Water Stress Amelioration and Plant Growth Promotion in Capsicum Plants by Osmotic Stress Tolerant Bacteria

Main Article Content

Shweta Gupta
Rajesh Kaushal
Gaurav Sood
Bhawna Dipta
Shruti Kirti
R. S. Spehia


The present study was initiated with testing of fifteen previously isolated indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for drought tolerance. Among all, two best isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JHA6) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (ROH14) were selected for in-vivo studies. A total of ten treatments comprising Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) (JHA6 and ROH14) inoculated plants held at 80%, 60% and 40% field capacity (FC) soil moisture level was laid down in Completely Randomized Design with three replications. Un-inoculated plants held at various stress levels and non-stressed conditions (100% FC) served as control. In general, both the bacteria could promote Capsicum growth in terms of increase in root and shoot biomass, height of plants, chlorophyll content as well as increase in nutrient content and uptake. Besides, the bacterial inoculated Capsicum plants could withstand water stress more efficiently as indicated by increases in leaf area, total soluble proteins and relative water content of treated water stressed plants in comparison to untreated stressed ones. Enhanced antioxidant responses were evident as elevated activities of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase was recorded. Therefore, the ability of Capsicum plants to tolerate water stress is enhanced by application of the isolated bacteria which also function as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

PGPR, drought, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, relative water content.

Article Details

How to Cite
Gupta, S., Kaushal, R., Sood, G., Dipta, B., Kirti, S., & Spehia, R. S. (2019). Water Stress Amelioration and Plant Growth Promotion in Capsicum Plants by Osmotic Stress Tolerant Bacteria. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 29(2), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i230136
Original Research Article


Chakraborty U, Chakraborty BN, Chakraborty AP, Dey PL. Water stress amelioration and plant growth promotion in wheat plants by osmotic stress tolerant bacteria. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013; 29:789–803.

Passioura JB. The drought environment: Physical, biological and agricultural perspectives. J Exp Bot. 2007;58:113–117.

Alcazar R, Altabella T, Marco F, Bortolotti C, Reymond M, Koncz C, Carrasco P, Tiburcio AF. Polyamine metabolic canalization in response to drought stress in Arabidopsis and the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:243–250.

Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick B. Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2004;42:56–572.

Ashraf M. Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotechnol Adv. 2009;27:84–93.

Abdel LAA. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and copper on growth, accumulation of osmolyte, mineral nutrition and antioxidant enzyme activity of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Mycorrhiza. 2011; 21:495–503.

Amirjani MA. Effects of cadmium on wheat growth and some physiological factors. Int. forest soil and Erosion. 2012;2:50–8.

Gill SS, Tuteja N. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Bioch. 2010;48:909–30.

Venkateswarulu B, Shanker AK. Climate change and agriculture: Adaptation and mitigation strategies. Ind J Agron. 2009; 54:226–230.

Chanway CP, Holl FB. Growth of out planted lodepole pine seedlings one year after inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Forest Sci. 1994; 40:238–246.

Kaushal M, Wani SP. Plant-growth-promoting Rhizobacteria: Drought stress alleviators to ameliorate crop production in drylands. Ann Microbiol; 2015.
DOI: 10.1007/s13213-015-1112-3

Rego MCF, Santos GR, Silva GB. Rhizobacteria: In plants mitigates the water deficit. J Anal Pharm Res. 2018;7(3): 283‒284.

Kechid M, Desbrosses G, Rokhsi W, Varoquaux F, Djekoun A, Touraine B. The NRT2.5 and NRT2.6 genes are involved in growth promotion of Arabidopsis by the plant growth-promoting Rhizobacterium (PGPR) strain Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196. New Phytol. 2013;198:514–524.

Huang B, Da-Costa M, Jiang Y. Research advances in mechanisms of turfgrass tolerance to abiotic stresses: From physiology to molecular biology. Crit Rev Plant Sci. 2014;33:141–189.

Shukla N, Awasthi RP, Rawat L, Kumar J. Biochemical and physiological responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by Trichoderma harzianum under drought stress. Plant Physiol Bioichem. 2012; 54:78–88.

Vijaypal I, Jalalipal V, Jalali I. Rhizosphere bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases. Indian J Microbiol. 1998;38:187-204.

Gupta S, Kaushal R. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: Bioresouce for enhanced productivity of solanaceous vegetable crops. Acta Scientific Agriculture. 2017;1(3):10-15.

Siddikee MA, Glick BR, Chauhan PS, Yim WJ, Sa T. Enhancement of growth and salt tolerance of red pepper seedlings (Capsicum annuum L.) by regulating stress ethylene synthesis with halotolerant bacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011;49:427–434.

Bray RH, Kurtz LT. Determination of total organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Sci. 1945;59:39-45.

Schwyn B, Neilands JB. Universal chemical assay for the detection and determination of siderophore. Anal Biochem. 1987;160:47-56.

Jensen ES. Inoculation of pea by application of Rhizobium in planting furrow. Plant Soil. 1987;97:63-70.

Gorden SA, Palleg LG. Quantitative measurement of IAA. Plant Physiology. 1957;10:37-38.

Dworkin M, Foster J. Experiments with some microorganisms which utilize ethane and hydrogen. J Bacteriol. 1958;75:592-601.

Sandhya V, Ali SZ, Grover M, Reddy G, Bandi V. Drought tolerant plant growth promoting Bacillus spp.: Effect on growth, osmolytes and antioxidant status of maize under drought stress. J Plant Interact. 2011;6:1–14.

Ghorbanpour M, Hatami M, Khavazi K. Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on antioxidant enzyme activities and tropane alkaloid production of Hyoscyamus niger under water deficit stress. Turkish J Biol. 2013;37:350-360.

