Hydrothermal Treatment: A Critical Research on Improving Milling Efficiency Using the Parboiling Process for Pearl Millet

Salnamchi J. Sangma

College of Community Science, Central Agricultural University, Tura, Meghalaya, India.

Ningaraj Belagalla

Department of Entomology, Sampoorna International Institute of Agril. Science and Horticultural Technology Belekere, University of Mysore, India.

Vikram Simha H.V

University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India.

Abhijit Debnath

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhalai, India.

S. Kamalasundari

DARS, TNAU, Chettinadu, Tamil Nadu, India.

Okram Ricky Devi

Department of Agronomy, Assam Agricultural University Jorhat, Assam, India.

Nayanjyoti Ojha

Department of Agronomy, Assam Agricultural University Jorhat, Assam, India.

Saurabh Raj Pandey

Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi, India.

G. Malathi *

KVK, Sandhiyur, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.

Asmatullah

Department of Civil Engineering, CBIT, Research Floor Society of India, Hyderabad, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Hydrothermal treatment, particularly through the parboiling process, has emerged as a critical method for enhancing milling efficiency in pearl millet. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the various aspects related to parboiling as a means to improve the quality and yield of milled pearl millet grains. The study begins by elucidating the significance of milling efficiency in pearl millet processing, considering its nutritional value and widespread consumption in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. It then delves into the principles underlying the parboiling process, including soaking, steaming, and drying stages, and their impact on the physicochemical properties of millet grains. Key factors influencing milling efficiency, such as soaking temperature, duration, and steaming conditions, are thoroughly examined based on recent research findings and empirical evidence. The study highlights the critical role of gelatinization in starch transformation, protein denaturation, and fiber preservation during the parboiling process, contributing to improved milling outcomes. Furthermore, the review explores the effects of parboiling on reducing grain breakage, enhancing milling yield, and minimizing nutrient losses, thereby optimizing the overall milling efficiency of pearl millet. It discusses the implications of parboiling on nutritional quality, food safety, and economic viability, underscoring its potential to address challenges in millet processing and promote sustainable agricultural practices. The study concludes by outlining future research directions and practical considerations for optimizing the parboiling process in pearl millet production. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration, knowledge exchange, and technology transfer to realize the full benefits of hydrothermal treatment in improving milling efficiency and enhancing the value chain of pearl millet. In summary, this critical review provides valuable insights into the role of parboiling as a transformative technique for enhancing milling efficiency in pearl millet processing, offering implications for research, policy, and practice in the domains of food security, nutrition, and agricultural development.

Keywords: Food security, nutrition, agricultural development, pearl mellet


How to Cite

Sangma , S. J., Belagalla , N., H.V , V. S., Debnath , A., Kamalasundari , S., Devi , O. R., Ojha, N., Pandey , S. R., Malathi , G., & Asmatullah. (2024). Hydrothermal Treatment: A Critical Research on Improving Milling Efficiency Using the Parboiling Process for Pearl Millet. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 36(6), 140–147. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2024/v36i64615

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Macauley H. Cereal Crops: Rice, Maize, Millet, Sorghum, Wheat; 2015.

Nambiar VS, Dhaduk JJ, Sareen N, Shahu T, Desai R. Potential functional implications of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) in health and disease. J ApplPharm Sci. 2011;1:62-67.

Reddy AA, Rao PP, Yadav OP, Singh IP, Ardeshna NJ. Prospects for kharif (rainy season) and summer pearl millet in western India. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Andhra Pradesh, India; 2013.

Florence-Suma P, Urooj A, Asha MR, Rajiv J. Sensory, physical and nutritional qualities of cookies prepared from pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum). J Food Process Technol. 2014;5:2-6.

Broutin C, Sokona K, Tandia A. Overview of senegalese agriculture; 2000.

Ministry of Agriculture, APIX, GOANA. Cahier d'opportunitiesfilières, dakar, Senegal; 2008.

Ushakumari SR, Malleshi NG. Small millets: Nutritional and technological advantages: Food uses of small millets and avenues for further processing and value addition. All India Coordinated Small Millets Improvement Project, ICAR, UAS, Bangalore, India; 2007.

Chethan S, Malleshi NG. Finger millet polyphenols: Characterization and their nutraceutical potential. Am J Food Technol. 2007;2:583-592.

Chandrasekara A, Shahidi F. Determination of antioxidant activity in free and hydrolyzed fractions of millet grains and characterization of their phenolic profiles by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. J Funct Foods. 2011;3:144-158.

Otegbayo BO, Osamuel F, Fashakin JB. Effect of parboiling on physico-chemical qualities of two local rice varieties in Nigeria. J Food Technol Africa. 2001;6: 130-132.

Islam RM, Shimizu N, Kimura T. Effect of processing conditions on thermal properties of parboiled rice. Food SciTechnol Res. 2002;8:131-136.

Miah KMA, Haque A, Douglass MP, Clarke B. Parboiling of rice (II): Effect of hot soaking time on the degree of starch gelatinization. Int J Food SciTechnol. 2002; 37:539-545.

Roy P, Shimizu N, Kimura T. Effect of temperature distribution on the quality of parboiled rice produced by parboiling process. Food SciTechnol Res. 2004;10: 254-260.

Parnsakhorn S, Noomhorm A. Changes in physicochemical properties of parboiled brown rice during heat treatment. Agric Engineering Int the CIGR E J. 2008;10:1-20.

Sareepuang K, Siriamornpun S, Wiset L, Meeso N. Effect of soaking temperature on physical, chemical and cooking properties of parboiled fragrant rice. World J AgricSci. 2008;4:40- 415.

