Exogenous Spermine Mitigate Adversities of Salinity Induced Oxidative Stress through Antioxidant Metabolites in Wheat
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science,
Change in climatic scenarios due to global warming is characterized by extreme climate variability, land and water degradation which resulted in water scarcity. Accumulation of salts at the surface and sub-surface layers of soils affect crop production of major cereals which is a constraint in sustainable food production. Salinity is a major challenge to tackle wheat cultivation and harness productivity in arid and semi-arid regions of India. In the present investigation, mitigation of salinity induced oxidative stress through exogenous application of spermine (Spm) in four wheat genotypes was studied in relation to antioxidant metabolites. The levels of O2.- increased with increasing levels of salinity in wheat flag leaves. DBW 88 showed the levels of O2.- of 11.75 nmol g-1 FW and 15.74 nmol g-1 FW (at 8 dSm-1 and 12 dSm-1 respectively) at 21 Days After Sowing (DAS) and application of Spm decreased the O2.- content under control and saline stressed conditions at 8 dSm-1 and 12 dSm-1. Hydrogen peroxide content was increased with increasing levels of salinity in all the wheat varieties at 21 DAS. However, the increase was more in the case of DBW 88 when compared with HD 3086. Treatment of Spm decreased the H2O2 content when compared with control and saline stressed wheat varieties. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased with increasing levels of salinity at 21 DAS. The highest increase in MDA content was seen in DBW 88 whereas the lowest increase was found in Kharchia 65. Application of Spm decreased the MDA content under control at both levels of salinity treated wheat varieties. The carotenoid content decreased with increasing levels of salinity in all four wheat varieties. However, the decrease was more in DBW 88 when compared with other varieties viz. HD 3086, Kharchia 65 and KRL 210 at 21 DAS. Exogenous Spm increased the carotenoids content in all four wheat varieties irrespective of the salinity. The leaves of Kharchia 65 and KRL 210 had higher levels of ascorbic acid as compared to that of DBW 88 and HD 3086. Increased content of carotenoid was observed in Spm-treated wheat. Exogenous application of Spm increased the ascorbic acid content in control at both levels of salt stress. The glutathione content increased with an increase in salinity treatment in all the varieties however, a higher increase was observed in Kharchia 65. Exogenous Spm increased the glutathione content in all the varieties irrespective of salinity stress. The results presented in the study indicated that the exogenous application of Spm improved their tolerance levels under salinity.
- Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell)
- oxidative stress
- antioxidants and salinity
How to Cite
Hu X, Xu Z, Xu W, Li J, Zhao N, Zhou Y. Application of γ- aminobutyric acid demonstrates a protective role of polyamine and GABA metabolism in muskmelon seedlings under Ca (NO3)2 stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2015;92:1-10.
Calanca PP. Effects of Abiotic Stress in Crop Production. Quantification of Climate Variability, Adaptation and Mitigation for Agricultural Sustainability (eds M. Ahmed, C.O. Stockle), Springer. 2017;165–180.
Yassin M, EL-Sabagh A, Mekawy AMM, Islam MS, Hossain A, Barutcular C, et al. Comparative performance of two bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under salinity stress. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research. 2019;17(2): 5029-5041.
Mahboob W, Khan MA, Shirazi M. Induction of salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings through exogenous application of proline. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2016;48:861–867.
Bouchereau A, Aziz A, Larher F, Martin-Tanguy J. Polyamines and environmental challenges: Recent development. Plant Science. 1999;140:103–125.
El-Bassiouny H, Bekheta M. Role of putrescine on growth, regulation of stomatal aperture, ionic contents and yield by two wheat cultivars under salinity stress. Egyptian Journal of Physiological Science. 2004;2:239-258.
Nemat H, Heb Heba H, Alshafei. Exogenous application of spermine p utrescine mitigate adversities of drought stress in wheat by protecting membranes chloroplast ultra-structure. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 2021;26:233-245.
Ahmad P, Kumar A, Gupta A, Hu X, Azooz MM, Sharma S. Polyamines: Role in plants under abiotic stress. Crop production for agricultural improvement (eds M. Ashraf, M. Ozturk, M. Sajid, A. Ahmad & A. Aksoy), Springer. 2012;491–512.