Jackson M L. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India Limited, New Delhi. 1973;219-221.

Withem SH, Baldeys DF, Devila RM. Chlorophyll absorption spectrum and qualitative determination in experiment. (In) Plant physiology. Nostrand Van (Ed). Rein Hold Company, New York. 1971;55-58.

Jeon MW, Ali MB, Hahn EJ. Photosynthetic pigments, morphology and leaf gas exchange during ex-vitro acclimatization of micropropagated CAM Doritaenopsis plantlets under relative humidity and air temperature. Environ Exp Bot. 2006;55:183–194.

Beauchamp C, Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutase: Improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Anal Biochem. 1971;44:276–287.

Chandlee JM, Scandalios JG. Analysis of variants affecting the catalase development program in maize scutellum. Theor Appl Genet. 1984;69:71–77.

Addy SK, Goodman RN. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in apple leaves inoculated with a virulent or an avirulent strain of Ervinia amylovora. Indian Phtopathol. 1972;25:575-579.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951;193(1):265-275.

Dimkpa C, Weinand T, Asch F. Plant rhizobacteria interactions alleviate abiotic stress conditions. Plant, Cell Environ. 2009;32:1682–1694.

Grover M, Ali SZ, Sandhya V, Rasul A, Venkateswarlu B. Role of microorganisms in adaptation of agriculture crops to abiotic stresses. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2010;27:1231–1240.

Saleem AR, Brunetti C, Khalid A, Della Rocca G, Raio A, Emiliani G, Decarlo A, Mahmood T, Centritto M. Drought response of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. inoculated with ACC deaminase and IAA producing rhizobacteria. PLoS ONE 2018;13(2):1-18.

Kloepper JW, Ryu CM, Hu CH, Locy RD Study of mechanisms for plant growth promotion elicited by rhizobacterial in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Soil. 2005;268:285–292.

Kumar KK, Kumar KR, Ashrit RG, Deshpande NR, Hansen JW. Climate impacts on Indian agriculture. Int J Climatol. 2004;24:1375–1393.

Woyessa D, Assefa F. Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on growth and yield of tef (Eragrostis tef Zucc.Trotter) under greenhouse condition. Res J Microbiol. 2011;6:343–355.

Yang J, Kloepper JW, Ryu CM. Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress. Trends Plant Sci. 2009; 14:1–4.

Lim JH, Kim SD. Induction of drought stress resistance by multi-functional PGPR Bacillus licheniformis K11 in pepper. Plant Pathol. J. 2013;29:201–208.

Heidari M, Mousavinik SM, Golpayegani A. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) effect on physiological parameters and mineral uptake in basil (Ociumum basilicm L.) under water stress. J Ag Bio Sci. 2011;6(5):6-11.

Belimov AA, Dodd IC, Hontzeas N, Theobald JC, Safronova VI. Rhizosphere bacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase increase yield of plants grown in drying soil via both local and systemic hormone signaling. New Phytol. 2009;181:413–423.

Gonzalez L, Gonzalez-Vilar M. Determination of relative water content. In: Reigosa MJ, Editor. Handbook of plant ecophysiology techniques Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic p. 2003;207–212.

Dodd IC, Belimov AA, Sobeih WY, Safronova VI, Grierson D, Davies WJ. Will modifying plant ethylene status improve plant productivity in waterlimited environments? In: New directions for a diverse planet: Proc. Int Crop Sci Congr, 4th, Brisbane, Australia. Regional Inst, Gosford, NSW, Australia; 2010.
Available:www.cropscience.org.au/icsc2004/poster/1/3/4/510 oddicref.htm
(Verified 10th January 2010)

Rakshapal S, Sumit KS, Rajendra PP, Alok K. Technology for improving essential oil yield of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) by application of bio-inoculant colonized seeds under organic field conditions. Indian Crop Prod. 2013;45:335–342.

Vivas A, Marulanda A, Ruiz-Lozano JM, Barea JM, Azcon R. Influence of a Bacillus sp. on physiological activities of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and on plant responses to PEG induced drought stress. Mycorrhiza. 2003;13:249-256.

Foyer C, Noctor G. Redox sensing and signalling associated with reactive oxygen in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and mitochondria. Plant Physiol. 2003;119: 355–364.

Nair AS, Abraham TK, Jaya DS. Studies on the changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in drought stress induced cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) varieties. J Environ Biol. 2008;29:689–691.

Iqbal S, Bano A. Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes, membrane stability and seed protein profile of different wheat accessions. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8:6576–6587.

Gururani MA, Upadhyaya CP, Baskar V, Venkatesh J, Nookaraju A, Park SW. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance abiotic stress tolerance in Solanum tuberosum through inducing changes in the expression of ROS-Scavenging enzymes and improved photosynthetic performance. J Plant Growth Regul. 2013;32:245–258.

Tank N, Saraf M. Salinity-resistant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ameliorates sodium chloride stress on tomato plants. J Plant Interact. 2010;5:51–58.

Jay PV, Janardan Y, Kavindra NT, Ashok K. Effect of indigenous Mesorhizobium spp. and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yields and nutrients uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under sustainable agriculture. Ecol Eng. 2013;51:282–286.

Timmusk S, Abd El-Daim IA, Copolovici L, Tanilas T, Kannaste A, Behers L, Niinemets U. Drought-tolerance of wheat improved by rhizosphere bacteria from harsh environments: enhanced biomass production and reduced emissions of stress volatiles. Public Library of Sciences 9: 2014e96086.

Kanwal S, Ilyas N, Batool N, Arshad M Amelioration of drought stress in wheat by combined application of PGPR, compostand mineral fertilizer. J Plant Nut. 2017;40(9):1250-1260.