Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, on Germination Attributes and Seedling Growth of Rice Varieties under In vitro Conditions

G. Rajani

ICAR- Indian Institute of Rice Research, Telangana, India.

P. C. Latha

ICAR- Indian Institute of Rice Research, Telangana, India.

R. M. Sundaram

ICAR- Indian Institute of Rice Research, Telangana, India.


ICAR- Indian Institute of Rice Research, Telangana, India.

Amol. S. Phule

Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Maharashtra, India.

K. V. Prasad Babu

ICAR- Indian Institute of Rice Research, Telangana, India.

Kalyani M. Barbadikar

ICAR- Indian Institute of Rice Research, Telangana, India.

M. B. B. Prasad Babu

ICAR- Indian Institute of Rice Research, Telangana, India.

P. K. Mandal

ICAR- National Institute for Plant Biotechnology, India.

H. Surekha Rani

Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The production of rice mainly depends on nitrogen fertilizer. Extensive applications of chemical nitrogen fertilizer have adverse effects on plant health and the environment. The use of plant growth promoting microorganisms can increase the soil fertility and productivity of rice and also reduce the negative impact of chemical nitrogen fertilizer. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 is a gram-negative endophytic bacterium that plays an important role in nitrogen fixation and plant growth promotion. The present investigation was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with G. diazotrophicus on seed germination indices of fifteen rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) and seedling growth under in vitro conditions. Among the fifteen rice varieties inoculated with G. diazotrophicus, the highest increase in germination indices was observed in five varieties, viz. BPT5204, TN1, ISM, IR64, and Dhan53, which showed an increase in germination percentage (4.26-10%), Mean germination time (3.8-5.8%), germination speed 10.5- 26.8%), synchronization index (22.74-43.60%), standard deviation of germination rate (2.10-9.70%) and coefficient of variance of germination (11.80-18.36%) in comparison with the control on agar medium after 5 days. Furthermore, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in growth parameters (viz., root length, shoot length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, seedling vigour index- I and seedling vigour index- II) over uninoculated control seeds in five rice varieties in comparison with the remaining rice varieties. The results thus reveal endophytic G. diazotrophicus not only increased the germination percentage but also enhanced the seedling growth parameters of rice varieties while eliciting a genotype-specific response in rice genotype.

Keywords: Endophyte, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, germination indices, plant growth promoting bacteria, rice varieties, seedling growth

How to Cite

Rajani , G., Latha , P. C., Sundaram , R. M., Bandeppa, Phule , A. S., Babu , K. V. P., Barbadikar , K. M., Babu , M. B. B. P., Mandal , P. K., & Rani , H. S. (2023). Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, on Germination Attributes and Seedling Growth of Rice Varieties under In vitro Conditions. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 35(20), 62–71. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2023/v35i203786


Download data is not yet available.


Farooq A, Farooq N, Akbar H, Hassan ZU, Gheewala SH. A critical review of climate change impact at a global scale on cereal crop production. Agronomy. 2023;13(1):162.

Statista. Rice - statistics & facts Statista; 2023. Available:https://www.statista.com/topics/1443/rice

Ladha JK, Reddy PM. Nitrogen fixation in rice systems: State of knowledge and prospects. Plant and Soil. 2003;252:151-167.

Alam MS, Khanam M, Rahman MM. Environment-friendly nitrogen manage-ment practices in wetland paddy cultivation. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2023;7:1020570

Heffer P, Gruere A, Roberts T. 19th Assessment of fertilizer use by crop at the global level. Paris, France. November; 2017.

Chivenge P, Sharma S, Bunquin MA and Hellin. Improving nitrogen use efficiency—A key for sustainable rice production systems. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;5:737412.

Reddy INBL, Kim BK, Yoon IS, Kim KH, Kwon TR. Salt tolerance in rice: Focus on mechanisms and approaches. Rice Science. 2017;24:123–144.

James EK, Gyaneshwar P, Mathan N, Barraquio WL, Reddy PM, Iannetta PPM, Olivares FL, Ladha JK. Infection and colonization of rice seedlings by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67. Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions. 2002;15:894–906.

Krome K, Rosenberg K, Dickler C, Kreuzer K, Ludwig-Müller J, Ullrich-Eberius C, Scheu S, Bonkowski M. Soil bacteria and protozoa affect root branching via effects on the auxin and cytokinin balance in plants. Plant and Soil. 2009;328:191–201.

Oliveira ALM, Canuto EL, Urquiaga S, Reis VM, Baldani JI. Yield of micro-propagated sugarcane varieties in different soil types following inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria. Plant and Soil. 2006;284:23–32.

Arencibia A, Vinagre F, Estevez Y, Bernal A, Perez J, Cavalcante JJ, Santana I, Hemerly AS Gluconoacetobacter diazotrophicus elicitate a sugarcane defence response against a pathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas albilineans. Plant Signal and Behavior. 2006;1:265–273

Shittu HO, Castroverde DC, Nazar RN, Robb J Plantendophyte interplay protects tomato against a virulent Verticillium. Planta. 2008;229:415–26

Shittu HO, Shakir AS, Nazar RN, Robb J. Endophyte induced verticillium protection in tomato is range-restricted. Plant Signal Behaviour. 2009: 4:160–1

Chowdhury SM, Nagarajan T, Tripathi R, Mishra MN, Le Rudulier D, Tripathi AK. Strain-specific salt tolerance and osmoregulatory mechanisms in Azospirillum brasilense. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 2007;267:72–79.

