Entering a New Agricultural Era through the Impact of Nano-Fertilizers on Crop Development: A Review

Mahesha K. N.

Department of Vegetable Science, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat, India.

N. K. Singh

Department of Agronomy, ICAR-ATARI-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pratapgarh, UP, India.

S. B. Amarshettiwar

Department of Plant Physiology, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, India.

Gurinder Singh

Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), India.

Shani Gulaiya

Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidhalay (JNKVV), Jabalpur (M.P.), India.

Hiren Das

Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-13, India.

Jogendra Kumar

RMP (PG) College, Gurukul NARSAN, Haridwar, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The dynamic interface between nanotechnology and agriculture heralds a new era in food production, with nano-fertilizers standing at the forefront of this revolution. These fertilizers, leveraging the unique properties of nanoparticles, promise to address several challenges posed by traditional fertilization methods, including nutrient wastage, environmental pollution, and inconsistent yields. Preliminary studies indicate that nano-fertilizers can enhance nutrient uptake, allowing for direct and efficient nutrient transfer to plant cells, leading to improved crop yields. Their targeted delivery mechanisms mitigate nutrient loss through leaching, presenting a more environmentally friendly alternative. Yet, alongside these potential benefits, the introduction of nanoparticles into agriculture poses significant challenges. There are growing concerns regarding their long-term environmental impact, specifically the accumulation of nanoparticles in various ecosystems and the subsequent implications for flora and fauna. Potential health risks for both consumers and farm workers also warrant in-depth research, with questions arising about the bioaccumulation of nanoparticles in plants and their subsequent effects when consumed. The possibility of the emergence of nanoparticle-resistant pests, mirroring the historical challenges with pesticide-resistant strains, adds another layer of complexity to the narrative. Policymakers face the intricate task of creating dynamic regulatory frameworks. These need to facilitate the advancement and adoption of nano-fertilizers while ensuring the safety of both the environment and consumers. Such frameworks should be predicated on robust scientific research, encompassing not just immediate crop yield outcomes but broader ecological, health, and socio-economic impacts. Looking ahead, as the field of nanotechnology continues to evolve rapidly, the agricultural sector stands at a pivotal juncture. Embracing the advantages of nano-fertilizers could fundamentally reshape farming practices, driving them towards greater sustainability and efficiency. This transition needs to be navigated with a clear vision, grounded in rigorous scientific inquiry and underpinned by comprehensive policies, to ensure that the agriculture of tomorrow is both bountiful and sustainable.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, nano-fertilizers, agriculture, sustainability, regulation

How to Cite

Mahesha K. N., Singh , N. K., Amarshettiwar , S. B., Singh , G., Gulaiya , S., Das , H., & Kumar , J. (2023). Entering a New Agricultural Era through the Impact of Nano-Fertilizers on Crop Development: A Review. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 35(20), 94–102. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2023/v35i203789


Download data is not yet available.


Wells JCK. The thrifty phenotype as an adaptive maternal effect. Biological Reviews. 2007;82(1):143-172.

Shiferaw B, Holden ST. Farm-level benefits to investments for mitigating land degradation: Empirical evidence from Ethiopia. Environment and Development Economics. 2001;6(3):335-358.

Dasgupta B. India's green revolution. Economic and Political Weekly. 1977;241-260.

Hickman DT, Rasmussen A, Ritz K, Birkett MA, Neve P. Allelochemicals as multi‐kingdom plant defence compounds: Towards an integrated approach. Pest Management Science. 2021;77(3):1121-1131.

Mahanta N, Dambale A, Rajkhowa M, Mahanta C, Mahanta N. Nutrient use efficiency through nano fertilizers. Int J Chem Stud. 2019;7(3):2839-2842.

Manjunatha SB, Biradar DP, Aladakatti YR. Nanotechnology and its applications in agriculture: A review. J farm Sci. 2016;29(1):1-13.

Lal R. Soils and food sufficiency: A review. Sustainable Agriculture. 2009;25-49.

Sanchez PA, Bandy DE, Villachica JH, Nicholaides JJ. Amazon basin soils: management for continuous crop production. Science. 1982;216(4548):821-827.

Diao X, Headey D, Johnson M. Toward a green revolution in Africa: what would it achieve, and what would it require?. Agricultural Economics. 2008;39:539-550.

