133.

Raju R, Thimmappa K, Kumar P, Kumar S, Tripathi RS. Reclamation of saline soils through subsurface drainage technology in Haryana – An economic impact analysis. J of Soil Salinity and Water Quality. 2016;8(2):194-201.

Bandyopadhyay BK, Burman D, Sarangi SK, Mandal S, Bal AR. Land shaping techniques to alleviate salinity and water logging problems of mono-cropped coastal land for multi-crop cultivation. J Indian Soc Coastal Agric Res. 2009;27(1):13-17.

Bandyopadhyay BK, Burman D, Mandal S. Improving agricultural productivity in degraded coastal land of India – Experiences gained and lessons learned. J Indian Soc of Coastal Agric Res. 2011;29(1):1-9.

Mandal S, Sarangi SK, Burman D, Bandyopadhyay BK, Maji B, Mandal UK, Sharma DK. Land shaping models for enhancing agricultural productivity in salt affected coastal areas of West Bengal – An economic analysis. Indian Jn of Agri Econ. 2013;68(3):389-401.

Carter MR, Gregorich EG. Soil sampling and methods of analysis. 2nd ed: Canadian Soc of Soil Sc; 2008.

Rasel HM, Hasan MR, Ahmed B, Miah MSU. Investigation of soil and water salinity, its effect on crop production and adaptation strategy. Inter J of Water Res and Environ Engg. 2013;5(8):475-81.

Grattan SR, Zeng L, Shannon MC, Roberts SR. Rice is more sensitive to salinity than previously thought. California Agric. 2002;56(6):189-95.

Boivin P, Favre F, Hammecke C, Maeght JL, Delariviere J, Poussin JC, Wopereis MCS. Processes driving soil solution chemistry in a flooded rice cropped vertisol: Analysis of long-time monitoring data. Geoderma. 2002;110:87-107.

Haque SA. Salinity problems and crop production in coastal regions of Bangladesh. Pak J Bot. 2006;38(5):1359-65.