Insect Pest Profile of Leaf Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus L) and Prevention Herbivory Using Oil-Based Extracts of Alium sativum L, Xylopia aethiopica Dunal and Eucalyptus globolus L

Main Article Content

Borisade, O. A.
Awodele, S. O.
Uwaidem, Y. I.

Abstract

Pest profile of Amaranthus hybridus was recorded in a single organic agro-ecosystem in Southwestern Nigeria between November-December in 2016 and January-February 2017, during the dry season. Activities of different pests were monitored to identify those responsible for the most significant damage. Vegetable oil-based extracts of Alium sativum, Xylopia aethiopica and Eucalyptus globolus were prepared and applied on A. hybridus as protectants against herbivory by phytophagous insects and damage to foliage was assessed. Thereafter, the extracts were rated based on the mean percentage damage (MPD) recorded in different plots in relation to the treatments. A total of nine pests were recorded from three insect Orders namely, Orthoptera (62.5%), Coleoptera (12.5%) and Lepidoptera (25%) and they were grouped into Major, Minor or Occasional pests based on their activities. Two lepidopterans, Spoladea recurvalis and Psara basalis (Family: Crambidae) were responsible for the most significant damage. All the extracts reduced damage with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) compared with the control. The MPD in X. aethiopica-, A. sativum- and E. globolus-treated plots and the control plots were 10.9%, 8%, 14% and 31.2% respectively when the amaranth was due for harvest in the first trial. The MPD to the amaranth in the treated plots during the second trial was between 13.6% and 16.3% when the harvest was due while the MPD in the control was 54.9%. The performances of E. globolus and X. aethiopica were comparable and they were relatively more effective in protecting A. hybridus against phytophagous pest attacks.

Keywords:
Amaranthus hybridus, herbivory, phytophagous insects, damage, plant extracts

Article Details

How to Cite
A., B., O., A., & I., U. (2019). Insect Pest Profile of Leaf Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus L) and Prevention Herbivory Using Oil-Based Extracts of Alium sativum L, Xylopia aethiopica Dunal and Eucalyptus globolus L. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 28(6), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i630130
Section
Original Research Article

References

Akubugwo IE, Obasi NA, Chinyere GC, Ugbogu AE. Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves from Afikpo, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6(24).

Emokaro CO, Ekunwe PA, Osifo A. Profitability and production constraints in dry season amaranth production in Edo South, Nigeria. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment. 2007;5(3/4): 281.

Joseph A, Ademiluyi BO, Aluko PA, Alabeni TM. Effect of poultry manure treated and untreated with effective microorganisms on growth performance and insect pest infestation on Amaranthus hybridus. African Journal of Plant Science. 2016;10(1):10-15.

James B, Atcha-Ahowé C, Godonou I, Baimey H, Goergen H, Sikirou R, Toko M. Integrated pest management in vegetable production: A guide for extension workers in West Africa. IITA; 2010.

Akan JC, Jafiya L, Mohammed Z, Abdulrahman FI. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables and soil samples from Alau Dam and Gongulong agricultural areas, Borno State, Nigeria. Ecosystems. 2013;3:6.

Ebadollahi A, Sendi JJ, Maroufpoor M, Rahimi-Nasrabadi M. Acaricidal potentials of the terpene-rich essential oils of two Iranian Eucalyptus species against Tetranychus urticae Koch. Journal of Oleo Science. 2017;ess15258.

Moshi AP, Matoju I. The status of research on and application of biopesticides in Tanzania. Review. Crop Protection. 2017; 92:16-28.

Huang Y, Chen SX, Ho SH. Bioactivities of methyl allyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide from essential oil of garlic to two species of stored-product pests, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 2000; 93(2):537-543.

Kouninki H, Hance T, Noudjou FA, Lognay G, Malaisse F, Ngassoum MB, Haubruge E. Toxicity of some terpenoids of essential oils of Xylopia aethiopica from Cameroon against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. Journal of Applied Entomology. 2007; 131(4):269-274.

Ezeh AE, Ogedegbe ABO, Ogedegbe SA. Insect pest occurrence on cultivated Amaranthus Spp in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2015;19(2): 335-339.

Oke OA, Odiyi CA, Ofuya TI. Insects associated with underutilized crop: Grain, leafy and ornamental amaranth in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Agric Ecol Res Int. 2015;2(2): 145-155.

Banjo AD, Lawal OA, Fapojuwo OE, Songonuga EA. Farmer's knowledge and perception of horticultural insect pest problems in South western Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2003;2(11):434-437.

Kumar P, Poehling HM. Persistence of soil and foliar azadirachtin treatments to control sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on tomatoes under controlled (laboratory) and field (netted greenhouse) conditions in the humid tropics. Journal of Pest Science. 2006;79(4):189.

Bruce TJ, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM. Insect host location: A volatile situation. Trends in Plant Science. 2005;10(6):269-274.

Konning GH, Agyare C, Ennison B. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana. Fitoterapia. 2004; 75(1):65-67.

Tattelman E. Health effects of garlic. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72(1):103-106.