International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 2022-12-03T12:21:04+00:00 International Journal of Plant & Soil Science Open Journal Systems <p><strong>International Journal of Plant &amp; Soil Science (ISSN: 2320-7035)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJPSS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Plant &amp; Soil Science research’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.<br><br>This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p>Every issue will consist of a minimum of 5 papers. Each issue will be running, and all officially accepted manuscripts will be immediately published online. The state-of-the-art running issue concept gives authors the benefit of 'Zero Waiting Time' for the officially accepted manuscripts to be published. This journal is an international journal and its scope is not confined by the boundary of any country or region.</p> Tailoring Variability for Yield and Quality Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:37+00:00 Vikas Verma Rama Shankar Shukla Suneeta Pandey Vinay Prakash Bagde <p>The present research was carried out at the Breeder Seed Production Unit, JNKVV, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh using twenty-one sets of bread wheat genotypes. These were sown and evaluated under the timely sown condition in a randomized complete block design with three replication during post-rainy season 2021- In the present investigation thirteen morphological and one biochemical trait were analyzed. The analysis of variance indicated the occurrence of significant variation among the genotypes for all the traits. The present results indicate that the estimates of PCV were in general slightly elevated than their corresponding GCV for most of the traits studies which indicated that the variability for these traits in the genotypes was not much affected by the environments for the expression of these traits. High heritability with high genetic advance was observed for flag leaf length, grains yield per plant, biological yield per plant, and tiller per plant, and high heritability (narrow sense) coupled with the moderate genetic advance in percent of mean was observed for flag leaf width, grains per spike, plant height, and spikelet per spike. It can be summarized that constructive variability in parents and progenies was developed through hybridization which can be appropriately utilized for the selection of suitable genotypes to obtain high protein and high yield potential in bread wheat.</p> 2022-09-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Extent of Adoption of Agricultural Practices in Sugarcane Production in Response to Climate Change in Coastal Odisha 2022-11-18T12:13:47+00:00 Debasmita Nayak Mita Meher Debasmita Das <p>The present research was conducted to assess the extent of adoption of different agricultural practices in sugarcane production in response to climate change. The research study was conducted in Jagatsinghpur district of Odisha . 2 blocks, 4 Gram panchayats and 8 villages were selected for the study 60 numbers of respondents by purposive sampling method. Ex-post facto research design was chosen in this research. The findings of the study showed that giving protective irrigation in response to late monsoon with a mean score 1.60 was the most adopted practice where resowing in case of low germination percentage with a mean score 1.17 was the least adopted practice in the research area.</p> 2022-11-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment of Selected Organics and Botanical on Growth, Seed Yield and Yield Attributting Tarits of Maize (Zea mays L.) Var. VNR-4226 2022-10-11T06:37:36+00:00 Rishikar Reddy Yeruva Prashant Kumar Rai Sasya Nagar <p>The field experiment was conducted during Kharif season in the year 2021- 2022 at post graduate Crop research farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, in order to study the different Pre-sowing seed treatments of selected Organics and Botanicals on growth, Seed yield and yield attributing traits of Maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) Var. VNR-4226 The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 13 treatments and 3 replications. In order to standardization method of seed treatment to specific maize crop and they were evaluated by screening a range of duration and concentration Viz T<sub>0</sub>- Control, T<sub>1</sub> - Panchagavya 5% (12Hrs), T<sub>2</sub> - Panchagavya 10% (12Hrs), T<sub>3</sub> - Panchagavya 15% (12Hrs), T<sub>4</sub> - Moringa Leaf Extract 5% (12Hrs), T<sub>5</sub> - Moringa Leaf Extract 10% (12Hrs), T<sub>6</sub> - Moringa Leaf Extract 15% (12Hrs), T<sub>7</sub> - Vermiwash 5% (12Hrs), T<sub>8</sub> - Vermiwash 10% (12Hrs), T<sub>9</sub> – vermiwash 15% (12Hrs), T<sub>10</sub> – Moringa leaf extract 5% (12Hrs), T<sub>11</sub> - Moringa leaf extract 10% (12Hrs), T<sub>12</sub> - Moringa leaf extract 15% (12Hrs). To find out effect of different seed treatment on growth, yield and seed quality parameters of maize showed that significant treatment for Rate of Field emergence, Plant height (30,60,90 DAS), Number of leaves (30,60,90), Days to 50% Tasselling, days to 50% Silking, days to 50% Maturity, Number of cobs in a plant, cob length, cob grith, Number of rows in a cob, Number of Kernels in a row, Total number of kernels in a cob, seed yield per plot, Biological yield, Stover yield, Harvesting Index and economics were significantly recorded highest in T<sub>12</sub> (Neem leaf extract 15% for 12 hours) followed by T<sub>2</sub>- Panchagravya (10%) whereas minimum was observed in T<sub>0</sub> (control).</p> 2022-09-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Phosphorous Level and Phosphorous Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) on Yield Attributes and Yield of Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:38+00:00 Shubham Chouhan B. K. Sharma M. P. Nayak Praveen Kumar Ausari Pavan Kumar Para <p>The present study was conducted at Research farm of R.A.K., college of Agriculture, Sehore, Madhya Pradesh during 2020-21. The experiment was laid out using Randomized Block Design with different levels of Phosphorus with or without PSB application (T<sub>1</sub>- 45 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha, T<sub>2</sub>- 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha, T<sub>3</sub>- 75 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha,T<sub>4</sub> -90 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha, T<sub>5 </sub>- 45 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha + PSB @ 5g/kg seed, T<sub>6 </sub>- 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha + PSB @ 5g/kg seed, T<sub>7 </sub>- 75 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha + PSB @ 5g/kg seed, T<sub>8 </sub>- 90 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha + PSB @ 5g/kg seed).Treatment T<sub>7</sub> found to be best for yield and yield attributes of berseem. Maximum no. of capsules/m<sup>2</sup> (466), no. of seeds/capsule (28.81), Test weight (2.01 g), Seed yield (0.46 g/plant, 0.478 kg/plot, 239 kg/ha), Green fodder yield (63.75 kg/plot, 31870 kg/ha) and HI (10.21).While minimum recorded with treatment T<sub>1</sub> (45kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha without PSB application).</p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Grain Yield Components in Maize (Zea mays L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:38+00:00 Sirigireddy Ganga Maheswar Reddy Gaibriyal M. Lal Thupakula Venkata Krishna Yeruva Venkata Subba Reddy Nalla Sandeep <p>In the present study, "Correlation and path coefficient analysis for grain yield components in maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.)," the aim was to estimate genetic variability, genetic advance, correlation, and direct and indirect effects of yield contributing traits on yield. According to the analysis of variance, all traits exist. Hence, the data on all the 16 traits which showed significant differences among the entries were subjected to further statistical analysis. GP-184 had the shortest grain yield per plant in comparison to other genotypes, whereas GP-87 had the highest grain yield. Grain yield per plant, ear height, plant height, and cob weight exhibited the highest genotypic coefficient of variation. Cob weight. Among the traits, grain yield per plant, ear height, plant height, cob weight, and cob length showed a higher phenotypic coefficient of variation. The traits ear height, grain yield per plant, plant height, number of cobs per plant, cob length, number of kernels per row, cob weight, number of kernels per row per cob, anthesis to silking interval, shank weight, and days to 50% silking exhibited the highest heritability. Plant height, grain yield per plant, ear height, and cob weight were traits that showed higher genetic advances. These traits included grain yield per plant, ear height, plant height, cob weight, cob length, number of cobs per plant, tassel length, number of kernels per row, number of kernel rows per cob, 100-kernel weight, anthesis to silking interval, cob girth, and shank weight that showed higher genetic advance as a percent mean. The correlation coefficient indicates there is a significant positive correlation between grain yield and cob weight, number of cobs per plant, number of kernels per row, number of kernel rows per cob, 100 kernel weight, cob length, cob girth, plant height, ear height, shank weight, and tassel length at the phenotypic level. Grain yield per plant significantly positive correlation with cob weight, number of cobs per plant, number of kernels per row, number of kernel row per cob, 100 kernel weight, cob length, cob girth, plant height, shank weight, ear height, tassel length at the genotypic level the phenotypic level, the traits cob weight, 100 kernel weight, and plant height had the greatest direct impact on grain yield per plant. The traits were cob weight, number of kernel row per cob, 100 kernel weight showed higher direct effect on grain yield per plant at genotypic level.</p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prinicipal Component Analysis and Traits Association in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) 2022-10-11T06:37:39+00:00 Bheeram Vinod Kumar Gaibriyal M. Lal Yeruva Venkata Subba Reddy E. Shashi Kumar Golla Bhupal <p>The present investigation was carried out to assess the genetic variability parameters, correlation and path analysis in the 23 genotypes of Blackgram during <em>Zaid</em>-2021 at the research field, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj. LBG-645 is identified as high seed yielding per plant at Prayagraj agro-climatic condition. The analysis of variance for all the characters revealed that genotypes were highly significant except harvest index (%). Genotypes were highly significant at 5%, 1% level for all the characters, indicating presence of considerable amount of genetic variability in the parental material tested. The characters with high range estimates of GCV and PCV number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant. Heritability and genetic advance as % of mean values were high for number of pods per plant. The seed yield per plant exhibited positive significant and correlation with number of pods per plant at genotypic and phenotypic level. At genotypic and phenotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that number of pods per plant had greatest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant. Principal component (PC1) contributed maximum towards variability 22.808% was correlated with Seed Index followed by, plant height and number of seeds per pod. The second principal component (PC2) accounted 21.410% per cent of total variance and it reflected positive loading of days to 50% pod initiation, days to 50% flowering, and pod length whereas; the third principal component (PC3) accounted 15.642% per cent of total variance and positive loading of harvest Index followed by seed Index. Fourth principal component (PC4) contributed 11.325% of variability reflected loadings of days to maturity followed by seed yield per plant. The fifth principal component (PC5) contributed 9.489% variability of seed yield per plant, followed by days to 50% flowering.</p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Estimation of Variability and Genetic Divergence in Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] for Yield Characters 2022-10-11T06:37:39+00:00 Shika Udayasri G. R. Lavanya Gabriyal M. Lal <p>The present investigation consists of 20 genotypes of Greengram including one check, which were grown in the Field Experimentation Centre of the Department of Genetics and Plant breeding, SHUATS, Prayagraj during <em>Kharif </em>2021 following RBD with three replications. The data were recorded on 13 characters to study the amount of genetic variability, Genetic Advance, Genetic advance as percent mean in the greengram genotypes. Based on the mean performance genotype MODAL-L532 followed TOR-2 and SANGU-1972 were identified as best genotypes for seed yield per plant. High significant variation was obtained for all characters studies. High heritability estimates were observed for Number of primary branches, Seed yield, harvest index followed by number of pods per plant, number of secondary branches, biological yield, number of seeds per plant, number of seeds per pod,100 seed weight, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, days to 50% pod setting, and plant height. High values for heritability indicates that it may be due to higher contribution of genotypic components. High genetic advance as percent of mean was recorded high for seed yield, harvest index, biological yield, number of pods per plant, number of primary branches, number of seeds per plant, number of secondary branches, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight, plant height, days to 50% flowering, days to 50% pod setting, days to maturity. Metroglyph analysis shows, analysis of variance indicated that significant variations among the 20 lines for thirteen characters. The scatter diagram revealed that three complexes couldbe distinguished on the basis of morphological variation. Maximum number of genotypes falls in cluster I (10) and II (9) followed by cluster III (1). The germplasm lines, OLTS-B2, MODAL-L532, S/9-1179, SLTS-B2, recorded high index score and fell into different clusters can be crossed to have maximum variability of good combination of characters. Thus, the use of these genotypes in future breeding programme is suggested.</p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of Growth and Production of Red and Green Okra Plants to Effect of Organic Fertilization 2022-10-11T06:37:40+00:00 Endang Dwi Purbajanti Eny Fuskhah <p>The effect of nitrogen on growth, and development of plants, metabolism, dry matter production has been well investigated. Extensive research has been conducted on organic fertilizers especially, i.e. the compost. This study investigated the effect of compost on okra pods yield, nitrogen agronomic use efficiency, supplied of nitrogen recovery efficiency and supplied nitrogen physiological efficiency in okra (<em>Abelmoschus esculentus</em> L. Moench). A completely randomized experimental design of 2x4 factorial patterns with three replications was used in this study. Factor (I) was the okra species (Green okra - Red okra) and factor (II) was the doses of compost (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha<sup>−1</sup>). Kind of okra has different effects on the parameters observed. Results showed that green okra and red okra showed increased yield due to the increase in the nitrogen dose through compost. Agronomic use efficiency of green okra and red okra increased with increasing doses of compost. The nitrogen recovery efficiency of green okra and red okra also, increased with increasing doses of compost. Nitrogen physiological efficiency of green okra and red okra increased with increasing compost doses. An increase in compost doses resulted in increased nitrogen uptake, pods yield, Agronomic efficiency, nitrogen recovery efficiency and nitrogen physiological efficiency of both green and red okra. Increased compost doses resulted in decreased nitrogen use efficiency in green okra. Green okra is more efficient in using organic nitrogen from compost.</p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physico-Chemical Properties of Juice in Different Wine Varieties of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:40+00:00 Veena Joshi S. Amarender Reddy B. Srinivas Rao <p>Physico-Chemical properties of juice in thirteen wine grape varieties (eight coloured and five white) were evaluated&nbsp; to assess the feasibility of growing wine grape varieties under Southern Telangana conditions. Observations recorded on physico-chemical properties of juice revealed that juice recovery was maximum in Chenin Blanc (78.38%) among the white varieties and in Pusa Navrang (77.75%) from the coloured ones. Total Soluble Solids (TSS) of juice in different varieties ranged from 15.43<sup>o</sup>B to 21.95<sup>o</sup>B .Maximum TSS was recorded in Cv. Shiraz followed by Cabernet Sauvignon while minimum content of was observed in Italia. The titrable acidity of juice ranged from minimum of 0.51% in Ruby Red to maximum of 0.92% in Chenin Blanc and all the varieties were found to be within the standard range as reported by Karibasappa and Adsule, 2008 <em>i.e.</em> (dry table wines require high acidity of 0.6 to 0.9%, while sweet dessert wines require 0.5 to 0.6% acidity). pH of the juice ranged from 2.96 (Italia) to 3.53 (Athens) which indicated that as per the pH norms, all the varieties screened are suitable for making wines except Italia. Highest total and reducing sugar content of juice was observed in Shiraz (19.28% and 15.38%) followed by Chenin Blanc (19.07% and 15.21%) and on the other hand, minimum total sugar content (13.14%) was recorded by Cv. Italia and reducing sugar content in Pusa Navrang (7.84%). The results signifies the potential `for cultivation of wine grape varieties under Southern Zone of Telangana.</p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Screening of China Aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.)] Genotypes and F1 Hybrids against Alternaria Leaf Spot Disease 2022-10-11T06:37:40+00:00 Takhellambam Henny Chanu Mukund Shiragur Sandhyarani Nishani V. Kantharaju Rudragouda T. Patil G. K. Seetharamu Deelipkumar A. Masuthi B. C. Patil <p>Leaf spot disease caused by <em>Alternaria alternata</em> (Fr.) Keissler is a threat of China aster cultivation and is capable of causing yield losses in all production regions. The experiment was undertaken to screen genotypes and F<sub>1</sub> hybrids which would be helpful in developing Alternaria leaf spot resistance varieties in later years. AAC-1 was found to be resistant against <em>Alternaria</em> leaf spot in both field and control conditions. In natural disease pressure, Arka Kamini, Arka Shashank and Arka Poornima recorded to be moderately susceptible, susceptible and highly susceptible to <em>Alternaria</em> leaf spot, respectively. However, in artificially inoculated condition, Arka Kamini showed susceptible reaction. Among F<sub>1 </sub>hybrids, AAC-1 x Arka Kamini and Arka Kamini x AAC-1 showed moderately resistant reaction; AAC-1 x Arka Poornima, AAC-1 x Arka Shashank, Arka Poornima x AAC-1, Arka Shashank x AAC-1 showed moderately susceptible disease reaction for <em>Alternaria</em> leaf spot.</p> 2022-09-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization of High Oleic Gene Pool and Validation of the Identified Genomic Regions Controlling Oleic Acid Content in Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:40+00:00 M. S. Umar Farooq M. S. Uma S. D. Nehru C. P. Manjula <p>The increase of oleic acid content has become one of the major goals of plant breeders to improve sunflower oil quality, as high content of oleic acid increases the oil’s stability to oxidative degradation at high temperatures and as well has been suggested to reduce cholesterol in blood plasma thereby reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. In this study 120 inbred lines of high oleic gene pool were characterized for yield, its attributing traits, oleic content and then validated with two known microsatellite molecular markers linked to oleic acid content. High phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation as well high heritability and high genetic advance as percent of mean was recorded for oleic acid content. This indicated the presence of the additive type of gene action controlling the trait. Further, the two molecular markers under the study exhibited differentiating bands between all the high and low oleic inbred lines. Hence the validated markers from this study, linked to the high oleic acid trait could be further used in marker-assisted selection and would greatly contribute to develop stable high oleic acid breeding lines.