Optimisation of Advanced Nutrient Solutions for Escalating Crop Production under Hydroponic Systems: A Comprehensive Review

Guntaash Singh Brar

University Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab-140 413, India.

Ankit Kumar

University Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab-140 413, India.

Gurpreet Singh

University Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab-140 413, India.

Ishika

University Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab-140 413, India.

Shubham

University Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab-140 413, India.

Shilpa Kaushal *

University Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab-140 413, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Hydroponic farming has the potential to be a viable solution to problems related to conventional agriculture, such as deteriorated soil and limited water supply. Hydroponic farming may significantly increase crop yields while preserving the resources by cultivating various plants in a soilless medium using a precisely calculated nutrient solution. This review examined the functions of nutrient solutions which are being used under hydroponic farming, emphasizing the formulations, preparation and utilization of these solutions for growing crops. A crucial part of hydroponic systems is the nutrient solution which offers the plants both the macro and micronutrients as they are required for plant growth and development. Nutrient management in hydroponics is critical for making the optimum use of crop nutrients while minimizing the environmental impact. Total dissolved solids, pH and electrical conductivity are the three most important components in nutrient management in soilless cultivation. Nutrient availability is influenced by pH, however, pH of 5.8-6.5 is considered as the best range for hydroponic-based productions. The optimal range for electrical conductivity (EC) is 1.5 to 2.5 dS/m. The optimal range for total dissolved solids (TDS) for successful hydroponics growing ranges from 800–1500 ppm. For avoiding the toxicities or nutritional-based deficiencies, any fluctuations in pH, EC and TDS can lead to yield retardation, and therefore, these parameters should be monitored on a daily basis for successful hydroponics goal. Hence, the review paper emphasizes on different fertilizer dosage calculations for hydroponic systems. Although different crops require different amounts of nutrients, so it become essential to analyse, modify and apply the right nutrients dose at right crop stage. Ultimately, the review provides better insights and understanding of different nutrient formulations opted for hydroponically based crops such as leafy vegetables and herbs. In a hydroponic environment, these formulations are produced to fulfil the nutritional demand for ensuring healthy development and boosting yields.

Keywords: Hydroponics, total dissolved solids, nutrients formulations, fertilizers, environment, sustainability


How to Cite

Brar, G. S., Kumar , A., Singh , G., Ishika, Shubham, & Kaushal, S. (2024). Optimisation of Advanced Nutrient Solutions for Escalating Crop Production under Hydroponic Systems: A Comprehensive Review. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 36(6), 165–177. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2024/v36i64618

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The future of food and agriculture alternative pathways to 2050; FAO: Rome, Italy; 2020.

Magwaza ST, Magwaza LS, Odindo, AO, Mditshwa A. Hydroponic technology as decentralised system for do-mestic Wastewater treatment and vegetable production in urban agriculture: A Review. Sci. Total Environ. 2020;698:134154.

Hydroponics: The power of water to grow food - Science in the News; 2019 Available:https://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2019/hydroponics-the-power-of-water-togrow-food/

Gashgari R, Alharbi K, Mughrbil K, Jan A, Glolam A. Comparison between growing plants in hydroponic system and soil based system. Proceedings of the World Congress on Mechanical, Chemical, and Materia Engineerin; 2018. Available:https://doi.org/10.11159/ICMIE18.131

Sharma N, Acharya S, Kumar K, Singh N, Chaurasia OP. Hydroponics as an advanced technique for vegetable production: an overview. J. Soil Water Conserv. 2018;17(4):364–371. DOI: 10.5958/ 2455-7145.2018.00056.5.

Salisbury FB, Ross CW. Plant Physiology. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company; 1992.

Nguyen VQ, Van HT, Le SH, Nguyen TH, Nguyen HT, Lan NT. Production of hydroponic solution from human urine using adsorption–desorption method with coconut shell-derived activated carbon. Environmental Technology and Innovation. 2021;23:101708

Steiner AA. A universal method for preparing nutrient solutions of a certain desired composition. Plant and Soil. 1961;15(2):134-154. Available: https://edepot.wur.nl/309364

Hewitt EJ. Sand and water culture methods used in study of plant nutrition. 2nd Edition England, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks, England; 1966.

Sánchez E, Di Gioia F. Hydroponics systems and principles of plant nutrition: Essential nutrients, function, deficiency, and excess. penn state extension; 2023 Available:https://extension.psu.edu/hydroponics-systems-and-principles-of-plant-nutrition-essential-nutrients-function-deficiency-and-excess

Khan FA, Kurklu A, Ghafoor A. A review on hydroponic greenhouse cultivation for sustainable agriculture. Inte. Jour. of Agri. Envi. and Food Scie. 2015;2(2):59-66

Hussain A, Iqbal K, Aziem, S, Mahato P, Negi AK. A review on the science of growing crops without soil (Soilless culture)–A novel alternative for growing crops. Inter. Jour. of Agri. and Crop Scie. 2014;7(11):833-842.

Singh H, Bruce D. Electrical conductivity and pH guide for hydroponics (HLA-6722). Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service; 2016 Available:http://osufacts.okstate.edu

Jamie. Hydroponics TDS Level | Why It Matters & How To Adjust. WhyFarmIt.com; 2023 Available:https://whyfarmit.com/hydroponics-tds-level-why-it-matters-how-to-adjust/

Hydroponics South Africa; 2024. Available:https://hydroponic.co.za/

Mattson, N. Fertilizer Calculation Basics for Hydroponics. e-GRO Edible Alert. 2018;3(5). Available:http://www.e-gro.org

Maharana L, Koul DN. The emergence of hydroponics. Yojana 2011;55:39-40.

Jensen MH, Malter AJ. Protected agriculture: A global review. World Bank Publications, Washington DC; 1995.

HGS Hydro. Making hydroponic nutrients at home: Step-by-Step Guide; 2023 Available:https://hgshydro.com/blogs/making-hydroponic-nutrients-at-home-step-by-step-guide

Maboko MM, Du Plooy CP, Bertling I. Comparative performance of tomato cultivars in soilless vs. in-soil production systems. Acta Horticulturae. 2009;843: 319–326. Available:https://doi.org/10.17660/ACTAHORTIC.2009.843.42

Mattson NS, Peters C. A formulation for hydroponic success. University of Arizona, Controlled Environment Agriculture Center; 2017. Available:http://tinyurl.com/ljlj785

Aires, A. Hydroponic production systems: impact nutritional status and bioactive compounds of fresh vegetables. University of Tras-oas-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real; 2018 Available:https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.73011