Main Article Content
A two year field experiments were conducted at the College of Agriculture Teaching and Research Farm, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria, to evaluate the integrated use of 25% rates of selected herbicides mixtures (atrazine-pendimethalin (AP1) or primextra (PX1) and cover crops (a vegetable cowpea, "Akidi" (A), Melon (M) and Sweet potato (S) planted sole or mixed at 20,000 stands/ha (1) or 40,000 stands/ha (3) under manual (MT) and tractor tillage (TT) methods used primarily for weed control on soil properties and maize production. The experimental design was a split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Tractor Tillage (TT) and Manual Tillage (MT) were the main treatments. The sub treatments included ten integrated weed management (IWM), AP1AI, AP1AS1, AP1S3, AP1MS3, AP1AMS3, PX1A1, PX1AS1, PX1S3, PX1MS3, PX1AMS3 in addition to Weeded 3+6 Weeks After Planting (WAP) (C1) and unweeded(C2) as controls. Descriptive statistics and Analysis of Variance were used to analyze data and the treatment means were compared using standard error at 5%. The level of Na, organic carbon, TN, %clay and %fine sand were higher in MT than TT during the experimental period while Mg, pH, %silt and clay were higher in TT than in MT. Herbicide groups did not significantly influenced soil properties in this study. The Ca2+, K+ and A-VP in all IWM treated plots were higher than the value in C2 . Treatments having Akidi (A1, AS1, AMS3) recorded higher OC than those without (S3, MS3). Therefore, MT improves soil condition and should be used in small scale farming and where TT is used, special consideration of soil type and frequency of use should be moderated. Use of IWM ameliorates fertility losses observed, with preference for mixture with at least a leguminous component.
Michael GC, Tijani-Eniola H. Assessment of status, perception of weed infestation and weed control methods adopted by farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Weed Science. 2009;22:31-42.
Anonymous. Comprehensive implementa-tion completion report (ICR). Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme. 1995;16.
Reynolds TW, Waddington SR, Anderson CL, Chew A, True Z, Cullen A. Environmental impacts and constraints associated with the production of major food crops in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Food Sec. 2015;7:795–822. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0478-1
Röös E, Mie A, Wivstad M, Salomon E, Johansson B, Gunnarsson S, et al. Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 2018;38:14. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-018-0489-3
Mennan H, Ngouajio M, Kaya E, Isık D. Weed management in organically grown kale using alternative cover cropping systems. Weed Technology. 2009;23(1): 81-88.
Cerrudo D, Page E, Tollenaar M, Stewart G, Swanton C. Mechanisms of yield loss in maize caused by weed competition. Weed Science. 2012; 60(2):225-232. DOI:10.1614/WS-D-11-00127.1
Akobundu IO. Weed Science in the tropics. Principles and practices. John Wiley and Sons Limited, New York; 1987.
Fadayomi O. Weed management in nigeria agriculture in the 90's. The chemical weed control option. Nigerian Journal of Weed Science. 1991;4:79-85.
Teasdale JR. Influence of narrow row/high population corn (Zea mays) on weed control and light transmittance. Weed Technol. 1995;9:113–118.
Sangakkara U, Stamp P. Influence of different weed categories on growth and yields of maize (Zea mays) grown in a minor (dry) season of the humid tropics / Einfluss verschiedener Schadpflanzengruppen auf Wachstum und Ertrag von Mais (Zea mays) in einer humiden Tropenzone während der Trockenzeit. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection. 2006;113(2):81-85. Available:http://www.jstor.org/stable/43228845
Agboola AA. A recipe for continuous arable crop production in the forest zone of Western Nigeria. In: Sanchez PA, Houten HV, editors. Alternative to Slash and Burn Agriculture, Symposium D-6 15th International Soil Science Congress, Acapulco, Mexico. 1994;107-120.
Rashidi M, Keshavarzpour F. Effect of different tillage methods on soil physical properties and crop yield of melon (Cucumis melo). ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 2008; 3(2):41–46.
Aikins SMH, Afuakwa JJ, Owusu O, Owusu-Akuoko O. Effect of four different tillage practices on maize performance under rainfed conditions. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2012; 3(1):25–30.
Gardner C, Laryea KB, Unger PW. Soil physical constraints to plant growth and crop production, AGL/MISC/24/99, FAO Land and Water Development Division, FAO, Rome, Italy; 1999.
Lampurlan´es J, Cantero-Mart´ınez C. Soil bulk density and penetration resistance under different tillage and crop management systems and their relationship with barley root growth. Agronomy Journal. 2003;95(3):526–536.
