Main Article Content
Objective: The key objective of this research is to investigate the aroma profle of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) leaves grown under greenhouse and peatlite soilless substrate conditions using the electronic nose system.
Methodology: Fresh Citrus hystrix samples of recently matured (RML) and old (OL) leaves were analyzed using electronic nose. A total of 79 volatiles were identified and those equivalent to 90% were reported.
Results: The RML and OL leaves had similar volatiles such as Citronellal, N-Nonanal, Myrcene, Pentyl Octanoate and γ-Terpinene with no significant difference in the concentration. Citronellal was the major volatile found more than 20% in both recently matured and old leaves. Recently matured and old leaves also had dissimilar volatiles such as 5-Propyldihydro-2(3H)-Furanone(32.9%), β-Pinene (7.6%), Terpinen-4-ol (2.4%), 1-Hexanol (1.3%) and (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol-Acetate (1.0%) were only found in the recently matured leaves, whereas 1-Nonanol (30.8%), 3-Methyl Butanoic Acid(4.6%), p-Methyl Acetophenone (1.5%), Trans-Hex-2-Enyl Acetate (1.4%) and Methyl Eugenol (1.1%) were detected only in OL.
Conclusion: The results are very useful in food and cosmetics industries to develop innovative products based on kaffirlime leaves/oil.
Jirapakkul W, Tinchan P, Chaiseri S. Effect of drying temperature on key odourants in kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC, Rutaceae) leaves. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2013;48(1):143-149.
Raksakantong P, Siriamornpun S, Meeso N. Effect of drying methods on volatile compounds, fatty acids and antioxidant property of Thai kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC). International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2012;47(3):603-612.
Akula R, Ravishankar GA. Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants. Plant Signaling and Behavior. 2011;6(11):1720-1731.
Ratseewo J, Tangkhawanit E, Meeso N, Kaewseejan N, Siriamornpun S. Changes in antioxidant properties and volatile compounds of kaffir lime leaf as affected by cooking processes. International Food Research Journal. 2016;23(1):188-196.
Tunjung WAS, Cinatl JJ, Michaelis M, Smales CM. Anti-cancer effect of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) leaf extract in cervical cancer and neuroblastoma cell lines. Procedia Chemistry. 2015;14:465-468.
Kooltheat N, Kamuthachad L, Anthapanya M, Samakchan N, Sranujit RP, Potup P, Usuwanthim K. Kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Nutrition. 2016;32(4):486-490.
Lertsatitthanakorn P, Taweechaisupapong S, Aromdee C, Khunkitti W. In vitro bioactivities of essential oils used for acne control. International Journal of Aromatherapy. 2006;16(1):43-49.
Lubinska-Szczygeł M, Różańska A, Dymerski T, Namieśnik J, Katrich E, Gorinstein S. A novel analytical approach in the assessment of unprocessed Kaffir lime peel and pulp as potential raw materials for cosmetic applications. Industrial Crops and Products. 2018;120: 313-321.
Tawatsin A, Wratten SD, Scott RR, Thavara U, Techadamrongsin Y. Repellency of volatile oils from plants against three mosquito vectors. Journal of Vector ecology. 2001;26:76-82.
Lawrence BM, Hogg JW, Terhune SJ, Podimuang V. Constituents of the leaf and peel oils of Citrus hystrix DC. Phytochemistry. 1971;10:1404–1405.
Kasuan N, Muhammad Z, Yusoff Z, Rahiman MHF, Taib MN, Haiyee ZA. Extraction of Citrus hystrix DC (Kaffir Lime) essential oil using automated steam distillation process: Analysis of volatile compounds. Malays. J. Anal. Sci., 2013;17:359-369.
Yahya A, Amadi I, Hashib SA, Mustapha FA. Influence sample sizing of Citrus hystrix essential oil from hydro distillation extraction. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2018;334(1):012065.
Warsito W, Palungan MH, Utomo EP. Profiling study of the major and minor components of kaffir lime oil (Citrus hystrix DC.) in the fractional distillation process. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2017;27:282.
Jullada L, Moore JP, Taylor JE, Possell M, Gibson TD, Hewitt CN, Paul ND. Discrimination of plant volatile signatures by an electronic nose: A potential technology for plant pest and disease monitoring. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008;42(22):8433–8439.
Adams RP, Hagerman A. A comparison of the volatile oils of mature versus young leaves of Juniperus scopulorum: chemosystematic significance. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 1976;4(2):75-79.
Azam M, Jiang Q Zhang B, Xu C, Chen K. Citrus leaf volatiles as affected by developmental stage and genetic type. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013;14(9):17744-17766.
Figueire do AC, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Scheffer JJ. Factors affecting secondary metabolite production in plants: Volatile components and essential oils. Flavor and Fragrance Journal. 2008;23(4):213-226.