Flower Forcing: A Review

P. M. Hasna *

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

M. Rafeekher

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

I. Priyakumari

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

C. R Reshmi

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

In the modern floricultural industry, scheduling plant production is essential due to fluctuating market demands. Flower forcing, which stimulates flowering at specific dates or during off-season periods, is a key technique employed. The manipulated flowering dates resulting from flower forcing may deviate from the plant's natural schedule, occurring either earlier or later than the standard flowering dates. This can be achieved by adjusting factors affecting flowering such as temperature, photoperiod, and irradiance etc. Implementation of special practices like pruning, leaf trimming, dormancy breaking helps in forcing operation in certain plants. Utilization of chemicals such as plant hormones like gibberellin and ethylene, growth retardants and some fertilizers also play an important role in forcing. Employing mechanical methods can be considered as a sustainable and environment friendly practice. Advancements in plant physiology, photomorphogenesis, metabolism, and greenhouse technologies have led to the development of multiple strategies to finely regulate the rate of plant growth and development across various crops.

Keywords: Flower forcing, off-season, pruning, hormones


How to Cite

Hasna, P. M., Rafeekher, M., Priyakumari, I., & Reshmi, C. R. (2024). Flower Forcing: A Review. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 36(6), 592–600. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2024/v36i64662

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Chomchalow N. Flower forcing for cut flower production with special reference to Thailand. Au. J.T. 2004;7(3): 137-144.

Proietti S, Scariot V, Pascale SD, Paradiso R. Flowering mechanisms and environmental stimuli for flower transition: bases for production scheduling in greenhouse floriculture. Plants. 2022;11: 432.

Erwin J. Factors affecting flowering in ornamental plants. In: Flower seeds: biology and technology. Wallingford. 2005: 87-115.

Sangma PM, Dhiman SR, Thakur P, Gupta YC. Effect of covering materials on off-season cut flower production in chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora). I. J. Agric. Sci. 2016;86(4): 522–6.

Currey CJ, Lopez RG. Commercial greenhouse and nursery production; 2012. Available:https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/ho/ho-237-w.pdf [Accessed on:10 Nov. 2022].

Thakur T, Grewal HS. Growth regulation and off-season flowering through night breaks in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Anmol. Bangladesh J. Bot. 2019;48(2):373-378.

Matysiak B. The effect of supplementary LED lighting on the morphological and physiological traits of miniature Rosa × Hybrida ‘Aga’ and the development of powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa) under greenhouse conditions. Plants. 2021;10: 417.

Sharathkumar M, Heuvelink EP, Leo FM, Marcelis, Ieperen WV. Floral induction in the short-day plant chrysanthemum under blue and red extended long-days. Frontiers Plant Sci. 2021;11:610041.

Taiz L, Zaiger E. Plant Physiology (4th ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Massachusetts; 2006.

Martin CV, Francisco F, González NDC, Haan JD, Huijben K, Passarinho P, Hamo MLB, Zaccai, M. Whole transcriptome profiling of the vernalization process in Lilium longiflorum (cultivar White Heaven) bulbs. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:550.

Mazor I, Kenan EW, Zaccai M. The developmental stage of the shoot apical meristem affects the response of Lilium candidum bulbs to low temperature. Scientia Hortic. 2021;276:1-11.

Baloch J, Munir M, Abid M, Iqbal M. Effects of varied irradiance on flowering time of facultative long-day ornamental annuals. Pak. J. Bot. 2012;44(1):111-117.

Warner RM, Erwin JE. Photosynthetic responses of heat-tolerant and heat sensitive cultivars of Impatiens hawkeri and Viola x Wittrockiana to high temperature exposures. Acta Hortic. 2002; 580:215-219.

Hedge S, Umekava Y, Watanabe E, Kasajima I. High-temperature tolerance of flowers. In: Plant Ecophysiology and Adaptation under Climate Change: Mechanisms and Perspectives. 2020;343-371.

Tsai SS, Chang YCA. Plant maturity affects flowering ability and flower quality in phalaenopsis, focusing on their relationship to carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Hort. Sci. 2022;57(2):191–196.

Chen J, Henny RJ, McConnell DD, Caldwell RD. Gibberellic acid affects growth and flowering of Philodendron ‘Black Cardinal’. Plant Growth Regul. 2003;41:1–6.

Rani P, Singh N. Impact of gibberellic acid pre-treatment on growth and flowering of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Prajwal. J. Trop. Plant Physiol. 2013;5:33-42.

Sajid M, Amin N, Ahmad H, Khan K. Effect of gibberellic acid on enhancing flowering time in Chrysanthemum morifolium. Pak. J. Bot. 2016;48(2):477-483.

Iqbal N, Khan NA, Ferrante A, Trivellini A, Francini A, Khan MIR. Ethylene role in plant growth, development and senescence: Interaction with other phytohormones. Frontiers Plant Sci. 2017;475(8):1-19.

Vaghasia M, Polara ND. Effect of plant growth retardants on growth, flowering and yield of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cv. IIHR-6. Malays. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2015;2(2):6.

Albethani MMH, Aamry NJK. Effect of cultar on growth and production of two cultivars of Ranunculus plant under different environmental conditions. Plant Archives. 2019;19(2):1664-1670.

Hassanein AMA. Improved quality and quantity of winter flowering in Rose (Rosa spp.) by controlling the timing and type of pruning applied in autumn. World J. Agric. Sci. 2010;6(3):260-267.

Srilatha V, Kumar KS, Padmodaya B. Combined effect of pruning and defoliating chemicals on growth and flower yield of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) cv. Gundumalli. Green farming. 2018;9(4):671-674.

Sajjad Y, Jaskani MJ, Mehmood A, Qasim M, Akhtar G. Alleviation of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus) corm dormancy through application of 6-benzylaminopurine and gibberellic acid. Pak. J. Bot. 2020; 52(3):9.

IIHR [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research]. Breaking seasonality barrier in Jasminum sambac through mechanical flower forcing. 2020 Available:https://www.iihr.res.in/breaking-seasonality-barrier-jasminum-sambac-through-mechanical-flower-forcing [Accessed on:16 Nov.2022].