Mukumbareza C, Muchaonyerwa P, Chiduza C. Effects of oats and grazing vetch cover crops and fertilisation on microbial biomass and activity after five years of rotation with maize. South Afr J Plant Soil. 2015;32:189–197. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/02571862.2015.1025446
Aker AM, Passos AMA, Marcolan AL, Santos FC, Cipriani HN, Vargas LA. Plantas de cobertura sobre atributos agronômicos da cultura do milho na região Sudoeste da Amazônia. Rev. Bras. Milho Sorgo. 2016;15(3):532-543.
Cerdà A, Rodrigo-Comino J, Giménez MA, Keesstra SD. An economic, perception and biophysical approach to the use of oat straw as mulch in Mediterranean rainfed agriculture land. Ecol. Eng. 2017;108:162-171.
Weerasekara CS, Udawatta RP, Gantzer CJ, Kremer RJ, Jose S, Veum KS. Effects of cover crops on soil quality: Selected chemical and biological parameters. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 2017;48:2074-2082. DOI: 10.1080/00103624.2017.1406103
Nascente AS, Stone LF. cover crops as affecting soil chemical and physical properties and development of upland rice and soybean cultivated in rotation. Rice Science. 2018;25(6):340-349. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsci.2018.10.004.
Michael GC, Dania SO, Voncir N. Effects of leguminous and non-leguminous cover crops on soil quality and maize performance at Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria. Taraba Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015;3:74-85
Bogunovic I, Bilandzija D, Andabaka Z, Stupic D, Comino JR, Cacic M, Brezinscak L, Maletic E, Pereira P. Soil compaction under different management practices in a Croatian vineyard. Arab. J. Geosci. 2017; 10:1-9.
Alizade HM, Nosratti I, Rasoolzade S. Determination of the best integrated weed management system in maize (Zea mays L.) Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 2007;6:967-971.
Blackshaw RE, Moyer JR, Harker N, Clayton GW. Integration of agronomic practices and herbicides for sustainable weed management in a zero-till barley field pea rotation. Weed Technol. 2005;19: 190–196.
Doyle P, Stypa M. Reduced herbicide rates—A Canadian perspective. Weed Technology. 2004;18(4):1157-1165. DOI: 10.1614/WT-04-050R2
Food and Agriculture Organization. Guidelines for soil description (4th Ed.) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 2006;97.
Udo EJ, Ibia TO, Ogunwale JO, Ano AO, Esu I. Manual of soil, plant and water analysis. Sibon Books Ltd. Lagos. 2009; 183.
Nelson DW, Sommers LE. Carbon and organic matter. In Sparks DL, editor. Methods of soil analysis Part 3—Chemical methods. Soil science society of America book series 5. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy. 1996;1001–1010.
Bremner JM. Total nitrogen In: Sperk DL (Ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3. Chemical Methods. No.5, ASA and SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin. 1996;1085-1121.
Bray RH, Kurtz LT. Determination of total organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science. 1945;59;39-45.
International institute for tropical Africa. Methods of soil and plant analysis. International Institute for Tropical Africa Publications; 1979.
Gee GW, Or D. Particle size analysis. In: Dane JH, Topp GC, editors. Method of soil analysis, part 4- Physical methods. Soil Science Society of America. Book series. No. 5 ASA and SSA Madison, W1. 2002;255-293.
Chapman HD. Sampling for determining the nutrient status of crops. World Crops. 1965;16:36-46.
SAS Institute Inc. Statistical analysis systems users’ guide, 1995 edition. Statistical Analysis Institute Inc. North Carolina, USA; 1995.
Clewer AG, Scarisbrick DH. Practical statistics and experimental design for plant and crop science. John Wiley & Sons, New York; 2001.
Gomez KA, Gomez AA. Statistical procedures for agricultural research (2 edition). John Wiley and sons, New York. 1984;680.
Enwezor WO, Udo EJ, Usoroh NJ, Ayotade KA, Adepetu JA, Chude VO, et al. Fertilizer use and management practices for crops in Nigeria. Lagos: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. 1989;20-45.