Pereyra MA, Zalazar CA, Barassi CA. Root phospholipids in Azospirillum- inoculated wheat seedlings exposed to water stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2006; 44:873–879

Meneses CHSG, Rouws LFM, Araújo JLS, Vidal MS, Baldani J. Exopolysaccharide production is required for biofilm formation and plant colonization by the nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction. 2011;24(12):1448–1458.

Vessey, J.K. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria as Biofertilizers. Plant and Soil. 2003; 255:571-586.

Chawla, Manisha Phour, Sunita Suneja, Seema Sangwaan, Sneh Goyal. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: An overview. Research in Environment and Life Sciences. 2014;7: 1-10.

Weyens N, Van Der Lelie D, Taghavi S, Newman L, Vangronsveld J. Exploiting plant-microbe partnerships to improve biomass production and remediation. Trends Biotechnology. 2000; 27:591–8

Gardner JB, Drinkwater LE. The fate of nitrogen in grain cropping systems: a meta-analysis of 15N field experiments. Ecological Application. 2009;19:2167–84.

Mohanty SR, Bodelier L, Floris V, Conrad R. Differential effects of nitrogenous fertilizers on methane-consuming microbes in rice field and forest soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006;72: 1346–54.

Shende ST, Apte RG, Singh T Influence of Azotobacter on germination of rice and cotton seeds. Current Science. 1977; 46(19): 675–676.

Abdul- Baki AA, Anderson JD. In: Physiological and biochemical deterioration of seeds. Kozlowski, T.T. (ed.). Seed biology. Academic Press, New York. 1973;2:283-315.

Lozano‐Isla, Flavio, Benites‐Alfaro, Omar E, Pompelli, Marcelo F. GerminaR: An R package for germination analysis with the interactive web application “GerminaQuant for R”. Ecological Research, 2019;34(2): 339–346.

Statistix 8.1. User’s Manual. Analytical Software, Tallahassee; 2003.

Addinsoft. XLSTAT statistical and data analysis solution, Long Island, NY, USA; 2019.


Javed T, Afzal I, Mauro RP. Seed coating in direct-seeded rice: An innovative and sustainable approach to enhance grain yield and weed management under submerged conditions. Sustainability. 2021;13:21900

Restrepo GM, Ceballos N, Valencia LF. Plant growth promotion by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and its interaction with genotype and phosphorus availability in tomato seedlings. Organic Agriculture. 2021;11: 601–614.

Botta AL, Santacecilia A, Ercole C, Cacchio P, Del Gallo M. In vitro and in vivo inoculation of four endophytic bacteria on Lycopersicon esculentum. New Biotechnology. 2013;30:666–674.

Silva R, Filgueiras L, Santos B, Coelho M, Silva M, Estrada-Bonilla G, Vidal M, Baldani JI, Meneses C. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Changes: The Molecular Mechanisms of Root Development in Oryza sativa L. Growing Under Water Stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 21(1):333.

Tufail MA, Touceda-González M, Pertot I, Ehlers R-U. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 Enhances Plant Robustness Status under the Combination of Moderate Drought and Low Nitrogen Stress in Zea mays L. Microorganisms. 2021;9(4):870.

Sandhya V, Ali SZ, Grover M, Reddy G, Venkateswaralu B. Effect of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. on compatible solutes antioxidant status and plant growth of maize under drought stress. Plant Growth Regulators. 2010; 62:21–30.

Stephen J, Shabanamol S, Rishad K.S. Growth enhancement of rice (Oryza sativa) by phosphate solubilizing Gluconacetobacter sp. (MTCC 8368) and Burkholderia sp. (MTCC 8369) under greenhouse conditions. Biotechnology, 2015;3(5):831–837.

Chaganti C, Phule AS, Chandran LP, Sonth B, Kavuru VPB, Govindannagari R and Sundaram RM. Silicate solubilizing and plant growth promoting bacteria interact with biogenic silica to impart heat stress tolerance in rice by modulating physiology and gene expression. Frontier in Microbiology. 2023;14:1168415

Bandeppa S, Phule AS, Rajani G, Babu KVP, Barbadikar K M, Babu MBB P, Mandal PK, Sundaram RM, and Latha PC. Effect of Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria on Germination, Seedling Vigour and Growth of Two Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2022; 34(16): 94–106.

Muthukumarasamy R, Cleenwerck I, Revathi G, Vadivelu M, Janssens D, Hoste B, Gum KU, Ki-Do P, Son CY, Sa T, Caballero-Mellado J. Natural association of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and diazotrophic Acetobacter peroxydans with wetland rice. Systemic Applied Microbiology. 2005;28(3):277-286. 28.

Govindarajan M, Balandreau J, Kwon SW, Weon HY, Lakshminarasimhan C. Effects of inoculation of Burkholderia vietnamensis and related endophytic diazotrophic bacteria on grain yield of rice. Microbial Ecology. 2008;55:2-37.

Walitang DI, Kim K, Madhaiyan M. et al. Characterizing endophytic competence and plant growth promotion of bacterial endophytes inhabiting the seed endosphere of Rice. BMC Microbiology. 2017;17:209.z

Dal Cortivo C, Barion G, Visioli G, Mattarozzi M, Mosca G, Vamerali T. Increased root growth and nitrogen accumulation in common wheat following PGPR inoculation: Assessment of plant-microbe interactions by ESEM. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment. 2017;247:396-408.