Chukwu O. Parboiling of rice paddy with heated pebbles. J SciTechnol Math Edu. 1999;2:70-76.

Amente G, Gemechu M, Chimdessa I. Protocol optimization for Micropropagation of Banana Varieties (Musa spp.) Using Shoot-Tip Culture. Acta Botanica Plantae. 1999;01(02):01-09.

Niranjana C. Characterization of bacteriocin from lactic acid bacteria and its antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum causing tomato wilt. Plant Science Archives; 2016.

Touseef M. Exploring the complex underground social networks between plants and mycorrhizal fungi known as the wood wide web. Plant Science Archives. 2023;08(01):5.

Raghavendra Rao SN, Juliano BO. Effect of parboiling on some physicochemical properties of rice. J Agri Food Chem. 1970; 18:289-294.

George UU, Mbong EO, Bolarinwa KA, Abiaobo NO. Ethno-botanical veri ication and phytochemicalPro ile of ethanolic leaves extract of two medicinal plants (Phragmenthera capitata and Lantana camara) used in Nigeria usingGC-MS technique. Acta Biology Forum; 2023.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.51470/ABF.2023.2.3.1

Ogori AF, Eke MO, Girgih TA, Abu JO. Influence of aduwa (balanites aegyptiaca. del) meal protein enrichment on the proximate, phytochemical, functional and sensory properties of ogi. Acta Botanica Plantae. 2022; 01(03):22-35.

Dharmaraj U, Malleshi NG. Changes in carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids of finger millet after hydrothermal processing. LWT Food SciTechnol. 2011;44:1636-1642.

Kumar, A., Yadav, P., Mishra, A. K., Kumar, A., Yadav, S. C., & Gangwar, R. (2022). Nematode Management: Options and Constraints for Organic Agriculture. Agriculture Archives: an International Journal

Rathore S, Singh K. A critical optimization study on hydrothermal treatment for decortication of pearl millet to improve its consumption efficiency. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2017;11(3):1501-1515.

Rahgu K, Choudhary S, Kushwaha TN, Shekhar S, Tiwari S, Sheikh IA, Srivastava P. Microbes as a promising frontier in drug discovery: A comprehensive exploration of nature's microbial marvels. Acta Botanica Plantae. 2023; 02(02):24, 30.

Naik, D. B., Rao, B. B., Kumar, C. U., & Bhavani, N. L. (2022). Phytochemical analysis of different varieties of Sorghum biocolor in Telangana State, India. Agriculture Archives, 1, 16-20.

Idoko JA., Osang PO, Ijoyah MO. Evaluation of the agronomic characters of three sweet potato varieties for intercropping with soybean in makurdi, southern guinea savannah, Nigeria. Plant Science Archives; 2016.

Nweze CC, Muhammad BY. Wandoo Tseaa, Rahima Yunusa, Happy Abimiku Manasseh, Lateefat Bisola Adedipe, Eneh William Nebechukwu, Yakubu Atanyi Emmanuel. Comparative biochemical ef-fects of natural and synthetic pesticides on preserved phaseolus vulgaris in male albino rats. Acta Botanica Plantae. 2023;02(01): 01-10.

Deshpande, Shashikumar Dattatraya, Praween Nishad, Shukadev Mangaraj, Rajeev Ranjan Thakur, Ebtihal Khojah, Rokayya Sami, Amani H. Aljahani, Mahmoud Helal. "Optimization of milling characteristics of kodo and little millet for development of value-added products." Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 2023;17(1):114- 124.

Unnisa SA, Rao BB, Vattikoti P. Biochemical parameters of selected plants as air pollution indicators. Acta Botanica Plantae. 2022;43-50.

Bhatt D, Rasane P, Singh J, Kaur S, Fairos M, Kaur J, Sharma N. Nutritional advantages of barnyard millet and opportunities for its processing as value-added foods. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2023;60(11): 2748-2760.

Rocha‐Villarreal V, Serna‐Saldivar SO, García‐Lara S. Effects of parboiling and other hydrothermal treatments on the physical, functional, and nutritional properties of rice and other cereals. Cereal Chemistry. 2018;95(1):79-91.

Ushakumari SR. Technological and physico-chemical characteristics of hydrothermally treated finger millet (Doctoral dissertation, University of Mysore); 2009.

Jindal P, Nikhanj P. A review on processing technologies for value added millet products. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2023;46(10):e14419.

Suri S, Balasaheb KS, Yadav DK, Malakar S, Choudhary P, Mohapatra A, Dhurve P. Overview of millet proteins: Quality characteristics, effect of thermal/non-thermal processing and applications. Food Bioscience. 2023;103434.

Milad, S. M. A. B. (2022). Antimycotic sensitivity of fungi isolated from patients with Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). In Acta Biology Forum (Vol. 1, No. 02, pp. 10-13).

Kaushik N, Yadav P, Khandal RK, Aggarwal M. Review of ways to enhance the nutritional properties of millets for their value‐addition. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2021;45(6):e15550.

Yousaf L, Hou D, Liaqat H, Shen Q. Millet: A review of its nutritional and functional changes during processing. Food Research International. 2021;142:110197.

Gwamba J. Pearl millet: Influence of mineral biofortification and simple processing technologies on minerals and antinutrients (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria); 2016.

Bisht A. Processing of small millets. In Small Millet Grains: The Superfoods in Human Diet Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore. 2022;49-77.

Sene S, Gueye MT, Sarr F, Sow MS, Diallo Y, Gaye ML. Optimization

of parboiling process pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] r. Br.) GB 87‐35 variety. Journal of Food Process Technology. 2018;9(8):1-4.