Effects of Nitrogen Rates on Morphological Development of Upland Rice Varieties in Mwea, Kirinyaga County, Kenya

Main Article Content

Sammy Kingei Kagito
Esther W. Gikonyoi

Abstract

Rice is the third most important cereal in consumption after maize and wheat in Kenya. It has been grown as a commercial food crop under irrigated and rain fed ecologies. Low soil Nitrogen (N) fertility is a major constraint to upland rice production in smallholder farmers mostly under rain fed agriculture. This study evaluated the morphological development of upland rice varieties as influenced by different N fertilizer treatments. A field study was carried out at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization experimental farm in Kirinyaga County for two seasons. The experiment was laid down as a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in split-plot arrangement in three replications. The main plot factors were the five upland rice genotypes, MWUR1, MWUR4, NERICA4, NERICA10 and IRAT109, while the subplots factors were the four N rates, 0, 26, 52 and 78 kg N ha-1. In addition calcium ammonium nitrate (26% N) was top-dressed in two equal splits at 21 and 45 days after sowing. Data on plant growth parameters was collected at fortnight interval. The analysis of variance revealed significant (p < 0.05) variation on plant height and tiller numbers due to N rates. However, there was no significant variation in plant height and tiller numbers due to variety. In addition, shoot and root dry weight and leaf area were significantly different due to variety and N rates in both seasons. Finally root dry weight was not significantly different due to variety and N-rates in the two seasons. The current study has shown that increase in nitrogen level lead to significant increase in plant height, tiller numbers, shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The study recommends the use of N fertilizers for rice cultivation to increase N supply in the soil.

Keywords:
Rice, varieties, nitrogen levels, growth parameters.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kagito, S. K., & Gikonyoi, E. W. (2020). Effects of Nitrogen Rates on Morphological Development of Upland Rice Varieties in Mwea, Kirinyaga County, Kenya. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 31(6), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i630226
Section
Original Research Article

References

Bandyopadhay S, Roy CN. Rice processing technology. IBTT Publishing Co. PVT. Id, 66 Japath, New Delhi, India; 1992.

Tao LX, Wang X, Xuang XL, Min SK, Cheng SH. Effects of soil moisture content on physiological activity of rice root system during grain-filling stage. China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzou, China, Scientia-Agricultura-Sinica. 2004;37 (11):1616-1620.

FAOSTAT (Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Databases, United Nations). World food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture of the United Nations, Rome, Italy; 2012.

EUCORD (European Cooperative for Rural Development). Rice sector development in East Africa a desk study prepared for common fund for commodities. Brusseles; 2012.

GOK. National Rice development strategic plan (2008-2018). Ministry of Agriculture; 2009.

Ministry of Water and Irrigation. Kenya Natural Resources Management Project- Irrigation and Drainage Sector Institutional Reform Consultancy Final Study Report. World Bank; 2009.

Government of Kenya. Ministry of Livestock Development Annual Report; Government Printer, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.

FAO. Selected indicators of food and agricultural development in the Asia-Pacific Region, 1986-96; FAO-RAP Publication No. 1997/23. Regional Office for the Asia and the Pacific, FAO Bangkok, Thailand. 1997;206.

Balkos KD, Britto DT, Kronzuker HJ. Optimization of ammonium acquisition and metabolism by potassium in rice. Plant Cell Environment. 2010;33: 23-34.

Wang L, Xu YC, Schjoerring JK. Seasonal variation in ammonia compensation point and nitrogen pools in beech leaves (Fagus sylvatica), Plant Soil. 2011;343:51–66.

MengelK, Kirkby EA. Principles of plant nutrition. International potash Institute publ., Switzerland; 1987.

Epstein E, Bloom AJ. Mineral nutrition of plants: Principles and prospective. Second Ed. Sinauer Association, Sunderland, Massachusetts; 2005.

Taiz L, Zeiger E. Plant Physiology, 5th edn. Sinauer Associates Inc. Publishers, Massachusetts; 2010.

Epstein EA. Aquisição de nitrogênio. In: Nutrição mineral de plantas: Princípios e perspectivas. Malavolta E (Trad.) Rio de Janeiro, Livros Técnicos e Científicos, São Paulo, EDUSP. 1975;213-234.

Mghase JJ, Shiwachi H, Nakasone K, Takahashi H. Agronomic and socio-economic constraints to high yield of upland rice in Tanzania. Africa Journal of Agriculture Research. 2010;5:150-158.

