Impact of Mechanized Crop Establishment Techniques on Growth, Yield, and Microbial Dynamics under Rice-Wheat Cropping System: A Review

Denil Unjia *

Department of Agronomy, School of agriculture, Lovely Professional University (Phagwara) Jalandhar, Punjab- 144411 India.

Santosh Korav

Department of Agronomy, School of agriculture, Lovely Professional University (Phagwara) Jalandhar, Punjab- 144411 India.

Biswajyoti Banik

Department of Agronomy, School of agriculture, Lovely Professional University (Phagwara) Jalandhar, Punjab- 144411 India.

Aritra Guin

Department of Agronomy, School of agriculture, Lovely Professional University (Phagwara) Jalandhar, Punjab- 144411 India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The rice-wheat cropping system, predominant across the Indo-Gangetic plains, generates a substantial volume of crop residue, with an annual yield of 7-9 tonnes per hectare of rice residue. Effective management of this residue, whether in-situ or ex-situ, has become an urgent necessity. However, the economic feasibility of transporting residue beyond 20 km from the field is limited. Consequently, in-field residue management through the adoption of specialized machinery has emerged as an imperative solution. The narrow window between paddy harvesting and wheat sowing, compounded by labor scarcity during peak periods, underscores the need for mechanized crop establishment techniques. Machines such as happy seeders, super seeders, turbo seeders, spatial drills, and seed-cum-fertilizer drills are crucial tools in this regard. This paper examines the benefits of mechanized crop establishment techniques on wheat growth, productivity, and soil biological health within the rice-wheat cropping system. These techniques have revolutionized agricultural practices by significantly influencing growth dynamics, yield parameters, and microbial ecology. The adoption of precision seed drills and mechanized tillage equipment has transformed traditional farming methods, facilitating efficient seed placement, soil preparation, residue incorporation, and weed management. This has resulted in improved crop growth parameters, enhanced yield dynamics, better root development, increased nutrient uptake, and overall plant vigor. Furthermore, reduced soil disturbance and decreased weed pressure associated with mechanized operations have created a conducive environment for beneficial microbial communities to thrive. The integration of mechanized crop establishment techniques has a positive impact on both crop productivity and sustainability, highlighting their importance in modern agricultural practices within the rice-wheat cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic plains.

Keywords: Soil microbial activity, productivity, happy seeder, turbo seeder, dry matter accumulation


How to Cite

Unjia, D., Korav, S., Banik, B., & Guin, A. (2024). Impact of Mechanized Crop Establishment Techniques on Growth, Yield, and Microbial Dynamics under Rice-Wheat Cropping System: A Review. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 36(6), 410–419. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2024/v36i64643

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