Cultural, Morphological and Pathogenic Variability in the Colletotrichum capsici Isolates, Inciting Anthracnose and Fruit rot of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) in different Agro-Climatic Zones of Kerala, India

Elizabeth T. Jojy *

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695522, India.

Amrutha P.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695522, India.

Joy Michal Johnson

Coconut Research Station, Balaramapuram, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695501, India.

Sajeena A.

Integrated Farming System Research Station, Karamana, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695002, India.

Rafeekher M.

Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695522, India.

Radhakrishnan N. V

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695522, India.

Ambily Paul

AINP on Pesticide Residue, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695522, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aims: To study the cultural, morphological and pathogenic variability existing among the pathogen isolates of Colletotrichum capsici, inciting anthracnose and fruit rot of chilli in Kerala.

Study Design: Completely randomized design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture (Kerala Agricultural University), Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram during 2018-2019.

Methodology: A survey was conducted in the five agro-climatic zones (ACZs) of Kerala viz., Northern zone, Central zone, Special problem zone, High range zone and Southern zone to assess the incidence and severity of anthracnose disease. The various symptoms in the surveyed locations were also noted. Pathogen isolates were grown in PDA medium in the laboratory and colony characters (colour and mycelial growth rate of pathogen colonies) were observed. Also, the morphological characters viz., mycelial width, shape and size of conidia, acervular diameter, number and size of setae, appressorial size were recorded.

Results: Maximum anthracnose incidence of 90 per cent and severity of 52.60 per cent were noticed at Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Pilicode (Northern zone). Characteristic leaf spot, fruit rot and die-back symptoms were observed in the survey locations. Pathogen colonies showed different shades of white, off-white to grey turning brown or black with regular or irregular margins and concentric rings of black acervuli in the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The diameter of growth of C. capsici isolates ranged from 7.20 to 8.60 cm at 7 days after incubation. All the C. capsici isolates initiated hyaline mycelium having a width of 1.73 - 2.36 µm and produced numerous sickle shaped conidia with a size range of 19.42 - 20.46 µm × 2.16 - 3.09 µm. Black coloured, circular or ellipsoidal acervuli (122.14 - 189.08 µm dia.) had 20 – 46 setae of length 74.13 to 107.30 µm. Also, brown or black appressoria of size 8.64 - 12.64 µm × 5.54 - 7.84 µm were formed in slide culture. Cc3 from College of Agriculture, Vellanikkara was obtained as the most virulent isolate producing a lesion size of 1.13 cm and PDI of 45.33 in the artificially inoculated chilli fruits (var. Vellayani Athulya) at 5 days after inoculation.

Conclusion: All the nine C. capsici isolates exhibited variability in their cultural, morphological and pathogenic characteristics. Variability in phytopathogenic fungi helps in identifying novel and sustainable control methods to tackle the diseases incited by them. Understanding pathogen variability provides new insights for developing effective disease management methods. This will help in promoting sustainable agriculture and preventing severe crop losses.

Keywords: Capsicum annuum, chilli anthracnose, Colletotrichum capsici, variability, pathogenicity, disease incidence, disease severity


How to Cite

Jojy , E. T., Amrutha P., Johnson , J. M., Sajeena A., Rafeekher M., Radhakrishnan N. V, & Paul , A. (2024). Cultural, Morphological and Pathogenic Variability in the Colletotrichum capsici Isolates, Inciting Anthracnose and Fruit rot of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) in different Agro-Climatic Zones of Kerala, India. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 36(6), 304–316. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2024/v36i64633

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