</p> 2022-09-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Mechanical Properties in the Radial Positions of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Timber 2022-10-11T06:37:41+00:00 K. Fairoosa Suma Nair <p>This study evaluated the variation of the physical and mechanical properties within coconut timber's radial position (dermal, sub-dermal, core). Properties were studied on the 55-year-old coconut palm from KAU coconut farm Vellanikkara, in Thrissur, district Kerala. The density of coconut timber at the radial positions was 862.3 kg m<sup>-3</sup>, 670.8 kg m<sup>-3</sup> and 287.9 kg m<sup>-3</sup>, respectively, for the dermal, sub-dermal, and core positions. The average moisture content of coconut timber in the dermal, sub-dermal, and core positions was 15.7 %, 16.6 %, and 17.5 %, respectively. Compressive strength parallel to the grain at the three radial positions such as dermal, sub-dermal, and core is 32764.77 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>, 25591 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>, 7532.35 kg cm<sup>-2,</sup> respectively, and the compressive strength perpendicular to the grain was found as 46712.42 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>, 39233.3 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>, 22353.04 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>. Hardness measured at the side and ends of the dermal position is 1207.612 kg and 767.65 kg, respectively. In the sub-dermal position, 1035.7 kg and 750.88 kg, respectively. The core position is 252.34 kg and 359.31 kg, respectively.</p> 2022-09-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Variability and Scope of Response to Selection in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:41+00:00 Lokesh Yadav G. C. Yadav Shalu Yadav Lav Kumar Sandeep Kumar <p>The present investigation was carried out in randomized block design with three replications during <em>Rabi</em> season of 2020-21 to judge the extent of genetic variability and scope of selection among thirty-two genotypes including two checks of tomato Narendra Tomato-4 (NDT-4) &amp; Narendra Tomato -7(NDT-7) for fourteen characters. In present study the analysis variance showed that all the treatments were significantly different for all the characters. Which, indicates wide range of genetic variability among the available genotypes. On the basis of mean performance, five genotypes namely NDT-28, NDT-29, NDT-30, NDT-32 and NDT-P were promising ones. High genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficient of variations were recorded for plant height, number of primary branches, polar diameter of fruit, equatorial diameter of fruit, locules per fruit, average fruit weight, marketable fruit yield per plant and total fruit yield per plant. Moderate genotypic coefficients of variation and phenotypic coefficients of variation were estimated for ascorbic acid content, number of fruits per plant and pericarp thickness. In contrast, low environment coefficient of variation was found for all the characters. High heritability (broad sense) coupled with high genetic advance in per cent of mean was observed for plant height, equatorial diameter of fruit, locules per fruit, pericarp thickness, average fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, marketable fruit yield per plant and total fruit yield per plant. Thus, ample variability is there and selection will be effective among the available germplasm of tomato.</p> 2022-09-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Molecular Characterization of Early Maturing Sugarcane Clones Using Microsatellite Markers 2022-10-11T06:37:42+00:00 Rajvinder Singh D. N. Kamat Pooja Kumari Sandeep Kumar Suman Digvijay Singh <p>Sugarcane is an important cash crop of the entire world including India. It alone contributes to 75% of the worldwide sugar trade. Molecular markers are powerful tools and provide the basis for the estimation of genetic variability to start reasonable breeding program. Microsatellite markers have unique ability to determine the extent of genetic divergence among sugarcane genotypes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence of 12 early maturing sugarcane clones using 11 SSR markers. A total 55 alleles were found during the amplification of the primers out of which 21 alleles were found unique and 34 alleles were shared. The number of shared alleles per locus ranged from two out of five alleles in the case of primer NKS 1 and nine out of ten alleles in NKS 34. Similarly no. of unique alleles per locus ranged from one out of ten alleles in NKS 34, three out of six alleles in NKS 57. The primer pairs NKS 1 and NKS 8 generated considerably greater percentage of unique alleles. The PIC values revealing allelic diversity and frequency among the genotypes varied from 0.034 in case of NKS 48 to 0.778 in case of NKS 9 with an average of 0.549. Pair-wise combinations of CoSe15451 and CoSe15452 showed the highest similarity with the value of similarity coefficient (0.890). The lowest value of similarity coefficient was found to be 0.490 in the pair CoBln15501 and CoSe01421. The dendogram based on SSR marker analysis grouped the 12 sugarcane clones into four clusters which shows the CoSe15451 and CoSe15452 clones had maximum similarity and CoBln15501 and CoSe15452 clones had maximum diversity between each other.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Micronutrients (Boron & Zinc) on Growth, Flowering and Quality of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Under Naturally Ventilated Polyhouse Conditions of Prayagraj, India 2022-10-11T06:37:42+00:00 Saphinee Careen Kurbah Urfi Fatmi <p>The present investigation was done to study the effect of micronutrients (Boron &amp; Zinc) on growth, flowering and quality of carnation (<em>Dianthus caryophyllus </em>L.) under naturally ventilated polyhouse conditions of Prayagraj. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with fifteen treatments replicated thrice. Foliar application with three levels of boron (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15%), three levels of zinc (0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6%) and treatment combinations of both boron and zinc along with control were applied. Among all the treatments, T<sub>2</sub> (B @ 0.1%) recorded significantly taller plants (84.71 cm), more number of leaves (165.47), more number of shoots (7.53), more number of internodes (17.27), higher internodal length (5.21 cm), longer bud (3.63 cm), more bud diameter (2.33 cm), higher flower stalk girth (4.86 mm) and more vase life (11.2 days). However, treatment T<sub>6</sub> (Zn @ 0.6 %) exhibited early days for bud initiation (124.27 days), bud opening (14.47 days), 50 percent flowering (138.73 days), more number of cut flower stalks per plant (7.13) and more number of flowers per meter square (178.33) while treatment T<sub>5</sub> (Zn @ 0.4 %) exhibited longer flower stalk (66.23 cm) and treatment T<sub>10</sub> (B @ 0.1 % + Zn @ 0.2 %) produced good flower diameter (6.62 cm).&nbsp; Poor flowers were generated by plants that were not given micronutrients. So, T<sub>2</sub> (B @ 0.1 %) and T<sub>6</sub> (Zn @ 0.6 %) can be applied topically to improve the quality of flowers. Hence, applications of micronutrient are proven to be crucial for improving the vegetative growth, flowering, quality and yield parameters of carnation grown under naturally ventilated polyhouse conditions of Prayagraj.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Nitrogen, Zinc and Iron on Growth and Yield of Baby-corn (Zea mays L.) Prayagraj Condition 2022-10-11T06:37:42+00:00 Dalu Kiran Kumar Joy Dawson Chakali Ramesh Dalu Sreekanth R. Ranganad Reddy Gurrappa Dudekula <p>A field experiment was conducted at the Crop Research Farm (CRF), Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj (UP) during the year 2021 zaid season. To find out suitable Nitrogen, zinc and iron levels for profitable baby corn yield. The experiment comprised of 9 treatments with different combinations of nitrogen, zinc and iron replicated thrice in a Randomized Block Design. The main objective of the experiment was to evaluate the Effect of Nitrogen, Zinc and Iron on growth and yield of baby-corn (<em>Zea mays </em>L.). The nitrogen levels include [70, 80 and 90 kg/ha] where-as levels of zinc (0.5%) and iron (0.2%) From the present investigation The results showed that viz: Plant height (169.75 cm),Number of leaves per plant (13.80) plant dry weight (113.09 g/plant) were recorded significantly higher in 90kg/ha Nitrogen along with 0.5% Zinc and 0.2% Iron. Number of cobs per plant (1.69), cob length (18.50 cm), cob girth (8.10cm), cob weight with husk (48.85g), cob weight with out husk (13.80 g), cob yield with husk (11.75 t/ha), cob yield without husk (4.35 t/ha), green fodder (33.58t/ha) and the profitable production of baby corn can be secured by 90kg/ha Nitrogen + [0.5% Zinc + 0.2% Iron].</p> 2022-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance Evaluation and Identification of New Quality Protein Maize Inbred Lines 2022-10-11T06:37:42+00:00 Goshime Muluneh Mekasha Solomon Admassu Seyoum Demewoz Negera Woreti Beakal Tadesse Girma <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> Maize plays a critical role in meeting high food demand. It is a globally widely adopted and cultivated crop. Hybrid and open-pollinated varieties development from fixed inbred lines is one of the strategies for the improvement of maize production. Compared with the world average, the national average maize yield is low in Ethiopia. According to this development and selection of promising germplasm has indispensable value for developing high-yielding maize varieties. The study consists of 21Quality Protein Maize (QPM) lines, two QPM testers lines, and one Conventional Maize (CM) line check (FS67). They were evaluated in RCBD with two replications at Ambo and Arsi-Negele. The objective was to identify new lines with good performance compared with released QPM checks and CM lines.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There is a significant difference between the lines for 28 traits in Ambo and 24 traits at Arsi-Negele. In combined mean performance analysis, the highest yielding line (L8) exceeded the mean of all line checks, mean QPM checks, CM line check (FS67), and best QPM line check (CML144) by 34.89%, 54.80%, 7.30%, and 25.31%, respectively for GY. The value of EPP ranged from 0.91 (L14) to 1.85 (L3) with an overall mean of 1.19). The highest yielding line (L8) had the 2nd highest EPP (1.63). Mean EPP of the top five QPM lines was less by 5.45%, 4.96%, 22.41%, and 6.41% compared with the mean of all checks, mean of QPM line checks, best QPM check, and CM line check, respectively. The high yielder line (L8) had a higher mean value than the mean of lines checks (CML144, CML159, and FS67), mean of QPM lines checks, best QPM check (CML144), and FS67 by 25.71%, 26.36%, 3.16%, and 24.43%, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In general, the study confirmed the existence of promising new QPM parental lines. These promising lines can be used as source material in the breeding program for further improvement.</p> 2022-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Screening of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes for High Temperature Stress under Temperature Induction Response 2022-10-11T06:37:43+00:00 G. K. Nandhitha K. Vanitha C. N. Chandrasekhar <p>Plants are exposed to multifarious external environmental conditions that affect plant growth, development and productivity. Heat stress is one of the abiotic stress that occurs due to high ambient temperature. Also, it is a serious threat to crop production worldwide. Rice is a major food crop cultivated all over the globe. In the present study, temperature induction response (TIR) was carried out for screening the rice genotypes. Initially, three rice genotypes namely Swarnamukhi, Kasalth and N22 (tolerant check) were used to standardize the optimum induction temperature and lethal temperature. Optimum induction temperature was 46-54<sup>o</sup> C and the lethal temperature 56<sup>o</sup>C were standardized for rice. At this temperature, a total of 58 diverse genotypes were screened for high-temperature stress tolerance. Among the genotypes tried, sivapu chithiraikar (94.33%), kavya (93.67%), kasalath(94.23), samleshwari (93.56), poongar (87.34), vedhividangan (75.10), Naveen (89.56), surakuruvai (84.90), swarnamukhi (92.10), vellaikatrai (80.50) and kavuni (92.60) expressed higher seedling survival percentage of tolerance (93.5%) to high temperature and remaining were identified as temperature susceptible as compared to control (100% survival). There was a considerable variation among the genotypes screened for acquired thermotolerance. Results suggested that TIR is a simple and powerful technique and can be used to screen a large population at the seedling stage to identify thermotolerant lines.</p> 2022-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Profile Distribution of Available Plant Nutrients in Western Hilly Tracts of Cuttack District, Odisha 2022-10-11T06:37:43+00:00 Shraddha Mohanty R. K. Nayak Bandita Jena Kshitipati Padhan Sanjib Kumar Sahoo R. K. Patra <p><strong>Aims: </strong>An investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of available plant nutrients and the relationships between soil properties and available nutrient status in soil profiles in the Western Hilly Tracts of the Cuttack District, Odisha.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The research area, i.e. the Narasinghpur block, is located in the western part of the Cuttack district in Odisha and is characterized by lateritic uplands and mountainous terrain. Three soil profiles were exposed <em>i.e.</em> upland, medium land and low land before the rainy season (February, 2020).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For experiments, five layers demarcated at 20cm intervals up to a depth of 100cm were sampled, processed, and stored. Several parameters, including particle size, pH, EC, OC, and available Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn were analysed and interpreted using standard protocols.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Sand content decreased with pedon depth, whereas clay content showed the opposite trend. With increasing soil depth in all pedons, soil pH increased while EC and soil organic carbon content declined. The available Ca, Mg, and S in surface soils varied from 4.11 to 6.56 [cmol (p<sup>+</sup>)/kg], 2.15 to 3.54 [cmol (p<sup>+</sup>)/kg] and 9.85 to 12.06 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The corresponding subsurface ranges for these nutrients were 4.31 to 8.52 [cmol (p<sup>+)</sup>/kg], 2.41 to 4.52 [cmol (p<sup>+</sup>)/kg], and 6.95 to 11.41 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The available Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B range in surface soils were 127.85-278.81, 68.48-144.98, 0.64-0.9, 0.54-0.63 and 0.37-0.47 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The subsurface ranges for these nutrients were 102.32–234.46, 53.21–118.28, 0.28–0.89, 0.17–0.50, and 0.29–0.91 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. The status of micronutrients in the present study region was as follows: Fe &gt; Mn &gt; Cu &gt; Zn &gt; B. With increasing soil depth, available Ca and Mg increased, but available S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and B declined. Positive correlations between available Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn with the soil organic carbon content of the soil and negative correlations with the soil pH were observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Plant nutrients in the research area varied with topography, although the differences between upland, medium land and lowland wasn't substantial. However, accelerated decomposition of soil organic matter and agricultural residues likely led to highermicronutrient concentrations at the soil's surface than subsurface.</p> 2022-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Seed Priming on Germination, Plant Growth and Flowering of Cockscomb (Celosia spp.) Under Prayagraj Agro Climatic Conditions 2022-10-11T06:37:43+00:00 Ch. Priyanka Vijay Bahadur V. M. Prasad <p>The present experiment was carried out during August, 2021 to January, 2022 in Research Field, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD), with nine treatments, replicated thrice, with an aim to identify the most suitable variety under the agro climatic conditions of Prayagraj. From the present experimental findings, It is concluded from the present investigations that nine treatments under study showed significant variation in all the parameters observed. To study on effect of seed priming on germination, plant growth and flowering of cockscomb (<em>Celosia spp</em>.). The experiment consisted with two varieties i.e <em>Celosia cristata</em> L. and <em>Celosia argentea</em> var. <em>spicata</em>. seeds were primed with CaCl₂ and salicylic acid. <em>Celosia cristata</em> L. Seeds were primed with CaCl₂ (0.56% and (2%), Salicylic Acid (0.02% and 0.04%). <em>Celosia argentea</em> var. <em>spicata</em> seed were primed with CaCl₂ (4% and 6%), Salicylic Acid (0.06% and 0.08%) the best performance in terms of Days to first seedling emergence (8.33), Days to 50% emergence (11.33), Mean emergence time (11.20), Emergence percentage (92), Emergence index (2), Vigor index (901.33), plant height (68.55 cm), number of leaves (47.44), days taken to flower bud formation (21.88), days taken to flowering (31.88), number of flowers per plant (25.44) and benefit cost ratio (7.58) gave best result in T₅ Salicylic acid 0.004% as compared to other treatments in terms of seedling, growth and floral parameters.</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Rubber Effluent and NPK Fertilizer on the Performance and Fruit Quality of Snake Tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina L. Haines) in a Three and Four Years Old (An Existing) Rubber Plantation 2022-10-11T06:37:43+00:00 A. M. D. Uwumarongie O. A. Emuedo E. O. Uzunuigbe F. U. Ohikhena A. N. Chukwuka U. Ugiagbe-Ekue J. I. Omoruyi J. A. Omorogbe S. O. Aghedo S. O. Musa <p>Small holder rubber farmer that account for over 75% of rubber production in Nigeria has withdrawn from production as a result of income gap created by the long gestation period of rubber amidst other agronomic challenges, hence the need to create an agronomic system that will incorporate other compactable short duration to generate additional and early source of income and take care of other agronomic challenges. An experiment was conducted in 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons to evaluate the influence of rubber effluent and NPK fertilizer on the performance and fruit quality of snake tomato in a three and four year old (an existing) rubber plantation. The treatments include sole rubber, sole snake tomato and their intercrop combinations with rubber effluent and NPK laid out in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. Data were collected on vine length, vine girth, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit yield and its components, nutrient content and uptake. Growth parameters measured increased with increase in rubber effluent application however NPK fertilized plants were superior to rubber effluent treated plant at increased dosage as there was no marked difference between plants treated with effluent at 70kgN<sup>-1</sup> rubber effluent and NPK treated plants, it was also observed that the fourth year plant were higher than the third year. Nutrient content was observed to increase with fertilizer application as non fertilized had the lowest nutrient content, the least uptake was observed in the non fertilized plants.