Effect of NPS Rates and Row Spacing on Production of Faba Bean (Viciafaba L.) at High-land of North Shewa Zone of Oromia, Ethiopia

Alemayehu Biri *

Fitche Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box-109, Fitche, Ethiopia.

Gashaw Sefera

Fitche Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box-109, Fitche, Ethiopia.

Abreham Feyisa

Fitche Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box-109, Fitche, Ethiopia.

Name Kinati

Fitche Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box-109, Fitche, Ethiopia.

Endale Bedada

Fitche Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box-109, Fitche, Ethiopia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Plant density and poor soil fertility are among the major factors that limit faba bean production in the study areas. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum NPS (nitrogen, phosphate, and sulfur with the ratio of 19% N, 38% P2O5, and 7% S) rate and appropriate inter-row spacing for faba bean production in the highlands of the north Shewa zone of Oromia, Ethiopia. Factorial combination of four rates of NPS (0, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1) and four inter-row spacing (30, 40, 50, 60cm) were laid out in a Randomized Compete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The result of the study indicated that the soil required amending with organic fertilizers to enhance soil fertility. Both the main and the interaction effects of NPS and inter-row spacing significantly influenced the faba bean phenological and growth parameters. However, NPS had more profound effects in enhancing the growth response of the crop than inter-row spacing. Increasing the rate of NPS from nil to 100 kg ha-1 resulted in a 30% increase in grain yield, with no further increases noted beyond this level. However, the result revealed that increased inter-row spacing from 30cm to 60cm decreased grain yield. Decreasing inter-row spacing implies high plant density, which consequently correlates with high yield. The total yield per unit area depends not only on the performance of individual plants but also on the density of plants per unit area, as confirmed in this study. The maximum net benefit of 91,639.5 ETB ha-1 with an acceptable marginal rate of return 486.3% was obtained from the application of 100 kg ha-1 NPS rate and 30 cm inter-row spacing. Thus, this rate and inter-row spacing are suggested for faba bean production in the north shewa zone.

Keywords: Faba bean, fertilizer, row spacing, soil fertility, bean production, organic fertilizers

How to Cite

Biri, A., Sefera, G., Feyisa, A., Kinati, N., & Bedada, E. (2024). Effect of NPS Rates and Row Spacing on Production of Faba Bean (Viciafaba L.) at High-land of North Shewa Zone of Oromia, Ethiopia. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 36(6), 62–74. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2024/v36i64606


Download data is not yet available.


Tafere M, Tadesse D, Yigzaw D. Participatory varietal selection of faba bean (Viciafaba L.) for yield and yield components in Dabat district, Ethiopia, Wudpecker. JAR. 2012;1:270–274.

Mussa J, Gemechu K. Viciafaba L. In M. Brink & G. Belay (Eds.), PROTA 1: Cereals and pulses/Céréalesetlégumessecs [CD-Rom]. PROTA: Wageningen; 2006.

CSA (Central Statistical Authority). Crop production sample survey report on the area and production forecast for major crops. The FDRE Statistical Bulletin. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2021.

FAOSTAT; 2017. Available:http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/ #data/QC.

Ghizaw A, Molla A. Faba bean and field pea agronomy research. Cool-season food legumes of Ethiopia. Proceedings of the 1st National Cool-season Food Legumes Review Conference. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ICARDA/IAR. ICARDA: Aleppo, Syria. 1994, Dec 16-20;1993:199-229.

Ghizaw A, Beniwal SPS, Mekonnen D, Woldemariam M, Saxena MC. Relative importance of some management factors on faba bean. Ethiop. J. Agri. Sci. 2000; 17:17-31.

Ghizaw A, Mamo T, Yilma Z, Molla A, Ashagre Y. Nitrogen and phosphorus effects on faba bean yield and some yield components. J. Agronomy and Crop Sciences. 1999;167-174.

Abebe G, Kindu G, Yechale M, Birhanu A, Anteneh A, Amlaku A. Optimization of P and K fertilizer recommendation for faba bean in Ethiopia: The case for Sekela District, World Scientific News. 2020;142: 169–179.

Tadele B, Zemach S, Alemu L. Response of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to phosphorus fertilizer and farmyard manure on acidic soils in Boloso Sore Woreda, Lolita zone, southern Ethiopia.” Food Science and Quality Management. 2016;53:2224–6088.

Hailu T, Ayle S. Influence of plant spacing and phosphorus rates on yield related traits and yield of faba bean (Viacia faba L.) in Duna district Hadiya zone, South Ethiopia. Journal of Agriculture and Crops. 2019;5(10):191-20.

Gezahegn AM, Tesfaye K. Optimum inter and intra row spacing for faba bean production under fluvisols. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;4:10-19.

