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This study aims to elucidate the biochemical and genetic behaviors of Thymelaea hirsuta L. growing naturally at the following habitats; ooletic sand dunes, slope of salt marshes, non-saline depression, road side, plateau, upstream of Wadi Halazeen, and wadi bed of Wadi Halazeen along the western Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Soil and plant samples were collected in May, 2017. Water content recorded the highest value in Thymelaea growing at slope of salt marshes. Total soluble carbohydrate attained the highest value in Thymelaea growing at up-stream of Wadi Halazeen while the highest values in none-souble carbohydrate and proline were observed in plants growing at ooletic sand dunes. Total carbohydrate recorded the highest value in Thymelaea growing at plateaue. Total lipids and total phenols attained the highest content in Thymelaea growing at wadi bed. Genetically, ISSR & SRAP molecular markers were done. Seven ISSR and four SRAP primes produced 73.78% and 68.57% of polymorphism, respectively. PIC value, assay efficiency index, effective multiples ratio and marker index, were higher in SRAP than in ISSR.
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