Beaty TA. Life on the Mississippi: Reducing the Harmful Effects of Agricultural Runoff in the Mississippi River Basin. Ohio Northern University Law Review. 2023;41(3):13.

Bouman OT, Curtin D, Campbell CA, Biederbeck VO, Ukrainetz H. Soil acidification from long‐term use of anhydrous ammonia and urea. Soil science society of America Journal. 1995; 59(5):1488-1494.

Wendeborn S. The chemistry, biology, and modulation of ammonium nitrification in soil. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 2020;59(6):2182-2202.

Hamad HT, Al-Sharify ZT, Al-Najjar SZ, Gadooa ZA. A review on nanotechnology and its applications on Fluid Flow in agriculture and water recourses. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. IOP Publishing. 2020;870(1): 012038.

De Wit CD. Resource use efficiency in agriculture. Agricultural Systems. 1992; 40(1-3):125-151.

Bayda S, Adeel M, Tuccinardi T, Cordani M, Rizzolio F. The history of nanoscience and nanotechnology: From chemical–physical applications to nanomedicine. Molecules. 2019;25(1):112.

Joseph S, Cowie AL, Van Zwieten L, Bolan N, Budai A, Buss W, et al. How biochar works, and when it doesn't: A review of mechanisms controlling soil and plant responses to biochar. Gcb Bioenergy. 2021;13(11):1731-1764.

Cao L, Wang W, Yang Y, Yang C, Yuan Z, Xiong S, Diana J. Environmental impact of aquaculture and countermeasures to aquaculture pollution in China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research-International. 2007;14:452-462.

Popp J, Pető K, Nagy J. Pesticide productivity and food security. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 2013;33:243-255.

Biswas A, Bayer IS, Biris AS, Wang T, Dervishi E, Faupel F. Advances in top–down and bottom–up surface nanofabrication: Techniques, applications & future prospects. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 2012;170(1-2):2- 27.

Demitri C, Scalera F, Madaghiele M, Sannino A, Maffezzoli A. Potential of cellulose-based superabsorbent hydrogels as water reservoir in agriculture. International Journal of Polymer Science; 2013.

Solanki P, Bhargava A, Chhipa H, Jain N, Panwar J. Nano-fertilizers and their smart delivery system. Nanotechnologies in Food and Agriculture. 2015;81-101.

Karthik A, Maheswari MU. Smart fertilizer strategy for better crop production. Agricultural Reviews. 2021;42(1):12- 21.

Kalia A, Sharma SP, Kaur H, Kaur H. Novel nanocomposite-based controlled-release fertilizer and pesticide formulations: Prospects and challenges. Multifunctional Hybrid Nanomaterials for Sustainable Agri-Food and Ecosystems. 2020;99-134.

Solanki P, Bhargava A, Chhipa H, Jain N, Panwar J. Nano-fertilizers and their smart delivery system. Nanotechnologies in Food and Agriculture. 2015;81-101.

Solanki P, Bhargava A, Chhipa H, Jain N, Panwar J. Nano-fertilizers and their smart delivery system. Nanotechnologies in Food and Agriculture. 2015;81-101.

Sohail MI, Waris AA, Ayub MA, Usman M, ur Rehman MZ, Sabir M, Faiz T. Environmental application of nanomaterials: A promise to sustainable future. In Comprehensive analytical chemistry. Elsevier. 2019;87:1-54.

Vernon Z. Haunted by Waters: The Hydropolitics of American Literature and Film. 2014;1960-1980.

Solanki P, Bhargava A, Chhipa H, Jain N, Panwar J. Nano-fertilizers and their smart delivery system. Nanotechnologies in Food and Agriculture. 2015;81-101.

Sinha K, Ghosh J, Sil PC. New pesticides: A cutting-edge view of contributions from nanotechnology for the development of sustainable agricultural pest control. In New pesticides and soil sensors. Academic Press. 2017;47-79.

Anjum NA, Rodrigo MAM, Moulick A, Heger Z, Kopel P, Zítka O, Kizek R. Transport phenomena of nanoparticles in plants and animals/humans. Environmental Research. 2016;151:233-243.

Iavicoli I, Leso V, Beezhold DH, Shvedova AA. Nanotechnology in agriculture: Opportunities, toxicological implications, and occupational risks. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2017;329:96-111.