Dobocha D, Worku W, Bekela D, Mulatu Z, Shimeles F, Admasu A. The response of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties as evaluated by varied plant population densities in the highlands of Arsi Zone, Southeastern Ethiopia. Revista Bionatura. 2019;4(2):846-851.

Thalji T. Impact of row spacing on faba bean growth under Mediterranean rainfed conditions. J. of Agro. 2006;5(3):527-532

Bonari E, M Macchis. Effect of plant density on yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) var. Minor Beck. Rivista Agronomia. 1975;9(4):416-423. (C.F. Field Crop Abst., 29(10):1978).

MoARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development). Crop Variety Registration, Animal and Plant Health regulatory directorate, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2008.

FAO. FAO fertilizer and plant nutrition bulletin: Guide to laboratory establishment for plant nutrient analysis, FAO, Rome, Italy; 2008.

Olsen SR, Cole FS, Dean LA. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate (Circular No. 939). Washington, DC: USA; 1954.

Walkley AJ, Black CA. Estimation of soil organic carbon by the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science. 1934;37:29–38.

Shah ST, Zamir MS, Waseem M, Khalid WB. Growth and yield response of maize to organic and inorganic sources of N. Pakistan Journal of life Science. 2009; 7(2):108-111.

CIMMYT. Agronomic data to farmer recommendations. An Economic Training Manual Completely Revised Edition, Mexico City, Mexico; 1988.

Gupta P. Hand book of fertilizer and manure. Anis Offset Press, N. Delhi, India. 2000;14:1-431.

Tekalign Tadesse. Soil, plant, water, fertilizer, animal manure and compost analysis. Working document No. 13. ILCA, Addis Ababa; 1991.

Hazelton P, Murphy B . Interpreting Soil Test Results, Victoria, Australia. 2007;16: 1-160.

Cottenie A. Soil and plant testing as a basis of fertilizer recommendations. FAO soil bulletin 38/2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome; 1980.

Berhanu Debele. The physical criteria and their rating proposed for land evaluation in the highland region of Ethiopia. LUPRD, Ministry of Agriculture, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 1980.

Charman PEV, Roper MM. Soil organic matter. In ‘Soils, their properties and management’. 3rd edn. (Oxford University Press: Melbourne.) 2007;276–285.

Gemechu E, Solomon T. Effect of NPS fertilizer rate and intra row spacing on growth and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Metu, South western Ethiopia. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research. 2021;10(2):2319-1473.

Mehmet OZ. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield components in soybean. African Biotechnology Journal. 2008;7(24):4464-447

Khalil SK, Amanullah AW, Khan AZ. Variation in leaf traits, yield and yield components of faba bean in response to planting dates and densities. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Science. 2010;2(1):35-73.

Yucel DO. Optimal intra-row spacing for production of local faba bean (Viciafaba L. Major) cultivars in the Mediterranean conditions. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2013;45(6):1933- 1938.

Getachew A, Rezene F. Response of faba bean to phosphate fertilizer and weed control on nitosols of ethiopian highlands, HARC, EIAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2006;23.

Dejene T, Tana T, Urage E. Response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to application of lime and phosphorus on acidic soil of Areka, Southern Ethiopia. JNSR. 2016;6:90-100.

Meleta T, Dargie R. Effect of NPS fertilizer rates and intra-row spacing on growth, yield and yield components of common bean under midland conditions of bale, Southeastern Ethiopia. Greener Journal of Plant breeding and Crop Science. 2022; 10(1):24-30

Shumi D, Alemayehu D, Afeta T, Debelo B. Effect of phosphorus rates in blended fertilizer (NPS) and row spacing on production of bushy type common bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) at Mid-land of Guji, Southern Ethiopia. J Plant Biol Soil Health. 2018;5(1):7.

Ngode L. Effect of spatial arrangement and variety on performance of common bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L) in Western Kenya. African Journal of Education, Science and Technology. 2017;4(2):195-204.

Shiferaw M, Tamado T, Asnake F. Effect of plant density on yield components and yield of kabuli chickpea (Cicerarietinum L.) Varieties at DebreZeit, Central Ethiopia. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2018;21(6).

Tekle E, Kubure R, Cherukuri V, Chavhan A, Ibrahim H. Effect of faba bean (Viciafaba L.) genotypes, plant densities and P on productivity, nutrients uptake, soil fertility changes and economics in Central high lands of Ethiopia. IJLS. 2015;3(4): 287-305

Gezahegn A, Tesfaye K, Sharma JJ, Belel M. Determination of optimum plant density for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) on vertisols at Haramaya, Ethiopia. C F Agri. 2016;2(1): 1224485.

Gupta AK. The complete technology book on biofertilizers and organic farming. NIIR, India; 2004.