Opukiri SB, Zuofa K, Douglass PC. The influence of urea fertilization on yield of rice on acid soil in Rivers State. Nig. J. of Crop/Soil Science and Forestry. 2011;(1): 42-45.

De Datta SK. Nitrogen transformation processes in relation to improved cultural practices for lowland rice. Plant and Soil. 1997;100:47-69.

Muzari W, Gatsi W, Muvhunzi, S. The impacts of technology adoption on smallholder agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa: A review. Journal of Sustainable Development. 2012;5(8): 69-70.

Otsuka K, Kalirajan K. Rice Green Revolution in Asia and its transferability to Africa. Dev. Econ. 2006;44:107-122.

Krishna KR. Agroecosystem: Nutrient dynamics, ecology and productivity. Brown Walker Press Inc, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. 2010;553.

MOA. Guideline for growing New Rice for Africa (NERICA); 2012.

Africa Rice Center (Africa rice); 2002.
Available:www.africarice.org/publications/com/nec

Steel RGD, Torrie JH, DA. Dickey. principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. 3rd Ed. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. New York. 1997;400-428.

Mohammed TW Deva, Ahmad Z. Genetic variability of different plant and yield characters in rice. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 2002;18:207-210.

Chamley SG, Islam N, Hoshain S, Rabbani MG, Kader MA, Salam MA. Effect of variety and nitrogen rate on the yield performance of boro rice. Progressive Agriculture. 2015;26(1):6-14.

Chowdhury MJU, Sarker AU, Sarker MAR, Kashem MA. Effect of variety and number of seedlings per hill on the yield and components on late transplanted aman rice. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Sciences.1993;20(2):311-316.

Maske NS, Borkar SL, Rajgire HJ. Effects of nitrogen levels on growth, yield and grain quality of rice. Journal of Soils and Crops. 1997;7:83-86.

Liu Y, Ghen Jian F. Methods on identification and screening of rice genotypes with high nitrogen efficiency. Rice Science. 2011;18(2):130-133.

Sakakibara H, Takei K, Hirose N. Interactions between nitrogen and cytokinin in the regulation of metabolism and development. Trends in Plant Science. 2006;11:440-448.

Rajput MKK, Ansari AH, Mehdi S, Hussain AM. Effect of N and P fertilizers alone and in combination with organic matter on the growth and yield of Toria. Sarhad Journal of Agricultural Research. 1998;4:3-6.

Yoshida S, Cock JH, Parao FT. Physiological aspects of high yield. International Rice Research Institute. Rice Breeding. 1972;455-469.

Jan MT, Shah M, Khan S. Types of N- fertilizer rate and timing effect on wheat production. Journal of Agriculture. 1997;18 (4):405-410.

Ethan S, Odunze A, Abu S, Iwuafor E. Effect of water management and nitrogen rates on iron concentration and yield in lowland rice. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2011;2: 622–629.

Mandal NN, Chaudhry PP, Sinha, D. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potash uptake of wheat (var. Sonalika). Env. and Eco. (Field Crop Abst.). 1992;46(1):30.

Brady NC, Weil RR. The nature and properties of soils. 13th Ed. Person education Ltd, USA. 2002;621.

Youngdahl LJ, Pacheco R, Street JJ. The kinetics of ammonia and nitrate uptake by young rice plant. Plant and Soil. 1982;9: 225-232.

Shimono H, Bunce JA. Acclimation of nitrogen uptake capacity of rice to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. Annals of Botany. 2009;103: 87–94.

Tari DB, Gazanchian A, Pirdashti HA, Nasiri M. Flag leaf morphophysiological response to different agronomical treatments in a promising line of rice (Oryza sativa L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science. 2009;5:403-408.

Shokri S, Siadat SA, Fathi G, Maadi B, Gilani A, Mashhadi AA. Effect of nitrogen rates on dry matter remobilization of three rice cultivars. International Journal of Agricultural Research. 2009;4:213-217.

Kumar GB, Gangwas RK. Importance of leaf area index and forest type when estimating photosynthesis in boreal forests. Remote Sensing of Environment. 1993;43:303-314.

Kumura A. Physiology of high yielding rice plants from the view point of dry matter production and its partitioning. In science of the rice plant, physiology, Eds. Matsuo et al. Food and Agriculture Policy Research Center, Tokyo. 1995;2:704-736.

Huang M, Zou YB, Jiang P, Bing XIA, Md I, Ao HJ. Relationship between grain yield and yield components in super hybrid rice. Agricultural Sciences in China. 2011;10: 1537-1544.