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Variability and Inter-relationship among Grain Yield and It’s Components in Maize (Zea mays L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:44+00:00 Boddu Archana G. M. Lal G. R. Lavanya <p>The present investigation was carried out to estimate genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis for fifteen yield attributing traits of twenty maize genotypes in the <em>kharif</em> -2021 season at Field Experimentation Center, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Uttar Pradesh in Randomized block design replicated thrice. Among 20 genotypes, VL-19403(66.8g) and VL-19465(65.5g) genotypes were found to be superior for grain yield per plant over the check (Shaktiman-5). High GCV and PCV were observed for grain yield per plant, number of grains per row, number of grain rows per cob, harvest index, cob weight, ear height and biological yield per plant. Maximum heritability conjoined with higher genetic advance for the traits grain yield per plant, plant height, ear height, harvest index, biological yield and cob weight. Grain yield per plant was significantly strong association with harvest index, number of grains per row, cob weight, cob girth, cob length, ear height at both levels. The trait days to 50% tasselling had high direct positive effect on grain yield per plant at genotypic level and biological yield per plant had high direct positive effect on grain yield per plant at phenotypic level.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Plant Growth Retardants (Paclobutrazol, Alar, Maleic Hydrazide) on Growth, Flowering and Yield on African Marigold (Tagetes erecta) cv. Pusa Basanti under Open Field Conditions of Prayagraj 2022-10-11T06:37:44+00:00 Mansi Arya Urfi Fatmi <p>The present experiment was carried out during March, 2022 to June, 2022 in Research Field, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The research was conducted with an aim to identify the most suitable growth retardants and its appropriate dose under the agro climatic conditions of Prayagraj was carried out in Randomized Block Design (RBD), with three replications. Ten treatments were considered viz., Control (T<sub>0</sub>), Paclobutrazol (PBZ) at 100 ppm (T<sub>1</sub>), 150 ppm (T<sub>2</sub>), 200 ppm (T<sub>3</sub>); Maleic Hydrazide (MH) at 1000 ppm (T<sub>4</sub>), 1500 ppm (T<sub>5</sub>), 2000 ppm (T<sub>6</sub>); Alar at 1000 ppm (T<sub>7</sub>), 1500 ppm (T<sub>8</sub>), 2000 ppm (T<sub>9</sub>). From the experimental findings, it was observed that treatment PBZ at 100 ppm performed significantly better in most of the parameter like plant height (33.82 cm), plant spread (44.03 cm), number of primary branch (4.11), early bud initiation (33.6 days) and early flowering (50.6 days). The treatment MH at 1000 ppm performed significant for more fresh weight (4.28 g), flower diameter (4.07 cm), as well as shelf life (7.64 days). It also reported higher flower yield per plant (254.97 g), gross return (717093 Rs/ha), net return (426514 Rs/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (2.47). Through the study it can be conclude that PBZ at 100 ppm was better in vegetative parameter as well as early initiation and MH at 1000 ppm was good in producing higher yield when compared to other treatments.Include the recommendation based on results of the study.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Blended NPSB Fertilizer Rates on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties on Jimma Arjo District, Western Ethiopia 2022-10-11T06:37:44+00:00 Chaltu Regassa Tolera Abera Birhanu Iticha <p>Wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in Ethiopia, however the yield of the crop is low mainly due to low soil fertility management, lack of using balanced fertilizer and lack of using improved wheat varieties. The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of varieties, fertilizer rate and their interaction on yield and yield components and to determine the economic feasibility of application of fertilizer for optimum yield of bread wheat varieties. The experiment was conducted in Jimma Arjo district with four levels of NPSB fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and 64/20 NP and three bread wheat varieties (Ogolcho, Huluka and Hidase) combined factorially and laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The soils of the experimental area exhibited high sand (36%) but relatively low clay fractions (30%). Before sowing, the soils of the experimental site showed mean soil pH (H<sub>2</sub>O) value of 5.52, organic carbon content of 2.21%, total N (0.19%) available P (10.02%), organic matter content (3.80%), and available boron of 0.99 ppm.. The main effect of varieties and NPSB fertilizer application were significant for all parameters of bread wheat varieties except harvest index and only seed per spike and thousand seed weight were significant for interaction. The highest mean grain yield of 5801 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> was obtained for Huluka bread wheat variety with applications of 150 kg NPSB ha<sup>-1</sup> and 200 kg urea ha<sup>-1</sup> fertilizers. The lowest 1599 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>grain yield was recorded from Hidase with no fertilizer. The highest net benefit ETB 154288 ha<sup>-1</sup> with marginal rate of return of 3210% and value to cost ratio of ETB 66.19 per unit of investment for bread wheat production was obtained from application of 150 kg NPSB ha<sup>-1</sup> and 200 kg Urea ha<sup>-1</sup>. In conclusion, application of 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB enhanced bread wheat yield and, therefore, recommended for bread wheat production.</p> 2022-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Seed Germination, Establishment, and Growth of Different Black Adenium (Adenium arabicum) Hybrids under Prayagraj Agro Climatic Conditions 2022-10-11T06:37:44+00:00 Shilpa Jasmine Leo Urfi Fatmi <p>The experiment was conducted in the Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Science, Prayagraj, during 2021-2022. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 7 hybrids and each hybrid was replicated 3 times. The different hybrids used in the experiment were npy x Golden Crown x Black Hawk, Maung x Red Bracelet, Maung x Black mkmk, Black Hawk, Red Bracelet x Big Flower x Black Hawk, Bb x Black Chadda Petch, Bb(F1) x npy Golden Crown x Black Hawk. The result obtained showed that the hybrid Black Hawk showed significantly better performance in parameters like germination percentage (86 %), seed vigour index (610), seed viability (0.86), germination speed index (1.37), survival percentage (80 %), seedling height, (8.5 cm), no. of leaves per seedlings (12), estimated leaf area (4, stem/caudex diameter (1.56 cm) and taproot length (6.2 cm), which was par with the hybrid npy x Golden Crown x Black Hawk.</p> 2022-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Different Organics on Growth, Yield and Economics of Soybean [Glycine max (L.)] under Rainfed Condition 2022-10-11T06:37:45+00:00 D. R. Chaudhary Vaishali H. Surve S. P. Deshmukh A. D. Raj P. M. Sankhla <p>A field experiment was conducted during 2021 to study the influence of different organics on growth, yield and economic soybean [<em>Glycine max</em> (L.)] under rainfed condition. The treatment include different foliar nutrition application (F) <em>viz., </em>control (F<sub>1</sub>), 4% panchgavya (F<sub>2</sub>), 2% novel organic liquid (F<sub>3</sub>), 4% seaweed extract (F<sub>4</sub>), 4% cow urine (F<sub>5</sub>) and 2% vermiwash (F<sub>6</sub>) at 30 and 45 DAS and soil application (S) <em>viz., </em>control (S<sub>1</sub>) and jeevamrut (S<sub>2</sub>)500 l ha<sup>-1</sup>. Growth parameter <em>viz., </em>plant height, number of branches plant<sup>-1</sup> and root nodules plant<sup>-1 </sup>shows significant effect by the treatments. Yield parameter <em>viz.,</em> number of pods plant<sup>-1</sup>, number of seeds per pod<sup>-1</sup>, test weight, seed yield and straw yield of soybean were significantly increased by the treatments of different organics.</p> 2022-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Temperature Trends at Madhira, Khammam District of Telangana State 2022-10-11T06:37:45+00:00 Nagaraju Dharavath J. Hemantha Kumar Jessie Suneetha W K. Rukmini Devi V. Chaithanya K. Ravi Kumar P. S. M. Phanisri R. Uma Reddy J. V. Prasad A. Sravani <p>Climate change is one of the most important global environmental challenges at global, national and regional level. The resultant global warming due to increase in temperature by 1.5°C in the near-term (2021-2040) can cause unavoidable increase in multiple climate hazards and present unknown challenges facing humanity with implications for food production, natural ecosystems, freshwater supply, health, etc. In this context, an analysis was carried out to identify trends in temperature over time series at Madhira, Khammam district in Telangana. In this trend analysis study, the annual average maximum temperature value of skewness was asymmetric and left skewed. The annual mean and maximum temperatures were significant with long-term increasing trend. In the pre monsoon season, maximum and mean temperature showed significant increase in trends in by all methods <em>i.e.,</em> M-K (Mann – Kendall), Spearman's Rho and Linear regression tests. But minimum temperature showed non-significant increasing trend. Here interestingly, monsoon season showed non-significance increase in temperature trends in all three mentioned tests. The mean of monthly maximum temperature increased at a faster rate than the average and minimum temperature. The linear regression equation indicated positive slope and R<sup>2</sup> was 27.0% of variability for mean annual temperature.</p> 2022-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Optimizing Integrated Plant Nutrient Supply through STCR Approach for Targeted Yield of Forage Oat (Avena sativa L.) in an Inceptisols 2022-10-11T06:37:45+00:00 Vimlesh Kumar Y. V. Singh Prem Kumar Bharteey Nidhi Luthra Ayush Bahuguna . Sarvajeet Pavan Singh <p>During <em>Rabi</em> 2018-19, an Inceptisol field test was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, using STCR technique, from which fertiliser recommendation equations for oat (<em>Avena sativa </em>L.) may be developed. Soil test results, oat fresh forage yield and NPK uptake by oat crop were used to attain four essential basic parameters, <em>i.e.,</em> nutrients required to produce one quintal of fresh forage (NR), fertilizer contribution of nutrients (% CF), soil nutrient contribution (% CS) and organic matter contribution from FYM (CFYM). A quintal of fresh forage required 0.26, 0.04, and 0.30 Kg of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and K<sub>2</sub>O, respectively. Soil Nutrient Contribution Proportions (CS%): 35.81, 48.44, and 64.87 N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, and K<sub>2</sub>O, respectively. N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, and K<sub>2</sub>O percent added through fertilizer alone (CF %) and FYM alone (CFYM) were 59.17, 47.38, and 115.25; 24.19, 5.82, and 2.33, respectively. The ready reckoner doses of fertilizer were emphasized on these specific criteria for various soil test values and required to make recommendations for fresh forage&nbsp;oat yields for NPK alone and NPK + FYM.</p> 2022-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria L.) Genotypes for Growth, Yield and Quality 2022-10-11T06:37:46+00:00 Satheesh Bhavanasi Vijay Bahadur Anita Kerketta V. M. Prasad <p>An experiment on the “Performance of Bottle Gourd (<em>Lagenaria siceraria </em>L.) &nbsp;Genotypes for Growth, Yield and Quality” was conducted during February to May. 2022, in field of Horticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.) India. The results of the present investigation, regarding the performance of 10 genotypes of Bottle Gourd <em>i.e</em>. (IET/2021/BOGVAR-1, IET/2021/BOGVAR-2, IET/2021/BOGVAR-3, IET/2021/BOGVAR-4, IET/2021/BOGVAR-5, IET/2021/BOVAR-6, IET/2021/BOGVAR-7, IET/2021/BOGVAR-8, IET/2021/BOGVAR-9 and IET/2021/BOGVAR-10) obtained from different sources evaluated for plant growth, yield and quality have been discussed and interpreted in the light of previous research work. The experiment was conducted in Randomized block design, were each replicated thrice. From the present experimental findings it was founded that the genotype IET/2021/BOGVAR-8 was recorded with the maximum number of female flowers (15.40), vine length (228.33cm), number of fruits/plant (10.80 fruits), yield per hectare (438.7 q/ha), TSS (4.13ºB) gross return (658050), net return (508807), and B:C ratio (4.4).</p> 2022-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of FYM and Split Application of Nitrogen on Growth and Green Yield of Fodder Maize (Zea mays L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:46+00:00 Nagar Kuldeep H. K. Patel C. H. Raval A. R. Badi . Lakshman N. Chaudhary <p>A field experiment was conducted at Main Forage Research Station, Anand Agriculture University, Anand (Gujarat) to study the effect of FYM and split application of nitrogen on the growth and yield of fodder maize in loamy sand soil during <em>rabi </em>season of 2021-22. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (factorial) with three replications. There ten treatment combinations comprising two levels of FYM <em>i.e.,</em> F<sub>1</sub> (No FYM) and F<sub>2</sub> (10 t FYM/ha) and five levels of nitrogen split <em>i.e.,</em> N<sub>1</sub> (Control: Common Practices, 50% Basal + 50% 30 DAS), N<sub>2</sub> (20% N at Basal + 80% N in three equal splits), N<sub>3</sub> (30% N at Basal + 70% N in three equal splits), N<sub>4</sub> (40% N at Basal + 60% N in three equal splits) and N<sub>5</sub> (50% N at Basal + 50% N in three equal splits). Application of 10 t FYM/ha were improved the growth, quality and yield attributes like periodical plant height, leaves/plant, leaf-stem ration, green and dry fodder yield, crude protein and dry matter content, NPK content and uptake, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and Netural Detergent Fiber (NDF) as compared to control treatment of fodder maize. Response of FYM on soil EC, pH was found to be non-significant and soil available phosphorus potassium was found significant. Split application of nitrogen (50% N at Basal + 50% N in three equal splits) reported significant response on growth parameters like periodical plant height, number of leaves per plant, green fodder yield and quality parameters like dry matter content, crude protein content, dry fodder yield, crude protein yield, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of fodder maize. Response of split application of nitrogen on post-harvest soil parameters like pH, EC, organic carbon, available phosphorus and potassium.</p> 2022-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of Onion (Allium cepa L.) to Different Sources and Levels of Sulphur on Growth, Yield and Quality 2022-10-11T06:37:46+00:00 . Lalrintluanga Devi Singh V. M. Prasad Vijay Bahadur <p>The present investigation entitled “response of onion (<em>Allium cepa</em> L.) to different sources and levels of sulphur on growth, yield and quality” was carried out in the Horticulture Research Farm, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture and Sciences, Prayagraj during the Rabi season of 2021-22 to find out the best treatment combination for better growth, yield and quality of onion. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design comprising of 13 treatments. The treatments consisted of two sources (viz., Elemental Sulphur and Gypsum) and six levels of sulphur (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) along with control group. RDF was applied uniformly to all treatments. The parameters relating to growth, yield and quality were recorded to make a critical analysis of the crop as affected by the different treatments. The technique of representative sample was adopted for recording the observations on various morphological characters in onion. At every observation, five plants from each plot were randomly selected and tagged. The treatments in each replication were allotted randomly. The results revealed that the treatment T10 (40 kg/ha Gypsum + RDF at transplanting) was found to be the most suitable over all the other treatments in relation to plant height (39.33 cm, 50.09 cm and 72.11 cm), leaf length (33.33 cm, 44.41 cm, 63.34 cm) and number of leaves (6.71 cm, 8.08 cm, 11.96 cm) at different stages of crop growth (30, 60 and 90 DAT), neck diameter (15.69 mm), bulb diameter (69.63 mm polar diameter and 69.33 mm equatorial diameter), fresh weight of bulbs per plant bulb (195.29g) yield (312.46 q/ha), number of scales (12.89), total soluble solids (11.5°Brix) and ascorbic acid (13.62 mg/100g) and B:C ratio (2.31) of onion.</p> 2022-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Seed Germination, Establishment and Growth of Different Adenium (Adenium arabicum) Hybrids under Prayagraj Agro-Climatic Conditions 2022-10-11T06:37:46+00:00 K. Geethika Urfi Fatmi <p>An experiment was carried out during October 2021 to April 2022 in naturally ventilated polyhouse, in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) having five different Adenium hybrids with four replications at Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh). Different Adenium hybrids used in this experiment were Ara Dok Dok, Mammoth, Snp, Kud Jung, Mkmk. From the present investigation it is concluded that hybrid Mammoth reported significantly better performance in all of the parameters like germination percentage (93.33%), seed vigour index (464), seedling height (5.05 cm), seed viability index (93.33), Germination speed index (0.36), survival percentage (93.33%), number of leaves per plant (11.17), estimated leaf area (3.69 cm<sup>2</sup>), taproot length (5.98 cm) which is found to be at par with&nbsp; Kud Jung in&nbsp; germination percentage (93.33%), seed viability (93.33%), survival percentage (93.33%). Hence, the hybrid Mammoth could be recommended for Prayagraj agro-climatic conditions.</p> 2022-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Physical and Functional Properties of Composite Flour from Finger Millet, Rice and Guar Gum 2022-10-11T06:37:47+00:00 Kunal Singh Genitha Immanuel <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and functional qualities of composite flour made from finger millet (<em>Eluesine coracana</em>), rice flour (<em>Oryza sativa</em>), and guar gum flour (<em>Cyamopsis tetragonoloba</em>). As physicochemical and functional parameters, the moisture content, ash content, fat content, protein content, swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, bulk density, foaming capacity, and oil absorption capacity were determined. 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of guar gum were combined with equal amounts of flour from finger millet and rice flour. The proximate, physicochemical, and functional features of composite flour were analysed. Moisture content, ash content, amount of fat, and protein isolate were 11.2-11.9%, 1.3-2.1%, 1.5-2.5%, and 6.8-23.5%, respectively. The composite flour moisture level was below 12%, which makes it suitable for storage. The swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, bulk density, foaming capacity, and oil absorption capacity were, respectively, 6.93 to 7.49 g/g, 106 to 364%, 0.815-0.815 gm/ml, 4.0 to 18.6%, and 113 to 119%. This work promotes for the promotion and use of ragi and rice flour in the production of pasta and bread in India, a country noted for its exclusive reliance on wheat flour. Ragi and rice flour can be found in most Indian super markets.</p> 2022-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Survey to Assess the Quality of Groundnut Seeds Sowed by the Farmers of Tiruvannamalai District of Tamil Nadu 2022-10-11T06:37:47+00:00 V. Paramasivam T. Eevera S. Venkatesan G. P. Chinnasamy <p>A drill-box survey was carried out during 2020 in three villages in Thurinjapuram and one village in Thandrampattu of the Tiruvannamalai district with the objective of determining the seed quality of groundnut sowed by local farmers. Ninety samples were collected, but 31 samples (34.44 %) were TMV-7, 58 samples (64.44 %) were TMV-13, and one sample was VRI-2. This indicated that TMV 13 is the primary variety being grown (Red kernal type). The Hollow-heart symptoms were a symptom that boron content of the soil is low, which is meant to reduce germination. The symptoms of hollow heart might be anywhere from 0% to 20%. The prevalence of hollow-heart symptoms was highest in Randam and Thenkarambalur villages. Furthermore, dark-plumule seeds were a smptom of calcium deficit in the soil, which is intended to reduce germination. In 90 samples, this symptom was reported by nearly all of the villagers, ranging from 0 to 20%. The importance of germination percentage in determining seed quality: only 53 samples (58.90%) were found to exceed the minimum necessary to seed certification of 70%. The percentage of diseased seeds in the samples ranged from 3-22.5 percent; the village of Vallivagai in Thurinjapuram Block had the highest infection rate. These findings imply that the quality of groundnut seed sown by farmers in Tamil Nadu's Tiruvannamalai area was excellent. However, farmers must be better knowledgeable about the importance and advantages of using high-quality certified seeds and must receive training in maintaining seed quality by using pre- and post-harvest methods to harvest high yields of the desired varieties.