Assad KA. Reduction of the harmful effects of water stress by exogenous spermine and amino fertilizer of wheat plants. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences. 2020;14:6429-6436.
Tiburcio AF, Altabella T, Bitrián M, Alcázar R. The roles of polyamines during the lifespan of plants: From development to stress. Planta. 2014;240:1–18.
Legocka J, Kluk A. Effect of salt and osmotic stress on changes in polyamine content and arginine decarboxylase activity in Lupinus luteus seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology. 2005;162:662–668.
Yamaguchi K, Takahashi Y, Berberich T, Imai A, Takahashi T, Michael AJ, Kusano T. 7 A protective role for the polyamine spermine against drought stress in Arabidopsis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2003;52:486–490.
Capell T, Bassie L, Christou P. Modulation of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway in transgenic rice confers tolerance to drought stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2004;101:9909–9914.
Zhao H, Yang H. Exogenous polyamines alleviate the lipid peroxidation induced by cadmium chloride stress in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Scientia Horticulturae. 2008;116:442–447.
Hasnaa SA, Yousef ARM, El-Moursi A. Improving fruit and oil quality of picual olive through the exogenous application of putrescine and stigmasterol. New York Science Journal. 2011;4:40-45.
Hiscox JT, Israelstam G. A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Canadian Journal of Botany. 1979;57:1332–1334.
Mukherjee S, Choudhuri M. Implications of water stress-induced changes in the levels of endogenous ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide in Vigna seedlings. Physiologia Plantarum. 1983;58:166–170.
Smith IK. Stimulation of glutathione synthesis in photorespiring plants by catalase inhibitors. Plant Physiology. 1985;79:1044–1047.
Sharma P, Jha AB, Dubey RS, Pessarakli M. Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidative defence mechanism in plants under stressful conditions. Journal of Botany; 2012. DOI: 10.1155/2012/217037
Miller G, Suzuki N, Ciftci-Yilmaz S, Mittler R. Reactive oxygen species homeostasis and signalling during drought and salinity stresses. Plant, Cell & Environment. 2010;33:453–467.
Gill SS, Anjum NA, Gill R, Tuteja N. Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants–An Overview. Abiotic Stress Response in Plants (eds N. Tuteja & S. S. Gill). Wiley. 2016;3-12.
Kumar M, Hasan M, Arora A, Gaikwad K, Kumar S, Rai RD, Singh A. Sodium chloride-induced spatial and temporal manifestation in membrane stability index and protein profiles of contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under salt stress. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 2015;20:271–275.
Nouri H, Navabpour S, Yamchi A, Zeyaee F. Differential response of parent and advanced mutant lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Tabasi) genotypes in antioxidant activity to salinity stress at seedling stage. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). 2015;6:133–147.
Ashraf MA, Ashraf M, Shahbaz M. Growth stage-based modulation in antioxidant defence system and proline accumulation in two hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars differing in salinity tolerance. Flora-Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants. 2012;207:388–397.
Xu YC, Wang J, Dong X, Xu YC, Li MM, Shan L, Lib MM. Effect of exogenous polyamines on glycolate oxidase activity and active oxygen species accumulation in wheat seedlings under osmotic stress. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences. 2001;49:173–178.
Pottosin I, Velarde-Buendía AM, Bose J, Zepeda-Jazo I, Shabala S, Dobrovinskaya O. Cross-talk between reactive oxygen species and polyamines in regulation of ion transport across the plasma membrane: Implications for plant adaptive responses. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2014;65:1271–1283.
Li Z, Zhou H, Peng Y, Zhang X, Ma X, Huang L, Yan Y. Exogenously applied spermidine improves drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass associated with changes in antioxidant defense, endogenous polyamines and phytohormones. Plant Growth Regulation. 2015;76:71–82.
Verma S, Mishra SN. Putrescine alleviation of growth in salt stressed Brassica juncea by inducing antioxidative defence system. Journal of Plant Physiology. 2005;162: 669–677.