Arévalo-Gardini E, Canto M, Alegre J, Loli O, Julca A, Baligar V. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(7):0132147. DOI: 10.1371/journal. pone.0132147
Beck JE, Schroeder-Moreno MS, Fernandez GE, Grossman JM, Creamer NG. Effects of cover crops, compost, and vermicompost on strawberry yields and nitrogen availability in North Carolina. Hort Technology hortte. 2016;26(5):604-613. Retrieved Jun 26, 2020. Available:https://journals.ashs.org/horttech/view/journals/horttech/26/5/article-p604.xml
Khormalia F, Ayoubia Sh, Foomania FK, Fatemib A, Hemmati Kh. Tea yield and soil properties as affected by slope position and aspect in Lahijan area, Iran. International Journal of Plant Production. 2007;1:98-111
Simone E, Ademar S, Marlene M, Eulene S, Elaine R, Eber P, et al. Cover crops affect the soil chemical properties under no-till system. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2016;10:1104-1111. DOI: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.08. p7408
Freitas MSC, Souto JS, Gonçalves M, Almeida LES, Salviano AM, Giongo, V. Decomposition and nutrient release of cover crops in mango cultivation in brazilian semi-arid region. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo. 2019;43: 0170402 Epub April 29, 2019. Available:https://doi.org/10.1590/18069657rbcs20170402
Sharma V, Irmak S, Padhi J. Effect of cover crops on soil quality parameters: Part II. Soil exchangeable bases (potassium, magnesium, sodium, and calcium), cation exchange capacity, and soil micronutrients (zinc, manganese, iron, copper, and boron). Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 2018;73(6):652-668. DOI: 10.2489/jswc.73.6.652
Legesse H, Nigussie-Dechassa R, Gebeyehu S, Bultosa G, Mekbib F. Response to soil acidity of common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Under Field Conditions at Nedjo, Western Ethiopia. Sci. Technol. Arts Res. J. 2013; 2(3):03-15.
Yuan JH, Xu RK, Wang N, Li JY. Amendment of acid soils with crop residues and biochars. Pedosphere. 2011; 21(3):302–308.
Sharma V, Irmak S, Padhi J. Effects of cover crops on soil quality: Part I. Soil chemical properties—organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter content, nitrate-nitrogen, and phosphorus. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 2018;73(6):637-651. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2489/jswc.73.6.637
Brady NC, Weil RR. The nature and properties of soils, pearson education, 13th edition; 2008.
Cotrufo MF, Wallenstein MD, Boot CM, Denef K, Paul E. The microbial efficiency‐matrix stabilization (MEMS) framework integrates plant litter decomposition with soil organic matter stabilization: do labile plant inputs form stable soil organic matter? Global Change Biol. 2013;19:988-95. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12113
Pereira FCBL, Mello LMM, Pariz CM, Mendonça VZ, Yano ÉH, Miranda EEV, et al. Autumn maize intercropped with tropical forages: Crop residues, nutrient cycling, subsequent soybean and soil quality. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo. 2016;40: 1-20.
Mubiru DN, Coyne MS. Legume cover crops are more beneficial than natural fallows in minimally tilled ugandan soils. Agronomy Journal. 2009;101(3): 644–652.
Heinrichs R, Aita C, Amado TJC, Fancelli AL. Cultivo consorciado de aveia e ervilhaca: relação C/N da fitomassa e produtividade do milho em sucessão. Rev Bras Cienc Solo. 2001;25:331-40. Available:https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832001000200010
Doneda A, Aita C, Giacomini SJ, Miola ECC, Giacomini DA, Schirmann J, et al. Fitomassa e decomposição de resíduos de plantas de cobertura puras e consorciadas. Rev Bras Cienc Solo. 2012;36:1714-23. Available:https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832012000600005
Khairul A, Monirul I, Nazmus S, Mirza H. Effect of tillage practices on soil properties and crop productivity in wheat-mungbean-rice cropping system under subtropical climatic conditions. 2014;1-15.
Hazleton PA, Murphy BW. Interpreting soil test results: What do all the number mean? CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne; 2007.
Degu M, Melese A, Tena W. Effects of soil conservation practice and crop rotation on selected soil physicochemical properties: The case of Dembecha district, Northwestern Ethiopia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science. 2019;14. Article ID 6910879 Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6910879
Hulugalle NR. Effect of cover crop on soil physical and chemical properties of an Alfisol in the Sudan savannah of Burkina Faso. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation. 1988;2(4):251-267
Mahama GY, Vara Prasad PV, Roozeboom KL, Nippert JB, Rice CW. Response of maize to cover crops, fertilizer nitrogen rates, and economic return. Agronomy Journal. 2016;108:17–31. DOI: 10.2134/agronj15.0136
Fuentes M, Govaerts B, De Leon F, Hidalgo C, Dendooven L, Sayre KD, et al. Fourteen years of applying zero and conventional tillage, crop rotation and residue management systems and its effect on physical and chemical soil quality. Eur. J. Agron. 2009;30:228–237.
Seguel O, Baginsky C, Contreras A, Covarrubias JI, González C, Poblete L. Physical properties of a fine textured haplocambid after three years of organic matter amendments management. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 2013;13(3): 690-705.
Choudhary VK, Choudhury BU. Staggered maize–legume intercrop arrangement influences yield, weed smothering and nutrient balance in the eastern Himalayan region of India. Experimental Agriculture. 2018:54(2):181-200.
Maxwell CO, Liberty B, Rodrigo W. Assessment of cover crop management strategies in Nebraska, US. Agriculture. 2019:9(124). Available:mdpi.com/journal/agriculture