</p> 2022-09-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Plant Growth Regulators (IBA) and Soil Media on Success, Growth and Survival of Stem Cutting of Assam Lemon (Citrus lemon (L) Burm) 2022-10-11T06:37:47+00:00 . Lalhruaitluanga Vijay Bahadur V. M. Prasad Santosh Kumar <p>An investigation was carried out to study of the “ Effects of plant growth regulators (IBA) and soil media on success, growth and survival on rooting of stem cutting in Assam Lemon (<em>Citrus lemon (L) Burm</em>).” was successfully carried out in the year 2021-2022 in naturally polyhouse of experimental farm ,under (KVK),Central Agriculture University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram. The experiment was carried out using Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD) with replicated thrice. The cuttings were treated with five different doses of IBA and four different soil media and then planted in raised bed polyhouse. From the experiment, T5M2 (IBA 800ppm+Soil + Sand + vermicompost + Cocopeat (1:1:1:1)) was the best treatment in all the parameters for rooting of stem cutting in Assam lemon and over all the treatment gave the significant response in respect to all the parameters i.e. Date to first new leaf initiation (16.33), Number of leaf per plant (13.50), Plant height (21.43 cm), Shoot length (6.59 cm) , Stem diameter(2.37 cm) , Number of branches (6.08), Length of tap root (7.92 cm), Root spread (8.42 cm), Fresh weight of root (0.54 g), Dry weight of root(0.34 g), Survival percentage of cuttings (1.00), during the observation period in the foot hills of Mizoram.</p> 2022-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Field Efficacy of Some Insecticides and Neem Products against Tomato Fruit Borer [Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)] in Tomato 2022-10-11T06:37:47+00:00 Adunoori Jyothi Anoorag R. Tayde <p>The field trial was conducted at Central Research Farm, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttarpradesh during <em>Rabi, </em>2021-2022. The experiment was laid out in RBD (Randomized Block Design). Seven treatments were replicated thrice: Neem oil, NSKE (Neem Seed Kernal Extract) 2%, Flubendiamide 480 SG, Novaluron 10% EC, lndoxacarb 14.5% SC, Emamectin benzoate 5%SG, Spinosad 45% SC and untreated Control. The treatments were tested to compare their efficacy against <em>Helicoverpa armigera </em>and their influences on the yield of tomatoes. Out of all treatments lndoxacarb 14.5% SC, Spinosad 45% SC, Flubendiamide 480SG and Novaluron10% EC recorded the minimum fruit infestation by 10.24, 11.31, 12.21 and 13.21 percent respectively. The highest yield was noticed in lndoxacarb14.5% SC (212.5 q/ha), followed by Spinosad 45% SC (200 q/ha) and Flubendiamide 480 SC (187.5 q/h). The best and most economical treatment is lndoxacarb (1:8.75), followed by Spinosad (1:8.16), Flubendiamide (1:7.55), Novaluron (1:6.38), Emamectin benzoate (1:5.86), Neem oil (1:5.64), NSKE (1:4.63), as compared to control T0-control (1:4.25) having the lowest B: C ratio.</p> 2022-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Beauveria Bassiana, Neem Oil and Selected Insecticides on Population of Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) on Maize (Zea mays L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:47+00:00 Rakesh Girishgouda Patil Anoorag R. Tayde <p>A field trail was conducted at Crop Research Farm (CRF)&nbsp; SHUATS Naini, Prayagraj, during kharif 2021 in Randomized block design with seven treatments <em>viz</em>, Imidacloprid 17.8% SL Thiodicarb75%WP,Spinosad 45% SC, Emamectin benzoate 5% SG, Neem oil, <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> 1x10<sup>8</sup> CFU/ml, Thiamethoxam 12.6% + Lambda cyhalothrin 9.5% ZC&nbsp; and untreated control in three replication. Data were taken on fall armyworm population. The larval population of fall armyworm <em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em> (J.E.Smith) on three, seven and fourteen days after spraying revealed that the treatment Emamectin benzoate 5% SG (5.15) proved to be the most effective treatment followed by Thiodicarb75%WP (6.44), Thiamethoxam 12.6% + Lambda cyhalothrin 9.5% ZC (7.41), Spinosad 45% SC (8.23), Imidacloprid 17.8%SL (8.79), whereas Neem oil 3% (10.24)&nbsp; and <em>B. bassiana</em> 1x10<sup>8</sup> CFU/ml (10.93) were of&nbsp; least effective against <em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em>. Plot treated with Emamectin benzoate 5% SG showed highest yield (35.31q/ha), followed by Thiodicarb75% WP (34.21q/ha), Thiamethoxam 12.6% + Lambda cyhalothrin 9.5% ZC (32.58q/ha), Spinosad 45% SC (32.08q/ha), Imidacloprid 17.8% SL (31.21qt/ha), Neem oil 3% (29.63q/ha) and<em> B.bassiana</em> 1x10<sup>8</sup> CFU/ml (28.02), as compared to control (22.44q/ha).</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Field Control of Maize Borers Using Aqueous Seed Extracts of Thevetia Peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum 2022-10-11T06:37:48+00:00 Serge Bertrand Mboussi Abdou Nourou Kone Nsangou Alain Heu Marlyse Zita Mboudou Belibi Patrice Ngatsi Zemko Jules Patrice Ngoh Dooh Zachée Ambang <p><strong>Aims:</strong> In order to find an alternative to chemical control, the insecticidal potential of aqueous extracts of <em>Thevetia peruviana</em> seeds formulated at 16.66 g/l were tested in the field on the maize stalk borer species.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; The factorial design in subdivided plots or "split-plot" with four replicates and two factors studies was used on an area of 250 m<sup>2</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The experiment was carried out in a field located in the city of Yaounde, Cameroon where cassava was grown beforehand, between July and October 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The extracts at 250 g per 15 l of water were tested against a synthetic insecticide Cypercal at 37.5 ml per 5 l of water and an absolute control (untreated) in a four replicate split-plot device. Two maize varieties (V1: CMS 8704; V2: local) and three treatments (T1: control; T2: <em>T. peruviana</em> seed extract; T3: Cypercal 12 EC) were used. The aqueous extract of <em>T. peruviana</em> was applied by spraying on stems, leaves and leaf cones from 5th to 9th weeks after sowing (SAS). Data were recorded on growth parameters, stem borer density, and maize grain yield.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results show that the application of the treatments resulted in a good development of the growth parameters in the two maize varieties used. Two species of borer <em>Busseola fusca</em> and <em>Sesamia calamistis</em> belonging to the order Lepidoptera were identified. The density of maize stalk borers was significantly reduced (T2: 3 borers) in the subplots treated with aqueous extracts compared to the control (T1: 10 borers). Treatment T2 (2.05 t/ha) gave higher grain yield than the control (1.41 t/ha).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The aqueous extracts of <em>T. peruviana</em> seeds having thus shown a strong insect repellent potential in the field can therefore be integrated into the framework of biological control that protects the environment and human health.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Variability and Character Association Studies for Yield and Yield Traits in French Marigold (Tagetes Patula L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:48+00:00 Amanjeet Singh Sodhi Nomita Laishram Arvinder Singh R. K. Pandey <p>Twelve growth and flowering traits to study their genetic variability, correlation and path coefficients from twenty-five genotypes of French marigold (<em>Tagetes patula </em>L.) were evaluated in the growing season 2016/17. The analysis of variance for all the traits showed significant differences among genotypes for all the growing plants and flowering traits. The range in mean performance was observed for plant height (34.33-94.33 cm), plant spread (31.33-73.43 cm), number of flowers per plant (53.33-104.67), carotenoid content (19.43-74.57 mg/100 g), days to 50% of flowering (49.43-82.40 days) and flower yield per plant (142.56 g - 526.15 g). The phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) were higher than the corresponding genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) for all the characters. High heritability coupled with high genetic gain was observed for flower yield per plant, days to 50% of flowering and plant height. Flower yield per plant had a positive and highly significant correlation both at genotypic and phenotypic levels with the number of flowers per plant, fresh weight of flower, plant height and shelf life. Path coefficient analysis revealed that traits like number of flowers per plant, fresh weight of flowers, plant height, number of primary branches per plant and the lifespan of flowering had positive effects on flower yield per plant. Hence, selection for these traits would be effective for flower yield in French marigold.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A New Record to Rust Fungi of South Western Province Kandahar, Afghanistan 2022-10-11T06:37:48+00:00 Hayatullah Ahmadi L. I. Changtian Qudratullah Ehsan <p>A rust fungus occurring on <em>Centaurea iberica </em>leaves from Arghandab district, southwestern province Kandahar Afghanistan is described and illustrated. A critical morphological and microscopical examination revealed it to be <em>Puccinia calcitrapae</em>. After conducting a literature survey, it was found that this fungus is the first record to be reported from southwestern province Kandahar. A detailed taxonomic description of this fungus along with its distribution is provided. Weeds cause serious problems in agriculture in Afghanistan especially in southwestern province Kandahar. These plants reduce yield and the quality of crops by competing for water, nutrients and sunlight. The improper or excessive usage of herbicides has led to development of resistance in some weed species while contaminating the environment; therefore, biological control has an increasing role as an alternative method for controlling special weed. Previous studies in other countries revealed that this rust fungus are good biological control agents for these weeds.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetical Contributions and Combining Ability Analysis in Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:48+00:00 D. R. Bhardwaj Akhilesh Kumar Singh <p>The present study was undertaken to estimate the general and specific combining ability in 10 x 10 diallel set of crosses (excluding reciprocals) in bitter gourd to get 45 hybrids using 10 parents (DVBTG-1, VRBT-94, VRBT-39, VRBT-41, VRBT-49, VRBT-50, VRBT-103, VRBT-63, VRBT-32 and VRBT-6). These 45 F<sub>1</sub> along with 10 parents were evaluated in Randomized Block Design with three replications considering 10 characters (days to first male flower anthesis, days to first female flower anthesis, days to first harvest, number of branches/plant, plant height, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of fruits/plant, fruit weight and fruit yield/plant) in bitter gourd. Analysis of variance due to treatment was highly significant for all the traits. The combining ability analysis revealed highly significant differences among the treatments for all the parameters studied. The variances due to sca were higher than the gca for all the characters indicating the predominance of non-additive gene effects. Out of 10 parents’ four parents DVBTG-1, VRBT-49, VRBT-103 and VRBT-32 exhibited significant and&nbsp;&nbsp; negative g.c.a effects for early female flowering and days to first harvest. Similarly, positive and significant g.c.a effects were shown by DVBTG-1, VRBT-50, VRBT-49, VRBT-103 and VRBT-6 for number of fruits/plant. DVBTG-1 and VRBT-49 showed negative gca effects for the characters except days to 1<sup>st</sup> harvesting. How VRBT-49 was identified as one of the best general combiners. The cross combinations VRBT-94 x VRBT-32, DVBTG-1 x VRBT-50, VRBT-49 x VRBT-103, VRBT-49 x VRBT-32, VRBT-94 x VRBT-32 and VRBT-41 x VRBT-103 exhibited positive and significant s.c.a effects for first female flower anthesis and days to first harvest. The finding of experiments confirmed the potentiality of DVBTG-1 x VRBT-6, VRBT-94 x VRBT-103, VRBT-41 x VRBT-6, VRBT-94 x VRBT-49, VRBT-39 x VRBT-49 and VRBT-94 x VRBT-39 combination based hybrids for yield/plant. The results of this study also suggest that for improvement of a desirable character, the selected parental line should be of high gca value and their F<sub>1</sub>s should express high specific combining ability. Significant estimates of additive component (d) along with significance of additive x additive (i) gene interaction-with positive sign pod yield per plant which indicated the presence of increase alleles and associated pair of genes.</p> 2022-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Chemical Weed Management Practices on Yield, Nutrient Uptake and Balance in Soil of High Density Planting Cotton in Deep Vertisols 2022-10-11T06:37:48+00:00 Kamble Anand Shankar A. S. Channabasavanna M. Y. Ajayakumar B. G. Koppalkar <p>In order to assess Clomazone 50 EC's effectiveness on seed cotton yield, nutrient uptake, and balance in HDPS cotton in deep Vertisols of the Northern Karnataka region, a field experiment was carried out in 2017–18 and 2018–19. The recommended course of treatment includes pre-emergence applications of Clomazone 50 EC at 250, 500, and 750 g a.i./ha compared to pendimethalin 37.5 CS@680 g a.i./ha, post-emergence applications of pyrithiobac sodium 10 EC and quizalofop ethyl hand weeding at 25 DAS and intercultivation at 50 and 75 days after sowing, as well as weed free. The experiment was set up using a randomised block design with triple replication. The application of Clomazone 50 EC @ 250 g a.i./ha was found to be effective in weed control and enhanced seed cotton yield (38.5%), according to the results. It led to excellent weed control, decreased nitrogen uptake by weeds, and increased nutrient uptake by the crop. Additionally, it leads to the least amount of nutrient losses in terms of uptake and losses. In order to effectively manage weeds in cotton, it was observed that Clomazone 50 EC @ 250 g a.i/ha, followed by pyrithiobac sodium 10 EC @ 75 g a.i./ha + Quizalofop ethyl 5 EC @ 75 g a.i./ha at 25 DAS, were the best applications.</p> 2022-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Jaggery Yield and Nutritional Quality as Influenced by Sugarcane Varieties Suitable for Andhra Pradesh 2022-10-11T06:37:49+00:00 B. Vajantha K. R. Tagore N. V. Sarala T. M. Hemalatha M. Hemanth Kumar <p>Jaggery is produced from sugarcane in addition to sugar. It plays a great role in rural economy of India. However, till date the jaggery producers are dependent on the sugarcane varieties which are released for those areas. The major factor that governing the consumer preference and marketing of jaggery is its external appearances i.e., colour, texture and storability which in turn depend on sugarcane varieties having high sucrose content, purity and low colloids. Hence this study was taken up to identify suitable sugarcane varieties for high yield and good quality jaggery.&nbsp;A study was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Perumallapalle, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh, India to identify the sugarcane varieties most suitable for quality jaggery production. Ten promising sugarcane varieties were planted in randomized block design with three replications. All cultivation practices had followed equally for all varieties. The sugarcane varieties were harvested at proper maturity, crushed to extract juice and prepared jaggery. The jaggery was evaluated qualitatively for pH, EC, reducing sugars, ash content, sucrose, moisture, micronutrients <em>viz</em>., Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and calculated net rendement value (NRV). The jaggery was found to have 70.6 to 86.9% sucrose, 5.12 to 6.80% of reducing sugars, 3.52 to 4.32% of ash, 5.0 to 6.1% of moisture, 9.58 to 11.20 % of recovery, 49.85 to 67.70 of NRV values, 98.6 to 114.1 kg jaggery t<sup>-1</sup> of sugarcane. The jaggery prepared from 2012 T 115 had recorded significantly the highest jaggery yield (114.1 kg t<sup>-1</sup> of cane), high recovery percent (11.20%) and high NRV (67.70) than other varieties. The varieties <em>viz.</em>, 2012 T 183, 2012 T 88 and 2012 T 53 were produced Grade 1 jaggery with high NRV as per Indian standards. The variety 2012 T 115 had higher Fe and Mn (12.15 and 0.38 mg of Fe and Mn/ 100g of jaggery, respectively).</p> 2022-10-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Non-Chemical Weed Management Approaches on Yield and Nutrient Uptake in High Density Planting of Cotton in Vertisol of Northern Karnataka 2022-10-11T06:37:49+00:00 Kamble Anand Shankar A. S. Channabasavanna <p>In order to investigate the impact of non-chemical eco-friendly weed management strategies on the yield, nutrient uptake, and soil balance of high density planting cotton in deep vertisols, a field experiment was carried out in 2017 and 2018 at the Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, UAS, Raichur. Three replications were used in the experiment's Randomized Completely Block Design layout. There were 14 different interventions used, including polythene mulch, paddy straw mulch, cotton stalk mulch, intercropping with green manures at a 1:1 ratio (sunnhemp and cowpea), four different botanical extracts at 20% as PE (Eucalyptus sp.,&nbsp; Prosopis juliflora extract, Cassia tora, and Parthenium hysterophorus), mechanical, cultural, and their combination, in comparison to weed-free check. Three replicated randomised complete block design was used to conduct the experiment. The two years pooled data showed that, compared to the other treatments, weed free check had a significantly higher seed cotton production (1,722 kg /ha). It was then followed by Cotton + Sunnhemp (1:1) in-situ mulching at 45 DAS (1299 kg /ha), pendimethalin 38.7 CS @ 680 g a.i./ha as PE fb pyrithiobac sodium 10 EC 75 g a.i./ha + quizolofop ethyl 37.5 g a.i./ha at 25 DAS as PoE (1274 kg /ha), The environmentally friendly treatments, such as cotton + sunnhemp (1:1) and in-situ mulching at 45 DAS, mulching with black polythene sheet, cotton + cowpea (1:1) and in-situ mulching at 45 DAS, and others, were on par with weed free check and may be suggested since they were the best options.</p> 2022-10-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Different Spacing and Organic Manure on the Yield and Economics of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:49+00:00 Vaishnavi Ganesh Jaiswal Sanchay Shrivastava Yuvraj Gavali Ambarish Thaokar Kevin Gawali <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The trail was taken to find out the influence of different spacing and organic manure on the yield and economics of the groundnut (<em>Arachis hypogea </em>L.)</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Factorial randomized block design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The experiment was taken during the kharif season of 2021 at G.H. Raisoni University at Agronomy farm, Chhindwara, M.P.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The set of nine treatment combination consist of three different spacing and three different OM which is applied at 12 kg/ha of FYM,&nbsp; at 6 kg/ha VC and at 6 kg/ha of PM. The experiment was carried out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replication and the treatment combination is T<sub>1</sub>: S<sub>1</sub>O<sub>1 </sub>(30 cm x 10 cm + FYM), T<sub>2</sub>: S<sub>1</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>(30 cm x 10 cm + VC), T<sub>3</sub>: S<sub>1</sub>O<sub>3&nbsp; </sub>(30 cm x 10 cm + PM), T<sub>4</sub>: S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>1</sub> (30 cm x 15 cm + FYM), T<sub>5</sub>: S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> (30 cm x 15&nbsp; cm +VC), T<sub>6</sub>: S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (30 cm x 15 cm + PM), T<sub>7</sub>: S<sub>3</sub>O<sub>1</sub> (45 cm x 10 cm + FYM), T<sub>8</sub>: S<sub>3</sub>O<sub>2</sub> (45 cm x 10 cm + VC) and T<sub>9</sub>: S<sub>3</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>(45 cm x 10 cm + PM) and total number of plots is 27. At the time of experiment, the maximum mean of temperature was 41.6<sup>0</sup>C whereas the minimum mean temperature was 5.68<sup>0</sup>C. The economics of groundnut crop was calculated as per the fundamental market prices of the input and produced during the kharif season 2021.