Jiang DX, Chu X, Li M, Hou JJ, Tong X, Gao ZP, Chan GX. Exogenous spermidine enhances salt stressed rice photosynthetic performance by stabilizing structure and function of chloroplast and thylakoid membranes. Phtosynthetica. 2020;58(1): 61-71.
Ashraf MA, Ashraf M, Ali Q. Response of two genetically diverse wheat cultivars to salt stress at different growth stages: Leaf lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2010;42:559–565.
Sobahan MA, Akter N, Murata Y, Munemasa S. Exogenous proline and glycine betaine mitigate the detrimental effect of salt stress on rice plants. Silpakorn University Science and Technology Journal. 2016;10:38–43.
Mandhania S, Madan S, Sawhney V. Antioxidant defence mechanism under salt stress in wheat seedlings. Biologia Plantarum. 2006;50:227–231.
Shu S, Yuan LY, Guo SR, Sun J, Yuan YH. Effects of exogenous spermine on chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant system and ultrastructure of chloroplasts in Cucumis sativus L. under salt stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2013;63:209–216.
Jaleel CA, Gopi R, Sankar B, Manivannan P, Kishorekumar A, Sridharan R, Panneerselvam R. Studies on germination, seedling vigour, lipid peroxidation and proline metabolism in Catharanthus roseus seedlings under salt stress. South African Journal of Botany. 2007;73:190–195.
Jing J, Gua S, Li Y, Weihua L. The alleviating effects of exogenous polyamines on heat stress susceptibility of different heat resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. Scientific Reports. 2020;10:7476. Available:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64468-5
Sairam R, Saxena D. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in wheat genotypes: Possible mechanism of water stress tolerance. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 2000;184:55–61.
Sairam R, Srivastava G. Changes in antioxidant activity in subcellular fractions of tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes in response to long term salt stress. Plant Science. 2002;162:897–904.
Amirjani M. Estimation of wheat responses to high heat stress. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2012;6: 222–233.
Morad M, Sara M, Mohammad D, Javad R, Majid R. Effect of salicylic acid on alleviation of salt stress on growth and some physiological traits of wheat. International Journal of Biosciences. 2013;3:20–27.
Domonkos I, Kis M, Gombos Z, Ughy B. Carotenoids, versatile components of oxygenic photosynthesis. Progress in Lipid Research. 2013;52:539–561.
Mohammad Y, Beniamino L, Carmine C. Photosynthetic responses of durum wheat to chemical/microbial fertilization management under salt and drought stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 2021;43:123. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-021-03289-z
Agrawal S, Rathore D. Changes in oxidative stress defence system in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars grown with and without mineral nutrients and irradiated by supplemental ultraviolet-B. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2007;59:21– 33.
Sairam R, Srivastava G, Agarwal S, Meena R. Differences in antioxidant activity in response to salinity stress in tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes. Biologia Plantarum. 2005;49:85–91.
Jain V, Vart S, Verma E, Malhotra SP. Spermine reduces salinity-induced oxidative damage by enhancing antioxidative system and decreasing lipid peroxidation in rice seedlings. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2015;24:316–323.
Parveen S, Hussain A. Methionine induced changes in growth, glycinebetaine, ascorbic acid, total soluble proteins and anthocyanin contents of two Zea mays L. varieties under salt stress. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2021;31(1):131-142.
Kumar B, Singla-Pareek SL, Sopory SK. Glutathione homeostasis: Crucial for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Abiotic Stress Adaptation in Plants (eds A. Pareek, S. K. Sopory, H. J. Bohnert & Govindjee), 2009;263–282. Springer.
Szalai G, Kellős T, Galiba G, Kocsy G. Glutathione as an antioxidant and regulatory molecule in plants under abiotic stress conditions. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 2009;28:66–80.
Groppa MD, Tomaro ML, Benavides MP. Polyamines and heavy metal stress: The antioxidant behavior of spermine in cadmium and copper-treated wheat leaves. Biometals. 2007;20:185–195.
Durna RA, Lala MA, Ismayil SZ, Irada HM. Diurnal changes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle components in wheat genotypes exposed to drought. Functional Plant Biology. 2020;47(11):998-1006.
Abstract View: 59 times
PDF Download: 15 times