Response of Paddy Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Morphological Characteristics to Nitrogen Fertilizers in Taveta, Kenya
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science,
This study investigated the effect of applying nitrogenous fertilizers on the morphological traits in six paddy rice varieties in Taveta, Kenya. The six paddy rice varieties, including local control, were tested during the 2018 and 2019 seasons. The experiments were laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. The main plot was the fertilizer treatment while the subplot was the varieties tested including NIBAM-11, K2-9, MWIR-2, R-1081, Silewa, and a local control Saro. The fertilizer treatments were no fertilizer, farm yard manure (FYM) alone, FYM+Urea fertilizer, and FYM+CAN fertilizer. Significant differences (P < 0.05) among varieties were observed for all the morphological traits that were assessed. Silewa was the tallest plant (111 cm), had the highest number of grains per panicle (163), and also the highest 1000-grain weight (29.2 g). Fertilizer treatments had significant effects on plant height, leaf length, number of tillers, panicle length, and number of grains per panicle. FYM+Urea resulted in the highest number of grains per panicle while FYM alone resulted in the highest 1000- grain weight (25.56 g). Varieties significantly interacted with fertilizers for the number of grains per panicle. Leaf length had significant direct association with 1000-grain weight (r = 0.427) and grains per panicle (r = 0.874). It can be recommended that there is an opportunity to use farm yard manure alone or in combination with an inorganic fertilizer to improve yield traits while reducing dependence on inorganic fertilizers.
How to Cite
Accessed 10 April 2021
Uphoff N, Fasoula V, Iswandi A, Kassam A, Thakur AK. Improving the phenotypic expression of rice genotypes: Rethinking “intensification” for production systems and selection practices for rice breeding. The Crop Journal. 2015;3(3):174-189.
Oladosu Y, Rafii MY, Magaji U, Abdullah N, Miah G, Chukwu SC, et al. Genotypic and phenotypic relationship among yield components in rice under tropical conditions. BioMed Research International. 2001;8936767. Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8936767
Anh TTT, Khanh TD, Dat TD, Xuan TD. Identification of phenotypic variation and genetic diversity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Mutants. Agriculture 2018;8(30).
Kajonphol T, Seetaput N, Precharattana M, Sangsiri C. Correlation and multiple regression model for economic traits of local rice (Oryza sativa L.) in upland rice system. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2018;879:71-77. DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.879.71
Konate AK, Zongo A, Kam H, Sanni A, Audebert, A. Genetic variability and correlation analysis of rice (Oryza sativa L.) inbred lines based on agro-morphological traits. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016;11(35):3340-3346.
Segda Z, Yameogo LP, Sie M, Bado VB, Mando A. Nitrogen use efficiency by selected NERICA varieties in Burkina Faso. 2014;9(15):1172-1179.
Jewel ZA, Ali J, Pang Y, Mahender A, Acero B, Hernandez J, Xu J, Li Z. Developing green super rice varieties with high nutrient use efficiency by phenotypic selection under varied nutrient conditions. The Crop Journal. 2019;7(3): 368-377.
Zhu D, Zhang H, Guo B, Xu K, Dai Q, Wei H, et al. Effects of nitrogen level on yield and quality of japonica soft super rice. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2017; 16(5):1018-1027. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61577-0
Zhang W, Li G, Yang Y, Li Q, Zhang J, Liu J, et al. Effects of nitrogen application rate and ratio on lodging resistance of super rice with different genotypes. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2014;13(1):63-72, https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60388-3
Tahir RM, Noor-us-Sabah AM, Sarwar G, Rasool I and Noorka IR. Smart Nutrition Management of Rice Crop under Climate Change Environment. Protecting Rice Grains in the Post-Genomic Era. IntechOpen Limited, UK. 2020;1-11.
Accessed 24 May 2021
Ponnamperuma FN. Properties of Tropical Rice Soils. 1981. Text of a Series of Lectures Delivery to Graduate Students at the Topical Agriculture College, H. Cardenas, Tabasco, Mexico on 23-25 July 1981.
Ding C, Luo X, Wu Q, Lu B, Ding Y, Song J, Li G. Compact plant type rice has higher lodging and N resistance under machine transplanting. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2021;20(1):65–77.
Wei H, Meng T, Ge J, Zhang X, Lu Y, Li X, et al. Morpho-physiological traits contributing to better yield performance of japonica/indica hybrids over indica hybrids under input-reduced practices. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2020;19(11):2643–2655.
Huang M, Xu Y, Wang H. Field identification of morphological and physiological traits in two special mutants with strong tolerance and high sensitivity to drought stress in upland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2019;18(5):970–981.
Seyoum M, Alamerew S, Bantte K. Genetic variability, heritability, correlation coefficient and path analysis for yield and yield related traits in upland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Plant Sciences. 2012; 7(1):13-22.
Wei H, Yang Y, Shao X, Shi T, Meng T, Lu Y, et al. Higher leaf area through leaf width and lower leaf angle were the primary morphological traits for yield advantage of japonica/indica hybrids. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2020b;19(2):483–494.
Zhang W, Wu L, Ding Y, Weng F, Wu X, Li G, et al. Top-dressing nitrogen fertilizer rate contributes to decrease culm physical strength by reducing structural carbohydrate content in japonica rice. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2016; 15(5):992–1004.
Zhang H, Hou D, Peng X, Ma B, Shao S, Jing W, et al. Optimizing integrative cultivation management improves grain quality while increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency in rice. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2019;18(12):2716–2731.
Zhang Y, Xu J, Cheng Y, Wang C, Liu G, Yang J. The effects of water and nitrogen on the roots and yield of upland and paddy rice. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2020;19(5):1363–1374.
Chen J, Zhu X, Xie J, Deng G, Tu T, Guan X, et al. Reducing nitrogen application with dense planting increases nitrogen use efficiency by maintaining root growth in a double-rice cropping system. The Crop Journal; 2020.
Ly P, Jensen LS, Bruun TB, de Neergaard A. Factors explaining variability in rice yields in a rain-fed lowland rice ecosystem in Southern Cambodia. Wageningen. Journal of Life Sciences. 2016;78:129–137. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.njas.2016.05.003
Iqbal A, He L, Ali I, Ullah S, Khan A, Khan A, et al. Manure combined with chemical fertilizer increases rice productivity by improving soil health, post-anthesis biomass yield, and nitrogen metabolism. PLoS ONE. 2020;15(10):e0238934.
Meng T, Wei H, Li C, Dai Q, Xu K, Huo Z, et al. Morphological and physiological traits of large-panicle rice varieties with high filled-grain percentage. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2016;15(8):1751–1762.
Kohnaki ME, Kiani G, Nematzadeh G. Relationship between Morphological Traits in Rice Restorer Lines at F3 Generation using Multivariate Analysis. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 2013;1(6):572-577.
Li R, Li M, Ashraf U, Liu S, Zhang J. Exploring the relationships between yield and yield-related traits for rice varieties released in China from 1978 to 2017. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2019;10:543.
Abstract View: 130 times
PDF Download: 78 times