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Maximum no. of pods/plant (30.67), length of pod (2.72), no. of kernels/pod (2.07), seed index (43.22 g), shelling percentage (74.76 %), pod weight/plant (18.66 g), pod yield/plot (1.53 kg), pod yield (63.01 kg/ha), kernel yield (23.45 kg/ha), haulm yield (39.56 kg/ha) and harvest index (24.07 %) were recorded with T<sub>3</sub>–30 cm x 10 cm with Poultry manure at 30, 60 and 90 DAS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on this experiment, it was said that with spacing 30cm x 10cm in combination with poultry manure gives the maximum and significantly higher kernel yield (23.45 kg/ha), gross return Rs.1,72,022.00/ha) as well as highest net return Rs.99,367.00)/ha).</p> 2022-10-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Character Association and Path Coefficient Analysis in Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Grain Yield and Quality Characters 2022-10-11T06:37:49+00:00 Jalla Rajasekhar G. R. Lavanya Gattikoppula Purushotham D. Praveen Kumar <p>The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate Twenty Five Upland Rice genotypes. There are various aspects to move up rice yield, such as creating of irrigation work, development of rice ecosystems, soil conditions, traditional practices, and breeding of high yielding genotypes. Among them, it seems that the most effective and economic way available is to develop different rice ecosystems especially Upland Rice Genotypes. High to moderate phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation were observed for number of panicles per hill and number of tillers per hill. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for number of panicles per hill, number of tillers per hill, grain yield per hill, test weight and flag leaf length, indicating that these traits are most probably under the control of additive gene action and hence these traits can be fixed by proper selection<strong>.</strong>Days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of panicles per hill, flag leaf width, spikelets per panicle, days to maturity, biological yield per hill, harvest index and test weight, exhibited positive significant correlation with grain yield per hill at both genotypic and phenotypic levels, indicating selection based on these traits could be more effective to maximize grain yield. Days to 50% flowering, biological yield per hill and harvest index had positive direct effect on grain yield per hill. Therefore, selection program should be based on these traits for crop improvement with high yielding genotypes in Upland rice.</p> 2022-10-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Paddy Residue and Nutrient Management Approaches on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake by Paddy in Paddy-Paddy Cropping System 2022-10-11T06:37:49+00:00 Uppalige Shwethakumari M. V. Ravi K. Narayana Rao B. Manjunatha M. R. Umesh M. N. Nagaraj <p>An investigation on the efficacy of paddy residue and nutrient management approaches on growth, yield and nutrient uptake by paddy was conducted during <em>kharif </em>and <em>rabi-summer </em>seasons of 2019-20 and 2020-21 at Gabbur village, Raichur, Karnataka, India. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications, which consisted of four residue management in main plots and five nutrient management approaches in sub plots. The treatment with residue incorporation + compost culture gave significantly taller plants (84.40 and 84.53 cm), higher number of tillers hill<sup>-1 </sup>(20.06 and 20.09), grain yield (65.37 &amp; 65.34 q ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (80.01 &amp; 80.04 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) and total N, P, K, S, Zn &amp; Fe uptake over residue incorporation alone, residue burning and residue removal. Similarly, application of nutrients through SSNM targeted yield of 80 q ha<sup>-1</sup> gave significantly higher plant height (90.51 and 90.50 cm), higher number of tillers hill<sup>-1 </sup>(23.02 and 22.95), grain yield (75.19 &amp; 75.26q ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (92.17 &amp; 92.14 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) and total N, P, K, S, Zn &amp; Fe uptake followed by STCR targeted yield of 80 q ha<sup>-1 </sup>&gt; STL method &gt; recommended NPK &gt; absolute control. Interaction effect showed that, residue incorporation + compost culture with SSNM targeted yield of 80 q ha<sup>-1 </sup>recorded significantly higher plant height (95.95 and 96.13), number of tillers hill<sup>-1</sup>(25.50 and 25.56), grain yield (77.25 and 77.45 q ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (94.83 and95.32 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) and nutrient uptake by paddy over other combinations.</p> 2022-10-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Variety Megha Turmeric-1 in Various Districts of Assam 2022-10-11T06:37:50+00:00 Shourov Dutta Bhaskar Baruah Lipika Nath Sukanya Gogoi Sudeshna Baruah Subhashree Dihingia Angana Sarmah Manoranjan Neog Prasanna Kumar Pathak <p><strong>Aim: </strong>An experiment was conducted in the farmers’ field of various locations representing four agro climatic zones of Assam to assess the performance of Turmeric variety Megha Turmeric-1.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of the Study:</strong> The study was conducted by the Krishi Vigyan Kendras of Karbi Anglong, Udalguri, Barpeta, Darrang, Dibrugarh, Sivasagar and Sonitpur under Assam Agricultural University.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study revealed that the plant was 175.24 cm tall with 10 numbers of leaves on main shoot. Additionally, the leaf lamina length and width were found to be 54.08 cm and 15.18 cm respectively from the study. The leaf disposition was erect with distant venation and wavy leaf margin. Moreover, the rhizomes were found to have distant inter nodal pattern along with tertiary rhizomes. The crop recorded higher yield 249.63 quintal per hectare against the local varieties in all the locations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>From the study, it can be inferred that the farmers may adoptMegha Turmeric-1 over their local varieties for better yield and returns.</p> 2022-10-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Nutrient Optimization through Organic and Inorganic Resources on Yield, Uptake, and Soil Properties in a Rice-wheat Cropping System 2022-10-11T06:37:50+00:00 Ravindra Kumar Sanjeev Sharma Devendra Singh Hanuman Prasad Pandey <p>A field experiment was&nbsp;conducted&nbsp;during 2017-18 to 2019-20&nbsp;on&nbsp;a fixed layout in sodic soil at Fertilizers Research Farm, Uttaripura in the jurisdiction of C. S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur using high yielding variety of rice NDR-359 and wheat PBW-343. The maximum grain,&nbsp;straw, and&nbsp;biological yield of rice were noted as 44.75, 55.93, and 99.68 q ha-1, and wheat 46.25, 56.42 and 99.97 q ha-1 with the application of 75% NPK+ two spray of 0.25% of Sagarika +25 kg/ha Sagarika granules +two&nbsp;spray&nbsp;of 2% of WSF (18:18:18), The maximum uptake of NPK in grain and straw of both rice and wheat crop with the application of 75% NPK + two&nbsp;sprays&nbsp;of 0.25% of Sagarika +25 kg/ha Sagarika granules +two spray of 2% of WSF (18:18:18) followed by75% NPK+ two&nbsp;spray of 0.25% of Sagarika +25 kg/ha Sagarika and minimum uptake of NPK in grain and straw with the application of 75% NPK. The basal application of&nbsp;Sagarika&nbsp;@ 25 kg ha&nbsp;was found&nbsp;superior&nbsp;to the&nbsp;foliar spray of&nbsp;Sagarika.&nbsp;The change in pH, EC, OC, available N, P, K, S, Zn,&nbsp;and Br&nbsp;ranged&nbsp;from 7.2 to 7.5, 0.32 to 0.34&nbsp;DSM-1, 0.39 to 0.41%, 191 to 195, 15.7 to 16.8, 173.4 to 178.5, 19.4 to 19.8, 11.2 to 11.5 and 0.73 to 0.77 kg ha-1 respectively with the application of different treatments while not remarkable changes from initial values of soil properties. Application of 10 t/ha FYM&nbsp;was&nbsp;found better&nbsp;than&nbsp;other treatments during the study period.</p> 2022-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Standardization of Different Pre-sowing Seed Treatments with Jeevamrutha, Panchagavya, Neem Oil and Vermiwash on Plant Growth Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Var. SSC-06 2022-10-11T06:37:50+00:00 Battu Samatha Prashanth Kumar Rai <p>The field experiment was carried out at Field Experimentation Center, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (UP.) during <em>Kharif</em>-2021. This experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with 13 treatments and replicated thrice to determine the effect of Jeevamrutha, Panchgavya, Neem oil and Vermiwash on growth, yield and yield attributing traits. The seeds of Cowpea variety Var. SSC-06 was treated as T<sub>0</sub>-control, T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3,</sub> (Jeevamrutha @ 1%, 3%, 5%), T<sub>4</sub>, T<sub>5</sub>, T<sub>6,</sub> (Panchagavya @ 1%, 3%, 5%), T<sub>7</sub>, T<sub>8</sub>, T<sub>9,</sub> (Neem oil @ 1%, 3%, 5%), T<sub>10</sub>, T<sub>11</sub>, T<sub>12,</sub> (Vermiwash @ 1%, 3%, 5%) respectively for 12 hours. It was found that ANOVA showed significance difference among all the treatments with the control for all the characters under study. Among all the treatments of present study, T<sub>5 </sub>(Panchagavya @ 3% for 12 hours) was found more effective for Rate of field emergence (24.89), Plant height at 30 DAS (38.66), Plant height at 60 DAS (55.81), Plant height at 90 DAS (94.96), Days to 50% flowering (40.66), Days to maturity (58.66), Number of branches per plant (7.93), Number of pods per plant (19.4), Pod length (42.97 cm), Number of seeds per pod (13.73), Seed yield per plant (39.78), Seed yield per plot (835.56), Biological Yield (1775), Seed index (14.3) and Harvest index (47.03). Thus, treatment T<sub>5 </sub>(Panchagavya @ 3% for 12 hours) was found to be suitable pre-sowing seed treatment for growth, yield and yielding attributes of cowpea seeds.</p> 2022-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Efficacy of Selected Chemicals and Biopesticides against Fall Army Worm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Maize (Zea mays L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:50+00:00 M. Ramesh Anoorag R. Tayde <p>A field trail was conducted at Cental Research Farm, SHUATS, Naini, Prayagraj, U.P. during <em>kharif </em>season of 2021 in Randomised Block Design with eight treatments were evaluated against, <em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em> i.e., Spinetoram 11.7%SC @0.9ml/lit, Chlorantraniliprole 18.5%SC @0.4ml/lit, Flubendiamide 39.35%SC @0.24ml/lit, Emamectin benzoate 5%SG @0.4g/lit, Neem oil 2% @5mi/lit, NPV @0.5ml/lit, Novaluron 10%EC @1ml/lit and control plot. First and second spray were carried with 15 days interval, the results revealed that, among the different treatments Spinetoram 11.7%SC, (4.93) was most effective treatment over the control followed by Chlorantraniliprole 18.5%SC (6.24), Flubendiamide 39.35% SC (6.42), Emamectin benzoate 5%SG (6.90), Novaluron 10%EC (8.13), NPV (8.28) and Neem oil 2% (8.37). Spinetoram 11.7%SC showing a highest yield of (41.10q/ha) against the control yielding up to (22.31q/ha) at the same time&nbsp; among the treatments studied, the best and most economical treatment was Spinetoram 11.7%SC (1:1.79), followed by Chlorantraniliprole 18.5%SC (1:1.78), Flubendiamide 39.35%SC (1:1.77), Emamectin benzoate 5%SG (1:1.74), Novaluron 10%EC (1:1.68), NPV (1:1.60) and Neem oil 2% (1:1.44) when compared to control plot (1:1.25).</p> 2022-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Genotypes X Environment Interaction of Black Gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) Using Multivariate Analysis 2022-10-11T06:37:50+00:00 K. V. Patel D. J. Parmar H. R. Adsul Vikas Pali A. Y. Makani H. C. Parmar <p>Twenty black gram genotypes were evaluated at five different locations of middle Gujarat in <em>kharif</em> 2016 to assess the genotype x environmental interactions in RBD design with two replications. The data were analyzed according to the AMMI model and AMMI based stability measures (ASV W<sub>i(AMMI) </sub>and ASTAB<sub>i</sub>). Analysis of variance on the data pooled over locations and G x E interaction was found significant indicated genotypes performed differently in different locations. IPCA1 and IPCA2 were found significant in AMMI model and both combined accounted for by 78.7% variance of GEI. Environments viz., Devgadhbaria, Derol and Dahod were found high yielding environments whereas Vadodara and Jabugam were low yielding environments. Genotypes G3, G18, G16 and G10 gave high yield in environment E3, E1 &amp; E4, E5 and E2, respectively as they were vertex genotypes in polygon of AMMI2. According to AMMI model, ASV, W<sub>i(AMMI)</sub> and ASTABi, G19 was found stable and high yielding genotype, whereas G16 was unstable genotypes.</p> 2022-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Micronutrients (Boron and Zinc) on Uptake and Availability of Nutrients 2022-10-11T06:37:51+00:00 Tariq A. Bhat Janeesa Nabi A. M. Rather F. Mushtaq M. A. Chattoo M. Mushtaq Majid Rashid <p>An experiment was carried out SKUAST –K in two consecutive years (2016 and 2017) to study the effect of zinc and boron and their interaction on nutrient uptake in onion on nutrient uptake and soil properties of onion. In the experiment it was observed that sole zinc and boron levels, Z<sub>3</sub> (7.500 kg Zn ha<sup>-1</sup>) and B<sub>3</sub> (1.500 kg B ha<sup>-1</sup>) application proved superior in enhancing the uptake of all nutrients but exhibited lowest value in case of phosphorus uptake. It was further observed that interaction of zinc and boron proved superior to their sole applications in increasing uptake of nutrients. Treatment combination Z<sub>3</sub>B<sub>3</sub> (7.500 kg Zn + 1.500 kg B ha<sup>-1</sup>) recorded significantly maximum value for uptake of nitrogen (113.93 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), potassium (67.17 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), boron (125.58 g ha<sup>-1</sup>) and zinc (184.01 g ha<sup>-1</sup>) but exhibited lowest value in case of phosphorus uptake. Sole application of zinc and boron and their combination exhibited a non-significant influence on soil pH, electric conductivity, organic carbon (%) and organic matter (%). Application of zinc (7.500 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and boron (1.500 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) improved the availability of all nutrients except of phosphorus availability. Interactions of zinc and boron, proved synergistic in augmenting available nutrients except for phosphorus availability.</p> 2022-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Variation in Root Nutrient Content in Different Field Pea Germplasms Infected with Root Knot Nematode 2022-10-11T06:37:51+00:00 Sujit Kumar Behera Anukiran Sahu Dhirendra Kumar Nayak Abhiram Dash <p>This study was conducted in the Department of Nematology, College of Agriculture, OUAT. The experiment was designed using completely randomized completely randomized design (CRD) with different combinations of root knot nematode (<em>Meloidogyne incognita</em>) and leguminosarum strain of rhizobium in the three field pea germplasms, which are resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible against the root knot nematode infection. Different combination of interaction between root knot nematode and rhizobium affect the nutrient content likely nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake of the roots of field pea germplasms. Different combination of interaction between root knot nematode and rhizobium shows the decreased trend of nutrient uptake than that of only rhizobium treated plants</p> 2022-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Variability, Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper): Experimental Investigation 2022-10-11T06:37:51+00:00 Lalam Gangadhar Gaibriyal M. Lal G. Roopa Lavanya U. Karthik K. Varaprasad <p>The goal of the current study was to calculate the genotypic correlation and genetic variability for 13 quantitative traits among 25 black-gram genotypes. The genotypes PLU-429 and PL-416 had a high seed yield. High PCV and GCV values were found for the traits biological yield per plant, harvest index, number of primary branches per plant, and number of pods per plant. The parameters of number of major branches per plant, number of pods per plant, biological yield per plant, and harvest index were found to have high heritability along with high GAM. According to association studies, there was a significant and positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficient for the variables like principal branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per plant, and harvest index. According to a path analysis, primary branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per plant, and harvest index both at the genotypic and phenotypic levels all contributed significantly to the highest positive direct effect. In order to improve black-gram, it would therefore be more fruitful to select the aforementioned attributes simultaneously.</p> 2022-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Wheat Genotypes under Low Irrigation Conditions Using Agro-physiological Traits and Grain Quality in North Delta of Egypt 2022-10-11T06:37:51+00:00 El-Hawary, M. N. A. Rania A. Khedr Nagwa E. Shalaby Eman M. A. Hussein <p>Water scarcity in Egypt and globally makes producing new varieties having high grain yield using less water requirements is an important goal for wheat breeders. The present research was conducted to assess the response of sixteen bread wheat genotypes under normal irrigation (five irrigations) and low irrigation (one irrigation, 25 days, after sowing irrigation.) during 2018/19 and 2020/21 seasons at the Experimental Farm of Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Egypt. A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used for each irrigation treatment separately. Results showed that the normal irrigation treatment had considerably higher mean values for all studied traits except, proline, malondialdehyde, activity of peroxidase and catalase enzymes,1000-kernel weight, protein content, wet and dry gluten which had significantly higher mean values under low irrigation treatment. Under low irrigation conditions, the four genotypes Sakha 95, Line 4, Line 8 and Misr 3 superior other genotypes in grain yield with insignificant difference among them. Sakha 95 and Line 8 had the highest chlorophyll a and b, proline content, chlorophyll florescence, activity of both catalase and peroxidase enzymes. While, Line 4 had the highest activity of catalase and peroxidase, heaviest 1000-kernel weight and high content of crude protein. In addition to Misr 3 recorded the best values of both wet and dry gluten. It could be recommended with cultivation Sakha 95 or Misr 3 to achieve high grain yield with less irrigation water. While Line 8 and Line 4 need more evaluation to use it in the regions which suffering from water shortage also it will be benefit for breeder to use these genotypes in wheat breeding program.</p> 2022-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Screening of Soybean, Common Bean and Maize on Nickeliferous Soils from Mafic Rocks 2022-10-11T06:37:51+00:00 Odon Clément N’cho Gnamba Emmanuel Franck Gouedji Zié Ouattara Nkiruka Celestina Odoh Kanou Elvis Mahan <p>In this study, nickeliferous soils' effects on grain legume and cereal growth as well as their potential to accumulate nickel and related micronutrients were examined. A completely randomized block design with six repetitions was set up. Samples were collected from eight points and the experiment was conducted for six weeks at the University of Man. In order to fill a plastic container, eight soil samples were used. The soil humidity was controlled with SONKIR MS02 multimeter. Common bean (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em>), soybean (<em>Glycine max</em>), and maize (<em>Zea mays</em>) were the test plants. Each soil sample was air dried and sieved with a 2 μm mesh. