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Comparative culm anatomical and morphological descriptions of 12 taxa of Kyllinga collected from different parts of Nigeria were carried out to enhance the identification of the taxa. The number of flower-head vary from 1 – 6 while the sizes vary from the flower-head in K. erecta, K. erecta var. erecta, K. erecta var. polyphylla and K. peruviana is one, K. odorata, K. nemoralis, and K. pumila 1-4, K. erecta var. africana 4, K. tenuifolia 3-4 and K. brevifolia 1-3. K. erecta var. erecta has 2-3 bracts, K. erecta 3-4, K. erecta var. polyphylla 5-6, K. odorata 3-6, K. nemoralis 4-6, K. pumila 1-5, K. bulbosa 5 and K. peruviana 3. The leaf sheaths are partly wrapped to the culm in K. nemoralis, K. odorata, and K. pumila; completely wrapped with overlap in K. erecta var. erecta and K. peruviana and completely wrapped without overlap in other species. K. pumila, K. tenuifolia, and K. erecta var. africana rhizomes are partly erect. K. nemoralis trails on the soil surface while the remaining trail beneath the ground. The culm anatomy in transverse view is triangular (K. erecta, K. erecta var. erecta, K. erecta var. polyphylla and K. bulbosa), triangular-hexagonal (K. nemoralis, K. erecta var. africana, K. odorata and K. tenuifolia), triangular-polygonal (K. brevifolia) or oval-circular (K. pumila and K. peruviana) with aggregation of vascular bundles on the peripheral and inner portions of the culm. K. erecta has 2-layers of vascular bundles, K. peruviana 4-layers of vascular bundles while others have 3-layers of vascular bundles. The number of flower-head, sizes, bract number, and culm anatomy were observed to be diagnostic among these species.