Assessing the Effectiveness of Neem oil and Microalgae in the Management of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Leaf Spot Caused by Alternaria spp.

Gorentla Ajith Kumar *

Department of Plant Pathology, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Sobita Simon

Department of Plant Pathology, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology, Uttar Pradesh, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The current study aimed to assess the effectiveness of neem oil and microalgae in controlling leaf spot caused by Alternaria spp. in cowpea (Vigna unguiculataL.). The research was conducted during the Zaid season of 2022 at the Central Research Field of the Department of Plant Pathology, SHUATS, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, using a Randomized Block Design with three replications and seven treatments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized to draw conclusions from the data. Leaf spot disease caused by Alternaria spp poses a significant threat to cowpea crops, resulting in yield losses and decreased plant vigor. An in vivo study was carried out to evaluate the impact of different concentrations of microalgae combined with neem oil at 1% on plant growth parameters and Disease Intensity (%). The application of microalgae @540 grams in various splits and neem oil @1% was done. Among all the treatments, T4 (Microalgae 48gms @5 DAS 96gms@15,45 DAS + Neem oil @1% showed promising results. Notably, the T4 treatment significantly increased plant height (84.63 cm) and the number of branches(10.83) at60DAS. Moreover, an increased numberof nodules per plant (21.44) was observed at 75 DAS, indicating improved root health and nitrogen fixation. Additionally, the treatment led to longer pod length (34.44 cm) in three pickings, suggesting enhanced yield potential. Furthermore, the combined application of microalgae and neem oil resulted in a significant reduction in disease intensity, with a notable decrease of 24.47% compared to untreated plants and those treated with chemicals (Bavistin). This indicates that the use of microalgae and neem oil together effectively suppressed leaf spot disease caused by Alternaria spp. in cowpea, thereby improving plant health and productivity. In conclusion, these findings underscore the potential use of eco-friendly alternatives like microalgae and neem oil for managing leaf spot disease in cowpea cultivation. Further research in this area is recommended for sustainable agricultural practices.

Keywords: Alternaria, micro algae, neem oil, leaf spot, disease intensity, zaid: foliar


How to Cite

Kumar, G. A., & Simon, S. (2024). Assessing the Effectiveness of Neem oil and Microalgae in the Management of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Leaf Spot Caused by Alternaria spp. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 36(6), 450–459. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2024/v36i64647

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Goncalves A, Goufo P, Barros A, Dominguez-Perles R, Trindade H, Rosa, E. A, Ferreira L, Rodrigues, M. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), A renewed multipurpose crop for a more sustainable agri-food system: nutritional advantages and constraints. Journal of the science of food and agriculture. 2016;96(9):2941– 2951.

Kebede E, Bekeko Z, Tejada Moral M. Expounding the production and importance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Ethiopia. Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2020;6(1). Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2020.1769805.

Alves FM de F, França KR da S, Araújo IG. de, Nóbrega LP da, Xavier AL, dos S, Lima TS, Rodrigues APM, dos S, Júnior AF, de M, Cardoso TAL. Control of Alternaria alternata Using Melaleuca Essential Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia). Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2019;40(3):1–10. Available:https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2019/

Jena J, Subudhi E. Microalgae: An Untapped Resource for Natural Antimicrobials. In: Sukla, L., Subudhi, E., Pradhan, D. (eds) The Role of Microalgae in Wastewater Treatment. Springer, Singapore; 2019. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1586-2_8.

Ghasemi Y, Yazdi MT, Shafiee A. Parsiguine a novel antimicrobial substance from Fischerella ambigua. Pharma Biology. 2004;42:318–322.

Hamed SM, Abd El-Rhman AA, Abdel-Raouf N, Ibraheem, IB.Role of marine macroalgae in plant protection & improvement for sustainable agriculture technology. Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2018;7(1): 104- 110.

SubapriyaR, Nagini S. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: A review, current medicinal chemistry-Anti-cancer agents.2005;5(2):149-156.ISSN:1568-0118/1875-5968 DOI: 10.2174/1568011053174828

Paul P, Sharma P. Azadirachta indica leaf extract induces resistance in barley against leaf stripe disease. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology. 2002;61(1):313. Available:https://doi.org/10.1006/pmpp.2002.0412

Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman A.S. The fungi, an advanced treatise. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 1973;38: 485-486.

Madhavi Latha KV, Abhilasha A Lal. Efficacy of micro algae and thyme essential oil in the management of alternaria leaf spot of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2021;10(01):297-303. DOI:https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2021.1001.037.

Sarathambal Chinnathambi, Rajendran, Poorniammal, Sarathambal C. Comparative performance of plant extracts, biocontrol agents and fungicides on the diseases of sunflower. Indian Journal of Weed Science.2009;41(3&4):207-209,.

Sharma Kharel, Laxmi, Sharma, Nisha Dhungana, Babita, Adhikari, Aakash, Shrestha, Sundar & Yadav, Dharmendra. Comparative efficacy of biological, botanical and chemical treatments against damping off disease of tomato in chitwan. International Journal of Social Sciences and Management. 2022;9:67-74. DOI: 10.3126/ijssm.v9i2.44168

Wheeler, B EJ, 19701604180, English, Book, An introduction to Plant diseases. (ix + 374 pp.), John Wiley & Sons Ltd., London, An introduction to plant diseases; 1969.

Abbas H, Nahid N, Rehman MSNU. Detection of fungal pathogen, Alternaria alternata associated with mungbean and its management. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2022;59:55–62 DOI: 10.21162/PAKJAS/22.942

Kumar Dinesh R, Subramanian, Jeayaram, ArumugamA. Rasheeq A.Ahamed, Sampath kumar, Pitchai. Exploring the Microalgae Biofertilizer Effect on Onion Cultivation by Field Experiment. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2020;11. DOI: 10.1007/s12649-018-0466-8.

Ramjegathesh R, Ebenezar EG. Morphological and physiological characters of Alternaria alternata causing leaf blight disease of onion. International Journal of Plant Pathology.2012;3:34-44.

Dwarkadas T, Bhere KM, Solanke, Amrita Subhadarshini, Shashi Tiwari, MohanK. Narode. In-vivo Management of Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage (Alternaria brassicicola). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science. 2020;9(08): 2553-2559.

Gonçalves A, Goufo P, Barros A, Domínguez-Perles R, Trindade H, Rosa EA, Ferreira L, Rodrigues M. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), a renewed multipurpose crop for a more sustainable agri-food system: nutritional advantages and constraints. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture. 2016;96(9):2941-51. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7644. Epub 2016 PMID: 26804459.

Navya Chirutala and Sobita Simon. Use of Bio-Resources in the Management of Alternaria alternata and Rhizoctonia solani of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana); 2021.