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique was used to carry out a chemical analysis. Statistica 7.1 was used to conduct statistical analysis like the ANOVA and correlation test. At Moyango, the soil was developed on dunite. The soil had a colour varying from 7.5YR6/2 to 10YR5/6.). The dominant oxides found were Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, SiO<sub>2</sub>, and P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> with wt% &gt; 7. The soil Ni was negatively correlated with K, Ca and, V. The soils had significant effect on soybean, common bean, and maize growth. However, the negative effect was more on common bean. The lowest soybean plant’s heights were observed on plant grown on soil from the mining site. The soil had a significant effect on soybean Ni, V, Mn, and Co content.&nbsp;Soybean plant Ni contents were 9.20 and 7.31 wt%, respectively from plants grown on soils M1 and M2. The content of Ni in soil had significant effect on plant growth, specifically it has reduced the height of grain legumes. From the results observed, maize should be the one most suitable for cultivation in the vicinity of the Ni mining region of Foungouesso-Moyango. Further investigation is needed with more test plants to prevent population health.</p> 2022-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Moisture Conservation Practices, Seed Inoculation and Zinc Level on Growth and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:52+00:00 Kishan Kumar Ram Pyare V. K. Verma Ravindra Sachan Ram Niwas Ankit Yadav Ravikesh Kumar Pal Abhishek Raj Ranjan <p>A field experiment was conducted during the <em>Rabi </em>season of 2020-21 and 2021-22. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design with 27 treatment combination comprising of three moisture conservation practices <em>viz.</em> flat bed with 2.5 t/ha crop residue, narrow bed and furrow with 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> crop residue and broad bed and furrow with 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> crop residue in main plot and three seed inoculation <em>viz.</em> control, rhizobium and PSB in sub plot with three zinc level <em>viz</em>. control, 2.5 kg Zn ha<sup>-1</sup> and 5.0 kg Zn ha<sup>-1</sup> in sub-sub plot. Result shows that the broad bed and furrow with 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> crop residue produced significantly all growth parameters and yields attributes as compare to flat bed with 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> crop residue and narrow bed and furrow with 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> crop residue, respectively. The all growth parameters and yields attributes were significantly recorded higher under seed inoculation with rhizobium over PSB and control. The application of different dose of zinc produced marked significant variation in growth parameter and yield attributes when it increased up to 5.0 kg Zn ha<sup>-1</sup>. The highest yields were significantly receive in broad bed and furrow with 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> crop residue over narrow bed and furrow with 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> crop residue and flat bed with 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> crop residue, respectively with percent increment 16.33, 24.65, 11.47 and 7.16 in respect of biological yield, grain yield, stover yield and harvest index, respectively over control in pooled data. Seed inoculation with rhizobium produced significantly higher yields parameter over control and PSB with percent increment 5.37, 7.72, 3.84 and 2.34 in biological yield, grain yield, stover yield and harvest index, respectively over control. Application of 5.0 kg Zn ha<sup>-1</sup> were produced significantly higher yields with percent increment 6.24, 7.25, 5.56 and 1.01 over control in respect of biological yield, grain yield, stover yield and harvest index, respectively. Therefore, broad bed and furrow with 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> crop residue and rhizobium inoculation with dose of 5.0 kg Zn ha<sup>-1</sup> were significantly superior in respect to growth and yield attributes and yields of chickpea in present investigation.</p> 2022-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance in Soybean (Glysin max L.) Genotypes 2022-10-11T10:08:34+00:00 Krishna Tandekar . Rohit Khemlata Thakur <p>An experiment was conducted to study genetic variability, heritability, and genetic advance among 25 soybean genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for all the thirteen tarits. For most of the features, the discrepancies between phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (PCV and GCV) were small, indicating little environmental influence on their expression. For the number of pods/plant and the number of seeds/plant, high heritability and genetic advance with a high GCV were determined to be advantageous features for soybean improvement by phenotypic selection, with a high predicted genetic gain. The traits with higher heritability and GA value may indicate their variability and high selective value. Genetic variation is crucial to the effectiveness of yield improvement efforts since it is a major component in broadening gene pools in any particular crop population. As a result, the study's goals were to evaluate genetic variability.</p> 2022-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Soil Properties under Long Term Integrated Nutrient Management Using STCR-based Targeted Yield Equations under Rice-wheat Cropping System 2022-10-11T10:07:29+00:00 Pragya Kurmi Hitendra K. Rai Mahendra Anjna Nazmeen Khanam Bharti Parmar Rupesh Yadav <p>The experiment was carried out to assess the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on soil chemical properties under a nine year long experiment of AICRP on STCR initiated in <em>Kharif</em> 2008. The field experiment was laid out at research farm of JNKVV, Jabalpur after <em>Rabi</em> season of 2018-19. The study was framed in split plot design with four main treatments of nutrient management viz., T<sub>1</sub>-control; T<sub>2</sub>-GRD; T<sub>3</sub>- Soil test based NPK application for yield of 6.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup> for each crop, and T<sub>4</sub>- Soil test based NPK application for yield of 6.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup> for each crop + 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup> FYM and four soil depths as sub treatment from D<sub>1</sub>- 0-15 cm; D<sub>2</sub>- 15-30 cm; D<sub>3</sub>- 30-45 cm and D<sub>4</sub> – 45-60 cm replicated three times. The results shows significant influence of INM on soil organic carbon (SOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and CaCO<sub>3 </sub>content of soil. After nine years of chemical fertilizer applications on general recommended dose bases and soil test bases in combination with FYM reported no profound impact on soil pH, electrical conductivity.</p> 2022-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphological Characterization of Sixty Mango (Mangifera indica) Germplasm of Bangladesh 2022-10-11T10:05:58+00:00 Md. Mostafezur Rahman Md. Golam Rabbani Farid Ahmed Ashikur Rahman Md. Sorof Uddin Joydeb Gomasta <p>A study was conducted in the research field of Regional Horticulture Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Chapainawabganj to know the morphology of 60 germplasm of mango leaf, inflorescence, flower and fruits. A great morphometric variation was observed in the leaf. The inflorescences were pyramidal or conical in form except for Khudikhirsha, Narikeli and Himsagor which were cylindrical. The ratio of hermaphrodite and male flowers showed variation. Fruit characters like length, breadth, weight and colour were studied. The highest fruit weight and length were found in Fazli (760 g and 15.17 cm) and the lowest fruit weight was recorded in Modhuchoski (128.50 g). Variation in fruit colour was also recorded among the germplasm. The highest percentage of Total Soluble Solid (TSS) in the germplasm khodikhirsapat (24.33%) and the maximum stone weight (69.87g) was recorded in Fazli. The longest fruit length was observed in the germplasm of Ashwina (13.03 cm). The highest fruit breadth was observed in the germplasm Fazli (9.87 cm). The present investigation has established that the morphological characters can be used as a tool for the taxonomic discrimination of varieties of&nbsp;<em>Mangifera indica</em>.</p> 2022-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Foliar Application of Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) on Growth, Yield and Quality of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) Cv. Winter Dawn 2022-10-11T10:39:10+00:00 Aruna Kumari Bopparaju . Deepanshu Saket Mishra Vijay Bahadur <p>An experiment on strawberry (<em>Fragaria ananassa</em>) cv. winter dawn was conducted during December 2021 to April 2022, in Horticulture Research Farm of Horticulture Department, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P) India. The experiment was performed on strawberry variety of winter dawn. There are 16 treatments, <em>viz</em>., T<sub>0 </sub>(water spray),T<sub>1</sub>(Zn 0.2%+Fe 0.2%),T<sub>2 </sub>( Zn 0.4%+Fe 0.4%),T<sub>3</sub> ( Zn 0.6%+Fe 0.6%),T<sub>4</sub>(Zn 0.2%+Fe 0.4%),T<sub>5 </sub>(Zn 0.2%+Fe 0.6%)T<sub>6</sub>(Zn 0.4%+Fe 0.2%)T<sub>7 </sub>(Zn 0.4%+Fe 0.6%)T<sub>8</sub>(Zn 0.6%+Fe0.4%)T<sub>9</sub>(Zn 0.6%+Fe 0.2%) ,T<sub>10 </sub>(Zn 0.2%),T<sub>11</sub>(Zn 0<sub>.</sub>4%),T<sub>12</sub>(Zn 0.6%)<sub> ,</sub>T<sub>13</sub>(Fe 0.2%),T<sub>14 </sub>(Fe 0.4%),T<sub>15 </sub>(Fe 0.6%) replicated thrice in Randomized Block Design (RBD). The results of the present investigation, regarding the cultivation of strawberry with different concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) found as the best option for higher productivity whereas the treatment T<sub>3</sub> with concentration of Zn (0.6% )+ Fe (0.6%) showed the best result in terms of plant height at 30 days to transplanting&nbsp; (8.1 cm), 60 days to transplanting&nbsp; (15.4 cm) and 90 days to transplanting (22.1 cm), Number of leaves plant<sup>-1</sup> at 30 days to transplanting&nbsp; (7.3), 60 days to transplanting&nbsp; (21.3) and 90 days to transplanting&nbsp; (27.4), Plant Spread (27.2 cm), runner plant<sup>-1 </sup>(5.9), yield/ha (6.0 t), fruit length (4.3 cm), fruit weight (29.3 g), fruit diameter (3.4 cm), TSS (9.3<sup>o </sup>Brix),&nbsp; showed the best results in terms of vegetative growth, yield, quality.&nbsp; Hence the T<sub>3 </sub>Zn (0.6%) + Fe (0.6%) is best suited for the farmers in terms of growth, yield, quality and net returns.</p> 2022-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Extent of Adoption of Recommended Potato Production Technologies in Meghalaya 2022-10-12T08:52:08+00:00 Pynbianglang Kharumnuid L. Devarani R. J. Singh Ram Singh L. Hemochandra <p>Improved crop technologies have a critical role in increasing crop yield and farmers’ income. The present study was undertaken to analyze the adoption of recommended potato technologies in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. The study revealed that majority of farmers adopted recommended technologies like improved varieties, seed preparation, maintenance of spacing, FYM application, earthing up, weeding, planting and harvesting times. However, there was poor adoption of technologies like land preparation, quality seeds, seed tuber treatment, seed replacement rate and nutrient management. Poor adoption of these technologies may be the reason for the low potato yield in the study areas. The study also revealed that majority of farmers had a medium level of adoption. Therefore, farmers should be encouraged to adopt these technologies and extension activities like training, demonstrations, etc. should be provided to enhance their knowledge and skills.</p> 2022-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Organic Manures and Fish Amino Acid on Growth and Yield of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) 2022-10-12T11:15:14+00:00 Wilson I. Nissi Victor Debbarma <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>zaid </em>season of 2022 at an experimental field of the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology And Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India to determine the “Effect of organic manures and fish amino acid on growth and yield of foxtail millet (<em>Setaria italica </em>L.)”. The treatments consist of FYM 10t/ha, poultry manure 1.6t/ha, <em>vermicompost </em>1.6t/ha, foliar application of fish amino acid with 2%, 3%, 4% and control. The variety taken was SIA 3156. The experiment was carried out through a statistical design of Randomized Block Design with 10 treatments, replicated thrice. Report of the study indicate that, among different treatments application of poultry manure 1.6 t/ha and fish amino acid 3% produced significantly higher plant height (94.03 cm), higher plant dry weight (20.98 g), higher number of tillers/hill (5.27), higher crop growth rate (0.01367g/m<sup>2</sup>/day), higher leaf area index (0.066), higher number of spikes/plant (4.27), higher length of spike (16.14 cm), higher number of grains/spike (3081.20), higher test weight (3.71 g), higher grain yield (2.35 t/ha) and higher straw yield (5.53 t/ha).</p> 2022-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cultural, Molecular and Genetic Variability of Ustilaginoidea virens Causing Rice False Smut Disease 2022-10-12T11:25:23+00:00 Y. Chandra Sekhar A. Kamalakannan C. Gopalakrishnan S. Panneerselvam S. Rajesh P. Santhosh Ganapati <p>Rice false smut disease is caused by <em>Ustilaginoidea virens</em>, an ascomycetous fungi. Thirty isolates of <em>U. virens</em> showed well defined colonies on potato sucrose medium (PSA). The maximum colony diameter was found to be 85.68 mm with a growth rate of 2.85 mm in the UV23 isolate and the minimum colony diameter was found to be 10.14 mm with a growth rate of 0.33 mm, which was observed in the UV15 isolate. However, thirty isolates exhibit various cultural and morphological characteristics like colony color, growth pattern, elevation, and chlamydospore formation. In cluster analysis, two major groups (I) and (II) were formed. The first major group (I) contains UV15 isolates and the second major group (II) contains 29<em>UV </em>isolates. Furthermore, the division of group II includes subgroup IIa, which contains 22 isolates, and subgroup IIb, with 7 isolates. The PCR amplification was done with a species-specific primer which yielded products of 380 bp and 230 bp, respectively. The results of the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that cluster I contained 5 isolates and cluster II contained 28 isoates from China and Japan. The MAT1-1-1 primer yielded a product of 250 bp that contains 18 isolates. Whereas the MAT1-2-1 primer yielded a product of 220 bp with 12 isolates. The nucleotide divergence analysis results revealed 7 polymorphic sites (s), 10 mutations (<em>Eta</em>), 0.76515 nucleotide diversity (<em>k</em>) and -2.13885 for the tajimas test value. Likewise, haplotype analysis revealed 10 haplotype(h)groups, with a haplotype diversity (<em>hd</em>) of 0.4773. With 24 isolates, hap-1 was the most common. Similarly, clear nucleotide variation was observed between Indian and Chinese isolates as well as Japanese ones. The genetic similarity coefficient matrix revealed that thirty Indian isolates showed maximum similarity (0.9). whereas the UV32 isolate showed 0.6, the UV31 isolate exhibited 0.5, and the UVA33 isolate had 0.4,.These results indicate a genetic variability between the Indian <em>UV </em>isolates and the isolates from China.</p> 2022-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Date of Sowing on Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedling Blight Disease under Nursery Conditions 2022-10-13T12:40:30+00:00 Parasant Rajeshbhai Patoliya Kedar Nath <p><strong>Aims:</strong>&nbsp; The main objective of this study was to find appropriate suitable period for raising rice nurseries to summer cultivation for improved seed germination and reduced seedling mortality in nursery under South Gujarat conditions of India.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Large Plot Technique.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Regional Rice Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Vyara, Gujarat (Zone II, Agro ecological situation V), India during 2020-21.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Seeds of rice variety GNR-3 was sown in raised bed nursery at 10 days interval from 20 November, 2020 to 9 January, 2021 under open field condition. .Frequently light irrigation gave to maintained soil moisture. Per cent seed germination (%), seedling mortality, root and shoot length (cm) were recorded at 21 days after sowing (DAS) and 35 DAS.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> the present studied revealed that highest seed germination 62.83 per cent was observed in seeds was sown on 30<sup>th</sup> November. Whereas minimum seedling mortality 10.03 percent was recorded in seeds sown on 20<sup>th</sup> November, at 21 days after sowing (DAS).While, maximum seedling mortality, 39.93 per cent was recorded in seed sown on 9<sup>th</sup> January. Similarly, at 35 DAS, minimum seedling mortality 17.25 per cent was recorded in seeds sown on 20<sup>th</sup> November. Maximum seedling mortality (43.76%) was observed in seeds sown on 9<sup>th</sup> January. Maximum root length 11.30 cm was recorded in seeds sown on 9<sup>th</sup> January. Maximum shoot length 26.6 cm was observed in seeds sown on 30<sup>th</sup> November.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Highest per cent seed germination, minimum seedling mortality and good root and shoot growth were observed in rice nursery sown between 20-30 November.</p> 2022-10-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies on Antimicrobial Effect of Botanicals on Leaf Blight of Indian mustard Caused By Alternaria brassicae 2022-10-14T07:23:23+00:00 Anuj Kumar Shukla Siddarth N. Rahul Sushil Kumar Singh <p>The present study was conducted at ANDU&amp;T Kumarganj Ayodhya at student instructional form (SIF). As in the investigation it was observed that foliar spray with Carbendazim (0.1%), Neem oil (5%), followed by Neem leaf extract (5%) found to be more effective on growth parameters like Number of branches/plants, number of leaves/ plants, plant height (cm), number of pods/plants,) and increased the yield (1000-seed weight, per plant yield (g), per hectare yield) and also significantly reduced the Alternaria blight in Indian mustard. Carbendazim (0.1%), <em>Trichoderma harzianum </em>(2%) followed by garlic bulb extract (5%) was found most effective in reducing Alternaria blight, recorded maximum disease incidence <em>i.e.</em> percent Disease intensity, percent Leaf area disease (LAD), percent leaf infection, number of spots per pods, seed infection percent respectively.</p> 2022-10-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of Different Varieties of Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) to Sulphur Application on Growth and Yield in Gird Region of Madhya Pradesh, India 2022-10-14T13:18:33+00:00 Arman Kumar Nivedita Singh Jai Dev Sharma Veetarag Ladage . Vikrant Rohan Agnihotri Rahul Ranjan Kanhaiya Singh <p>In the rabi season of 2021–2022, a field experiment was set up at the Crop Research Centre–I, School of Agriculture, ITM University, Gwalior (M.P.) in a Randomised Block Design (factorial) with three replications. Twelve treatments were made up of three varieties HM Super 222, Bombay 76, and Lafar Kranti and four sulphur concentrations 0, 20, 40, and 60 kg S ha<sup>-1 </sup>to determine the ideal sulphur dosage and the ideal variety for increased output. On November 11, 2021, the experiment was planted in the CRC- I. At all of the periodic crop growth phases, with the exception of 30 DAS, there was a substantial increase in plant height, number of branches, total number of leaves, leaf area index, and dry matter accumulation from application of 0 to 60 kg S ha<sup>-1</sup>. At 60, 90 DAS and harvest, the higher values of growth parameters were recorded at the maximum amount of sulphur, or 60 kg S ha<sup>-1</sup> with the exception of 40 kg S ha<sup>-1</sup> where it was comparable to each other. Number of siliqua per plant, siliqua length, seed per siliqua, and seed yield were all significantly influenced by sulphur levels. The highest values were 60 kg S ha<sup>-1</sup>, which were comparable to 40 kg S ha<sup>-1</sup>. Among varieties, plant height, number of branches, total number of leaves, leaf area index, and dry matter accumulation of variety HM Super 222 were recorded significantly superior to variety Lafar Kranti and comparable to Bombay 76 at all growth stages except 30 days after sowing. Number of siliqua per plant, seed per siliqua and siliqua length of variety HM Super 222 were recorded significantly maximum to Lafar Kranti while comparable to Bombay 76. 