Characterization of Soils in Coffee Productive Areas in the Provinces of Cocle and Veraguas-Republic of Panama

José Ezequiel Villarreal Núñez *

Instituto de Innovación Agropecuaria de Panamá (IDIAP), Divisa, Los Canelos, Santa María, Province of Herrera, Republic of Panama.

Iván Alexis Ramos Zachrisson

Instituto de Innovación Agropecuaria de Panamá (IDIAP), Divisa, Los Canelos, Santa María, Province of Herrera, Republic of Panama.

Marcos Rodrigo Riquelme Jaén

Fundación Para la Conservación, Desarrollo Sostenible, Saludy Ambiente (CODESA), Vista Alegre, Frente al Supermercado Rey, Arraiján, Province of Panama Oeste.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The objective of the work was to characterize the properties of the soils of coffee-producing farms in the provinces of Cocle and Veraguas that allow the preparation of regionalized fertilization cards according to the edaphoclimatic characteristics of each area. Planting robusta coffee is gaining greater interest among Panamanian farmers as an alternative for soil conservation. On 16 farms in the province of Coclé and 18 in Veraguas, samples were taken (0-20 cm) to understand their properties and initiate a sustainable fertilization program that contributes to improving productivity.

Digital maps were created using the Q-Gis v.3.32.1 program and regionalized fertilization cards for each zone. The soils of the province of Coclé presented a high percentage of aluminum saturation, 88% with low porosity problems, average pH of 4.9, low levels of organic matter and phosphorus (100%), and 75% low in potassium. 56% low in calcium. Imbalances were found in the Ca/Mg and Ca + Mg/K ratios, which causes nutritional problems. In Veraguas soils, 22% presented a high percentage of aluminum saturation, 67% average acid pH, 94% low organic matter and phosphorus content, 89% low in potassium, medium and high levels of magnesium and calcium. A positive and statistically significant correlation was found between % clay, organic matter, pH, and calcium. It is expected that this soil characterization and regionalized fertilization cards will contribute to improving soil properties and achieving sustainable production. Fertilization recommendation cards have been prepared for these two provinces and they take into account this entire situation and physical problems found in the soils. Much emphasis is also placed on organic fertilization of plantations as a complement to traditional fertilization, seeking more balanced nutrition.

Keywords: Arabica, coffee, digital maps, fertilization, robusta, soil properties

How to Cite

Núñez , J. E. V., Zachrisson , I. A. R., & Jaén , M. R. R. (2024). Characterization of Soils in Coffee Productive Areas in the Provinces of Cocle and Veraguas-Republic of Panama. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 36(6), 371–381.


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