1000 grain weight and harvest index were non-significant. Seed yield and stover yield were highest in variety HM Super 222. Economically the application of 40 kg S ha<sup>-1</sup> and HM Super 222 variety gave maximum net return and benefit cost (BC) ratio.</p> 2022-10-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Selected Chemical Insecticides against Shoot and Fruitborer [Earias vittella (Fabricius)] on Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] 2022-10-15T06:32:32+00:00 Vankadavath Anil Kumar Naik Anoorag R. Tayde Chandra Ashok Sakharam <p>A field trail was conducted at Central Research Farm (CRF), Naini, Prayagraj during <em>Kharif </em>from July to November 2021 in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Eight treatments were evaluated against <em>Earias vittella i.e</em>., Flubendiamide @480% SC, Indoxacarb @ 14.5% SC, Spinosad @ 45% SC, Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% EC, Neem oil @ 2%, Emamectin benzoate @ 5% SG, Cypermethrin @ 25% EC and untreated Control.Results revealed that, among the different treatments lowest per cent infestation of okra shoot and fruitborer was recorded in Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% EC (8.02%,5.15%). Emamectin benzoate 5% SG (9.26%, 6.75%) was found to be the next best treatment followed by Flubendiamide@480% SC (10.29%, 7.48%), Cypermethrin@25%EC (11.41%,9.24), Indoxacarb @14.5% SC (12.32%,10.00%), Spinosad @ 45% SC (13.13%, 11.53%) whereas Neem oil @ 2% (14.25%,12.70) was found to be least effective against this pest. Among the treatments,&nbsp; Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% EC gave the highest marketing yield and cost benefit ratio (188 q/ha and 1:8.41) followed by Emamectin benzoate 5% SG (176 q/ha and 1:8.41), Flubendiamide @ 480% SC (152q/ha and1:7.18), Cypermethrin @ 25% EC (135q/ha and1:6.22), Indoxacarb @ 14.5% SC (121.2q/ha and1:5.74), Spinosad @ 45% SC (114.6 q/ha and 1:5.29) and Neem oil @ 2% (102.4 q/ha and 1:4.80) as compared to control plot (87.2 q/ha and 1:4.2).</p> 2022-10-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Nano Chitosan and Bio Capsule on Growth, Yield and Quality of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) in Poly-House Condition 2022-10-15T11:59:01+00:00 Y. Pabitri Devi Samir E. Topno <p>A field experiment was designed in a Randomized Block Design with 9 treatments replicated thrice on Chilli (<em>Capsicum annuum</em> L.) under poly-house condition. The Experiment examined the effect of nano chitosan, bio capsule and NPK @RDF application on growth, yield and quality of chilli and to work out the economics of various treatments. Various treatment combinations were prepared using different doses of Nano chitosan and Bio capusles in combination. It was observed that the treatment T<sub>8</sub> (NPK + Nano chitosan 120 ppm + Bio capsule 120 ppm) was superior over other treatments in terms of growth, yield and quality of Chilli i.e., plant height (63.73 cm), fruit yield per 200m<sup>2</sup> (3.27q), T.S.S. (9.67 <sup>0 </sup>Brix) and ascorbic acid (143.96 mg/100 g). Therefore, use of Nano chitosan @ 120 ppm along with 500 ppm Bio capsule could be used for getting better yield in chilli. Moreover, application of nano chitosan and bio capsule on nutritional quality of chilli could be studied in details further.</p> 2022-10-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Herbicide Application on Weed Dynamics in Pigeon Pea Based Cropping System under Rainfed Situations of Madhya Pradesh 2022-10-17T08:14:27+00:00 Balkrishna Namdeo H. S. Kushwaha Dig Vijay Dubey Shriman Kumar Patel Neelash Patel <p>A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of intercrops in respect of weed suppression and chemical methods for effective weed control in pigeon pea and green gram based intercropping systems.The aim of this stydy to assess the most suitable weed management practices for pigeonpea + green gram intercropping system.Results revealed that the relative density of dicot weeds was lower than the relative weed density of monocot weeds and did not show any significant effect on weed dynamics of pigeon pea and green gram based intercropping systems whereas, the application of Pendimethelin @ 1.0 kg ai + Imazethapyr @0.1 kg ai/ha significantly minimum weed density, weed dry weight and maximum weed control efficiency recoreded compared to weedy plot at 25, 50 and 75 days after sowing (DAS). This might be due to reduction in weed competition.</p> 2022-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cluster Demonstration on Integrated Nutrient Management in Dragon Fruit at Farmer Field of Aizawl District Mizoram, India 2022-10-17T09:00:57+00:00 Santosh Kumar Jotish Nongthombam K. P. Chaudhary Nitin Kumar Pandey Rohit Shukla Brij Mohan Singh <p>The cluster demonstration of dragon fruit at Muthi &amp; Durtlang Village of Aizawl District has demonstrated under PKVY Programme in the year 2019. A total of 30 farmers were demonstrated for that KVK has provided altogether 1000 nos. of cutting from 2-3 years old strong and dark green healthy (damage free &amp; pest free) and 300 nos. RCC pole 100 mm concrete post with the height of 2 m of selected beneficiaries. Each plant was fed 15-20 kg with organic inputs well decomposed FYM or poultry manure, coir compost and vermicompost along with bio-fertilizers and recommended dose of fertilizer: (500: 300:250 NPK and 100 each of Azotobacter, Phosphate Solubilizing and Potash Solubilizing Bacteria were applied to each plant g/plant/year.) Applied in three doses just before flowering (in April), fruit developing stage (July -August) and after harvesting time (in December).The results revealed that there were significant differences in term of vine length (196.26cm), vine thickness (19.03cm), number of vines per plant (5.98) over the farmers practices which was vine length (182.23cm), vine thickness (17.95cm), number of vines per plant (5.14) The results revealed that there were significant differences over farmer practices as influenced by technology demonstration treatment in both the demonstration year. The demonstrated technologies recorded average yield of 8.043 tone/ha which was 18.50 percent higher than the obtained with farmer’s practices of 6.787 tone/ha. The demonstrated field gave higher mean gross return (`USD 12763.70 /ha) and mean net returns (`USD 12155.91 /ha) with average benefit cost ratio of 1.14 compared to benefit cost ratio of 1.04 over farmer practices. The findings demonstrated that by implementing suggested technology, broccoli yield and economics can be improved.</p> 2022-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Biofertilizers on Nutrient Uptake by Green Gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] under Agri-horti System in Vindhyan Region of Eastern Uttar Pradesh 2022-10-17T10:39:35+00:00 Rashav Chahal S. K. Verma Alok Kumar Singh <p>A field investigation was carried out in Factorial Randomized Block Design during autumn 2018 at agricultural farm, Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, Barkachha, Mirzapur (RGSC), Banaras Hindu University (U.P.) to investigate the impact of fertiliser and biofertilizer on the nutrient uptake by the green gram (<em>V. radiata</em> L.) plant and grain under guava (<em>P. guvajava</em> L.) trees. The twelve year old guava orchard was established in August 2006 with spacing of 7m x 7m. Seven fertilizer combination <em>viz.</em>, control, Rhizobium culture, press mud, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, Rhizobium culture + fertilizer, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria + fertilizer and press mud + fertilizer were applied. Among them application of press mud + fertilizer performed better by recording highest nitrogen content in grain (3.75), nitrogen content in grain (1.50), removal of nitrogen in grain (33.09) Removal of nitrogen in straw (33.03) and phosphorus content in grain (0.41) phosphorus content in straw (0.30), phosphorus uptake in grain (3.62), phosphorus uptake in straw (5.61), and found significantly superior to rest of the treatments.</p> 2022-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Soil Amendments with Botanical Leaves on Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) 2022-10-18T04:20:57+00:00 Sandhya Sri Palle Sobita Simon <p>Cowpea (<em>Vigna unguiculata </em>L. Walp) is a earliest crop which is a member of the Phaseoleae tribe of the Leguminosae Family widely known as Lobia, which is a better alternative source for protein, minerals etc., as compared to other legumes. Root-knot nematodes (<em>Meloidogyne incognita</em>) cause a major loss in cowpea production by hindering nutrient and water uptake. Leaf waste of marigold, rose, calotropis, euphorbia, neem and castor as botanical amendments were experimented under field conditions during <em>kharif </em>2021 for their effectiveness against the root knot nematodes, rhizobium nodule and growth parameters. Field studies were conducted in randomized blocks with six treatments and three replications. Among the composts, the treatment Neem leaf compost remarkably increased the Plant height at 90 DAS (293 cm), root length at 90 DAS (29.16cm), rhizobium nodules (5), and significantly decreased the root weight at 90 DAS (3.5&nbsp; gm)&nbsp; and&nbsp; root&nbsp; knots&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; root&nbsp; system&nbsp; of&nbsp; cowpea&nbsp; at&nbsp; 90&nbsp; DAS&nbsp; (10.67).&nbsp; The weight of the roots decreased because of a decrease in the number of root knot in cowpea compared to other composts and control T<sub>0</sub>.</p> 2022-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Inoculum Level of Meloidogyne incognita on Chlorophyll Content of Pigeon Pea, Cajanus cajan (L.) 2022-10-18T04:21:41+00:00 Anukiran Sahu Sujit Kumar Behera <p>A pot culture experiment was conducted during Kharif season in the year 2021- 2022 at Green polyhouse, Department of Nematology, College of Agriculture, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha in order to study effect of different inoculum level of <em>M. incognita</em> on chlorophyll content of pigeon pea. The experiment was laid out in Completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments i.e T<sub>1</sub> (500 J<sub>2</sub>/plant), T<sub>2</sub>(1000J<sub>2</sub> / Plant), T<sub>3</sub>(1500J<sub>2</sub>/plant), T<sub>4</sub>(2000J<sub>2</sub>/plant), T<sub>5</sub>(Control)and 4 varieties were UPAS-120(R), IPA-15-1 (MR), IPA 14-7(S), CO-6(HS). To find out the effect of increase in inoculum level of nematode on chlorophyll content of pigeon pea leaves showed that highest reduction in chlorophyll in treatment T<sub>4</sub> then T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>2</sub> and then T<sub>1</sub> over control T<sub>5.</sub> The results have demonstrated that nematode infestation leads to highest decreased by 41.75% total chlorophyll content (a+b) in UPAS -120(R)) in the leaves and highest decrease found in case of high inoculum level inoculation of nematodes in the pigeon pea plant.</p> 2022-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Type of Mulches on Soil Properties and Weed Control Efficiency in Cauliflower Var. Pusa Snowball K-1 2022-10-18T12:39:38+00:00 Nihar A. Patel R. M. Mangroliya Y. G. Desai J. J. Patel B. R. Gondaliya <p>The present experiment was conducted during winter 2021-22 at Polytechnic in Horticulture, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Paria, Gujarat, India to study the effect of different type of mulches on soil properties and weed control efficiency in cauliflower var. Pusa Snowball K-1. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications and nine treatments <em>viz.</em>, T<sub>1</sub>- Black polyethylene mulch, T<sub>2</sub>- Silver polyethylene mulch, T<sub>3</sub>- Red polyethylene mulch, T<sub>4</sub>- Silver black polyethylene mulch, T<sub>5</sub>- White polyethylene mulch, T<sub>6</sub>- Paddy straw mulch (10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>7</sub>- Sugarcane trash (10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>8</sub>- Farmer’s practice (Two hand weeding with flood irrigation) and T<sub>9</sub>- Control (No mulch). The study revealed that the black polyethylene mulch had a positive impact on soil properties and weed control efficiency in cauliflower var. Pusa Snowball K-1. Black polyethylene mulch (T<sub>1</sub>) recorded maximum soil temperature (32.70 °C, 32.33 °C, 29.86 °C, 27.93 °C, 27.73 °C, 31.70 °C and 33.93 °C) and soil moisture content (23.65 %, 22.60 %, 20.98 %, 22.26 %, 21.55 %, 20.65 % and 22.46 %) at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 DATP, respectively. The highest weed control efficiency (97.26 %) was also recorded by black polyethylene mulch (T<sub>1</sub>) among the all treatments.</p> 2022-10-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Soil Profile Studies under Different Orchard Management System in Chhindwara District of Madhya Pradesh, India 2022-10-18T12:40:19+00:00 Nikita Singh Ramawatar Meena Kamlesh Meena Nitu Patle R. K. Meena Rajneesh Srivastava Pavan Singh <p>The investigation conducted at the laboratory of Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, Banaras Hindu University, Barkachha; Mirzapur during the year 2021-22. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical properties and macro-nutrient availability of orchard soil depth under (0–15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm) of different blocks of Chhindwara District, Madhya Pradesh. By using GPS camera, 52 soil samples was collected from different orchard of different blocks of district. The physical and chemical properties of soil were critically analyzed. The pH of orchard soil was found slightly acidic to alkaline in nature. Total soluble salts were found less than 1dSm<sup>-1</sup> . Organic carbon was observed high in upper surface (0-15 cm) and decreased with the increasing depth of the profile. Bulk density (1.28 – 1.97 Mg m<sup>3</sup>) and particle densities (2.49 – 2.65 Mg m<sup>3</sup>) were found in normal ranged for all the layers. The samples were found under low water holding capacity (30.87-65.24%) of all the orchards. Nitrogen was observed in low (110.30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) to medium (468.28 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) range in the different layers (0-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90cm). Phosphorus and sulphur content were found medium (8.56-11.78 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>and 10.6-13.9 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in surface layer and low (7.10 – 10.65 and 8.4-12.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) for sub-surface layers. Available &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;potassium was determined in high range (224.0-378.8 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) for all the layers (0-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm).</p> 2022-10-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quality Parameters as Influenced by Different Integrated Nutrient Management of Rustica Tobacco (Nicotiana rustica L.) and Its Residual Impact on Succeeding Summer Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.) 2022-10-19T09:18:16+00:00 S. D. Ninama K. M. Gediya M. K. Rathwa <p>The present research work entitled “Quality parameters as influenced by different integrated nutrient management of rustica tobacco (<em>Nicotiana rustica</em> L.) and its residual impact on succeeding summer green gram (<em>Vigna radiata</em> L.) ” a field experiment was conducted during <em>rabi </em>and summer season of years 2020-21 and 2021-22 at Bidi Tobacco Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat. The experimental field had an even topography with a gentle slope having good drainage and sandy loam in texture. The soil of the experimental field at 0-15 cm depth was low in organic carbon and available nitrogen, medium in available phosphorus and potassium and slightly alkaline in reaction. The ten integrated nutrient management treatments <em>viz.</em>, T<sub>1</sub>: 100% RDF (200-00-00 kg/ha), T<sub>2</sub>: 75% RDF + 25% N from FYM, T<sub>3</sub>: 75% RDF + 25% N from poultry manure, T<sub>4</sub>: 75% RDF + 25% N from castor cake, T<sub>5</sub>: 50% RDF + 50% N from FYM, T<sub>6</sub>: 50% RDF + 50% N from poultry manure, T<sub>7</sub>: 50% RDF + 50% N from castor cake, T<sub>8</sub>: 50% RDF + 25% N from FYM + Azotobacter, T<sub>9</sub>: 50% RDF + 25% N from poultry manure + Azotobacter, T<sub>10</sub>: 50% RDF + 25% N from castor cake + Azotobacter were tested in Randomized Block Design with four replications. Rustica tobacco variety GCT 3 was considered as main <em>rabi</em> crop and green gram variety GAM 5 was considered as summer residual crop. The experiment was conducted on the same site during both the years without changing randomization of treatments. Results of the experiment showed that quality parameters <em>viz.</em> nicotine content was found significant due to various integrated nutrient management during both the years (2020-21 and 2021-22) in pooled analysis, while reducing sugar and chloride content was found non-significant during both the years (2020-21 and 2021-22) but significant result was observed in pooled analysis due different integrated nutrient management in both quality parameters under application of 75% RDF + 25% N from poultry manure (T<sub>3</sub>). In case of residual summer green gram protein content in seed and protein yield exerted significant result due to various integrated nutrient management during the years 2021, 2022 and in pooled analysis under application of 50% RDF + 50% N from FYM (T<sub>5</sub>). Interaction effect (Y x T) was found non-significant on all the growth parameters during the experiment.</p> 2022-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study of Correlation and Path Analysis in Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] for Yield and Yield Attributing Traits 2022-10-19T09:33:47+00:00 A. Nikhil Gaibriyal M. Lal G. Roopa Lavanya C. Yajavathi <p>The current study was designed to estimate correlation coefficients and investigate the direct and indirect effects of various yield contributing traits on seed yield in twenty greengram genotypes. The experiment was carried out during <em>Kharif</em> 2021 in a randomized block design with three replications. Correlation studies among the characters revealed that seed yield per plant has highly positive and significant association with characters like plant height, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, number of primary branches, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, no. of seeds per pod, pod length, biological yield per plant, harvest index both at phenotypic and genotypic levels, depicting that these are important yield contributing traits. Path coefficient analysis of various quantitative traits indicated that the number of seeds per pod, biological yield per plant, harvest index and seed index had the positive direct effect on seed yield per plant followed by plant height and number of primary branches exhibited the negative direct effect on seed yield per plant in greengram. Their correlation with seed yield was likewise noteworthy and favourable, demonstrating a real and flawless correlation between these features. Therefore, identifying high-yielding genotypes from a population with substantial segregation would be aided by direct selection for these traits.</p> 2022-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Lipidomic Analyses Reveal Differences in Lipid Metabolism Profiles between CL3 and CL53 C. oleifera Cultivars 2022-10-21T05:00:32+00:00 Shunxing Ye <p><em>Camellia oleifera</em> Abel. is an evergreen oil-bearing tree and widely cultivated in China. <em>Camellia oleifera oil</em> is considered to be a healthiest edible oil. However, the lipid profile are not well studied and ultilized. In the current study, we firstly used non-targeted LC-MS/MS method to describe the lipid profiles of two <em>C. oleifera </em>cultivars. Stringent criteria was used to screen significantly different lipids metabolites (SDLs). By comparing CL3 with CL5, 79 SDLs in CL3 were found to be significantly up-regulated, and 61 SDLs were found to be significantly down-regulated. Correlation analysis indicated that intra-category and inter-category correlation of glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids were strong in CL3 and CL53 cultivars. Through pathway enrichment analysis, we found that the most influential pathway in two cultivars was the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway. The present results provide essential insights into lipid composition and a basis to make better ultilization of the lipids.</p> 2022-10-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Pruning Methods on Growth, Yield and Quality of Cherry Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) c.v- Pusa Cherry, Roja Red & Nagamoti under Polyhouse Condition of Prayagraj 2022-10-20T09:14:19+00:00 Rudravaram Laxman Rao Devi Singh V. M. Prasad Prashant Antony <p>The experiment was conducted in the horticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (UP) During July 2021- October 2021. The experiment was laid out in RBD with 8 Treatments with 3 replications. The results revealed that T2 – (Pusa cherry + Two stem) flowering (30.3 days), days to first fruit picking (68.3 days) and maximum number of flowers per cluster (17.4), number of fruit set per cluster (14.4), fruit yield per plant (3.7 kg), fruit yield per 100m2 (16.3 q), Vitamin-C (22.6), TSS (7.2) and also maximum Benefit cost ratio (1:4).</p> 2022-10-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Spatial Variability of Soil Properties under Different Land Use Systems in Wokha District of Nagaland, India 2022-10-22T04:10:22+00:00 Sanjay Kumar Ray Dibyendu Chatterjee Bidyut C. Deka Kalpana H. Kamble V. K. Mishra <p>The shifting cultivation practice is the predominant land use system of Nagaland, India, and Wokha district in particular. In general, there are four different forms of land use: forest,&nbsp;shifting&nbsp;cultivation, cultivated fallow, and wet terrace rice cultivation. In the Wokha district, a study was conducted in the year 2015 to evaluate the variability in soil characteristics among four different land use systems and to map their spatial distribution. A total of 381 soil samples were collected and tested for six soil fertility parameters; clay, pH, soil organic carbon, available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The results showed that all of the soils were very acidic in nature; however the mean value of soil pH was substantially higher in the shifting cultivation system. Soil organic carbon concentrations ranged from high to very high across all land use systems. Average soil organic carbon content was highest in the forest, followed by cultivated fallow, shifting, and wet terrace rice cultivation (WTRC) systems, whereas available N content was very low to low. The P concentration of the soil was very low in the WTRC system and low in the other systems. Soil K concentration was high in shifting (361.95 kg/ha), cultivated fallow (312.4 kg/ha), forest (309.73 kg/ha), and low in WTRC (166.975 kg/ha) land use systems. Available N, P and K deficiency was found in 93.8%, 72.2%, and 32.9% of soil samples, respectively. Soil organic carbon correlated positively with K and significantly positively with N. Soil pH correlated negatively with clay content and positively but non-significantly with P. The generated maps might be used to assist farmers in identifying the expected nutrient levels in their areas and encourage them to change their crop management practices to improve crop yield and profitability. Due to soil acidity, higher SOC, lower N and P, and higher potassium content, suitable acid loving crops, higher N and phosphorus fertilization, and some commercially advantageous potassium responsive crops may be encouraged in farming practices.</p> 2022-10-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) Varieties Sown on Ridge under Front Line Demonstration at Farmer’s Field in Deoria District of Uttar Pradesh, India 2022-10-25T03:53:35+00:00 Kamlesh Meena Rajneesh Srivastva Shamsher Singh Ajay Tiwari <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The production of pigeon pea is lower than the other pulse crops due to non-adoption of recommended high-yielding varieties and advanced technologies by the farming community in the eastern plains of Uttar Pradesh. To replace this anomalous, we conducted 152 front-line demonstrations (FLDs) at farmers' fields in various adopted villages by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deoria.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was carried out by the Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Malhana, Deoria, under the Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, UP. A total of 90, 12 and 50 FLDs were conducted sown on ridge method with three varieties of pigeon pea (Narendra Arhar 1, Pusa Bahar and Narendra Arhar 2) from 2014-15 to 2018-19 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Conducted 152 front-line demonstrations (FLDs) at farmers' fields in various adopted villages by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deoria. Cultivation practices comprised under FLD viz. improved varieties, sowing methods, irrigation, date of sowing, seed treatment, spacing, balance use of fertilizers, intercultural operations, and plant protection measures etc.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Showed an increase in yield of pigeon pea varieties sown on ridge from 4.76–39.20% over traditional cultivation practices. As presented in Fig. 3, the technology gap was highest in Narendra Arhar 1 (1680 kg/ha) during 2016-17 and lowest in Narendra Arhar 2 (340 kg/ha) during 2018-19. The analysis of data for extension gap showed that Narendra Arhar 2 had the highest gap (540 kg/ha) during 2017-18 and Narendra Arhar 1 had the lowest gap (60 kg/ha) during 2016-17. The technology index was highest (56%) in Narendra Arhar 1 in 2016-17 and lowest (15%) in Narendra Arhar 2 in 2018-19.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The lower the value of the technology index, the more feasible the technology is in the eastern plains of UP.</p> 2022-10-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Time Series Prediction Using Hybrid ARIMA-ANN Models for Sugarcane 2022-10-22T09:46:01+00:00 . Sanjeev Nitin Bhardwaj <p>Recently Hybrid model approach has led to a tremendous surge in many domains of science and engineering. In this study, we present the advantage of ANN to improve time series forecasting precision. The Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are used to separately recognize the linear and nonlinear components in the data set respectively. In this manner, the proposed approach tactically utilizes the unique strengths ARIMA and ANN to improve the forecasting accuracy. Our hybrid method is tested on two Yamunanagar and Panipat sugarcane time series of Haryana. Results clearly indicate that Hybrid ARIMA-ANN model was better perform than ARIMA models with smaller values of RMSE and MAPE for both districts.</p> 2022-10-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Green Compost Processed Organic Fertilizer and Chlorella Microalgae Solution on Growth, Antioxidant and Phenolic Content of Tropaeolum majus under Drought Stress 2022-10-25T07:45:26+00:00 Sasan Mohsenzadeh Maryam Karamidarenjani Elham Alsadat Mirahmadinejad Reza Robati <p>Environmental stresses, especially drought, are the most important factors in reducing growth of the plant. The effect of processed organic fertilizer of green compost and chlorella microalgae solution on growth, antioxidant properties and some other physiological characteristics of <em>Tropaeolum majus </em>plant under control and drought conditions were investigated. The experiments were performed in pot with a completely randomized design with three replications. Green manure treatment included zero, 5% and 10% by volume of pots. Chlorella microalgae treatment had two levels in terms of zero cells and 368 million cells in each pot. Drought stress was applied based on lack of ten-day and seventeen-day irrigation. After two months, the samples were collected and the relative content of leaf water, fresh weight of aerial parts, phenol content and antioxidant were performed. The results showed that green compost of 10% alone and together with chlorella microalgae significantly reduced the effects of drought stress at 5% level. The use of 5% and 10% of compost with chlorella microalgae significantly increased the growth of the aerial part compared to the control. Microalgae treatments had a more positive effect on antioxidant content and phenol content than green compost in stress and control conditions.<em> Tropaeolum majus </em>plant with chlorella algae treatment with 5 and 10% green compost had the highest amount of proline amino acid under stress.</p> 2022-10-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of High Yielding Sweet Potato Varieties under Different Seasons 2022-10-25T09:18:34+00:00 Jeena Mary P. Prameela Syama S. Menon V. Divya Vijayan <p>In sweet potato, though a number of high yielding varieties are available for cultivation, there is lack of information on suitability of various varieties to different seasons.&nbsp; The results of the study will be useful to recommend varieties ideal for different seasons. Field experiments were conducted during <em>Kharif</em>, <em>Rabi</em> and Summer seasons from 2021 to 2022 with an objective to assess the seasonal influence on growth and tuber yield of five sweet potato varieties [High yielding varieties were Bhu Krishna (V<sub>1</sub>), Sree Arun (V<sub>2</sub>), Sree Bhadra (V<sub>3</sub>), Bhu Sona (V<sub>4</sub>) and local variety was Kanjanghad Local (V<sub>5</sub>)]. Randomized Block Design was followed with four replications. Variety Bhu Sona recorded significantly the highest vine length (211.38 cm) compared to other varieties and variety Sree Bhadra (114.71 cm) and variety Kanjanghad Local (112.54 cm) recorded significantly lower vine length. Sree Arun and Bhu Sona were the superior varieties and recorded significantly higher average tuber weight (236.77 g/plant and 219.14 g/plant, respectively), tuber yield per plant (514.65 g/plant and 404.22 g/plant, respectively) and tuber yield per ha (18.92 tha<sup>-1 </sup>and 15.96&nbsp; tha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). <em>Rabi</em> season was found ideal for all sweet potato varieties with higher average tuber weight (188.96 g/plant) and tuber yield per ha (20.17 tha<sup>-1</sup>). Per cent contribution of total dry matter to tuber dry matter was more in <em>Rabi</em> season for Sree Arun and Sree Bhadra varieties. Among the varieties, Sree Arun can be recommended for <em>Rabi</em> and Summer seasons and Bhu Sona for <em>Kharif</em> season.</p> 2022-10-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In-vitro Evaluation of Different Fungicides against Black Leaf Spot Causing Fungus Asperisporium caricae in Papaya 2022-10-25T10:58:06+00:00 S. Shreedevasena S. K. Manoranjitham L. Rajendran R. Parimaladevi <p>Ten different contact, systemic and combination products of fungicides were evaluated for their effectiveness against black spot of papaya <em>Asperisporium caricae</em> under <em>in vitro</em> condition by following poisoned food technique. Among fungicides tested, trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50% WG, propiconzole 25% EC and zineb 68% + hexaconazole 4% WP were successful in completely (100%) inhibiting the growth of <em>A. caricae</em> at all concentrations (50,100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 ppm) which is followed by hexaconazole 25% EC, difenconazole 25% EC, zineb 68% hexaconazole 4% WP completely inhibited the growth of the fungus at 500 ppm and above concentration. Least inhibition of fungal growth was recorded in copper oxychloride 50% WP at all concentrations. Trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50% WG, propiconazole 25% EC and zineb 68% + hexaconzole 4% WP were most effective which completely inhibited the spore germination at all concentrations, while the copper oxychloride 50% WP was recorded the least per cent inhibition of fungal spores.</p> 2022-10-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Identification of Site Specific Interventions for Yarehalli Micro-watershed Using Geospatial Techniques 2022-10-26T10:41:41+00:00 Nagaraj Patil K. S. Rajashekarappa G. K. Ningaraju K. Devaraja Md Majeed Pasha <p>The 761.2 acres of the Yarehalli micro-watershed in the Channagiri taluk of the Davanagere district served as the study's site. In 2017 the rainfall recorded was 931.8 mm of total rainfall, of which kharif rainfall made up 60.2%, rabi rainfall 20.1%, and summer rainfall 19.6%. This study's goal is to pinpoint the site-specific interventions that should be made in accordance with the Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD) principles. The sites are located by superimposing thematic maps of slope, runoff potential, soil permeability, and stream order created with ArcGIS. The findings indicate that 57.31% of the overall area is suitable for check dam construction, compared to 23.17% for agricultural ponds, 8.57% for percolation ponds, and 1.12% for gully plugs. Locations for the water harvesting constructions that collect water in the structures are indicated.</p> 2022-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Performance Response of Ten Economically Important Garlic Cultivars in Alluvial Soils of Punjab 2022-10-26T10:42:30+00:00 Jitendra Wayade K. Arun Kumar J. Jayanthi <p>All the varieties are not performed equally in all the agroclimatic and soil conditions. A field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural farm of the Lovely Professional University, Punjab to evaluate the growth and yield performance of garlic cultivars in alluvial soil of Punjab. T Ten cultivars <em>viz.</em>, Fewari, G-50, G-323, G-189, G-1, Parvati-2, G-389, G-384, G-282, and G-404 were considered as experimental treatments, The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block designand replicated thrice. Growth, yield attributes and yield were significantly varied among the varieties.. Garlic productivity has been declining and more improved breeding lines are required to enhance the productivity status. The selected cultivars were prominent among farmers and identifying the variation among germplasms may aid in genetic improvement among garlic cultivars. Plant height after 30 days of sowing shows significant difference among cultivars; the pseudo-stem length of G-389 cultivar recorded higher values as compared to others. Yield parameter like length of bulb, bulb width and clove length were recorded higher for Fewari and Parvati-2 cultivars.&nbsp; The cluster analysis based on growth and yield parameters segregates into two major clusters, <em>viz.</em>, Fewari in one major cluster and the second cluster is segregated into further sub-clusters; sub-cluster 1 in second major cluster segregates G1, Parvati-2, G-189, and G-389 cultivars; however the sub-cluster 2 in second major cluster segregates G-323, G-282, G-384, and G-50 cultivars. Principal component analysis (PCA) show the close similarity between G-389 and G-189 cultivars and Fewari cultivars show high variation as compared to all other cultivars.</p> 2022-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Nitrogen Schedule and Weed Management Practices on Yield Attributing Characters and Yield of Transplanted Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 2022-10-27T12:04:00+00:00 Sunil Kumar R. A. Yadav Y. K. Singh Satyaveer Singh Avinash Kumar Singh Vipin Patel Ravindra Sachan <p>The experiment conducted during <em>kharif</em> season of 2018-19 and 2019-20 at student instructional farm of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology Kanpur, to study on productivity and resource use efficiency of transplanted hybrid rice in relation to weed management and nitrogen application. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design keeping nutrient management practices, viz. N<sub>1</sub>-150 kg Nitrogen ha<sup>-1</sup>; 3 equal split application at transplanting, 25 and 45 DAT, N<sub>2</sub>-150 kg nitrogen ha-<sup>1</sup>; 4 equal split application at transplanting ,25, 45 and 60 DAT, N<sub>3</sub>-180 kg nitrogen ha-<sup>1</sup>; 3 equal Split application at transplanting ,25 and 45 DAT. N<sub>4</sub>-180 kg nitrogen ha-<sup>1</sup>; 4 equal Split application at transplanting, 25, 45 and 60 DAT in main plots, and weed management practices, viz. W<sub>1</sub>- Un-weeded (weedy check), W<sub>2</sub>– Two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAT, W<sub>3</sub>– Anilophos @ 0.40 kg <em>a.i</em>. ha<sup>-1</sup> <em>fb </em>weeding by cono-weeder at 30 DAT, W<sub>4</sub>-Pretilachlor @ 0.75 kg <em>a.i. </em>ha<sup>-1</sup> <em>fb </em>weeding by cono-weeder at 30 DAT, W<sub>5</sub>- Anilophos @ 0.40 kg <em>a.i. </em>ha<sup>-1</sup> <em>fb </em>fenoxaprop-ethyl @ 80 g <em>a.i. </em>ha<sup>-1</sup> at 25-30 DAT and W<sub>6</sub>- Pretilachlor @0.75kg <em>a.i </em>ha<sup>-1</sup> <em>fb </em>fenoxaprop-ethyl @ 80g <em>a.i. </em>ha<sup>-1</sup> at 25-30 DAT in sub plots with three replications. Significantly higher yield attributes and yield (62.14 q/ha) were found under N<sub>4</sub> treatment than others and was comparable with N<sub>1</sub>. Similarly, highest yield attributing characters and grain yield (67.84 q/ha) of hybrid rice was noticed with W<sub>2</sub> treatment.</p> 2022-10-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Land Use Based Distribution Pattern, Fractionation forms and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Mining-affected Soils of Western Ghat of Goa, India 2022-10-27T12:03:10+00:00 Amrita Daripa Sudipta Chattaraj Lal C. Malav Ramprasad Sharma Ravindra K. Naitam Deepak S Mohekar V. Ramamurthy <p>Goa is a biodiversity hotspot and a major iron ore producer state in India. The study investigated heavy metal (HM) distribution pattern, fractionation forms under different land use types near an iron mining including health risks associated with different exposure pathways. Georeferenced 38 soil surface samples, 8 soil profile samples and 6 plant samples were collected from three land use types- agriculture cropland, fallow land and natural vegetation. Collected samples were analyzed for HM contamination in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICPAES). The mean total HM concentration in surface soil exceeded the background value. Weak acid soluble fraction % of metals posed no to medium risk values. Fallow land had higher metal content in surface soil. Principal component (PC) analysis showed Pb, Cd and Cr metals were more associated with mining activity. Vertical distribution pattern of HM accumulation in soil profiles showed a drastic reduction in HM concentration below plough layer in fallow land indicating anthropogenic sources of origin. Hazard index (HI) in the descending order were Cd&gt; Cr &gt;Pb. Non-carcinogenic HI value were considerably higher than safe level. Higher organic carbon (OC) and clay content in soil had a tendency to accumulate ample HM in unavailable form due to chelation effect. Soils had higher pool of unavailable residual HM as compared to available. Overall the land uses are in medium risk category and site specific management is requisite of the time to maintain the balance of this fragile ecosystem with anthropogenic activities in long run.</p> 2022-10-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Seed Morphometry and Different Pre-sowing Treatments on Seed Germination of Spondias pinnata Linn. under Nursery Condition 2022-10-28T09:13:55+00:00 Amarendra Nath Dey Bani Sharma Anjali Kumari Sharda Dubey Mihir Ranjan Panda <p>The present investigation was carried out during 2018–19 to evaluate the variation in seed dimension and most promising seed pre-treatments for accelerating germination of <em>Spondias pinnata</em> Linn. The various pre-sowing treatments were the Control (no treatment); soaking in cold water for 24 hours; soaking in cold water for 48 h; soaking in cold water for 72 h; soaking in 100 ppm thiourea for 24 h; soaking in 200 ppm thiourea for 24 h; soaking in 400 ppm thiourea for 24 h; soaking in 800ppm thiourea for 24 h; soaking in 1000 ppm thiourea for 24 h; soaking in 100 ppm KNO<sub>3</sub> for 12 h; soaking in 200 ppm KNO<sub>3</sub> for 12 h; soaking in 400 ppm KNO<sub>3</sub> for 12 h; soaking in 800 ppm KNO<sub>3</sub> for 12 h and soaking in 1000 ppm KNO<sub>3</sub> for 12 h. The experiment was laid out in randomised block design with 13 pre-sowing treatments and the control with three replications of 100 seeds. The highest (54.33%) germination percentage was observed from cold-water for 48 hrs followed by thiourea 1000 ppm for 24 hrs (50.00%) and potassium nitrate 200 ppm for 12 hrs (48.67%). Parameters like germination value, mean germination time, root length, shoot length and seedling vigour index were significantly different among all the pre-treatments.</p> 2022-10-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Stability Evaluation of Reinforced Slope Soil with Vetiver Grass against Erosion and Landslides Hazards by Using Finite Element Method 2022-10-28T10:26:54+00:00 Watha Ndoudy Noël Kempena Adolphe Obami Ondon Harmel Antonio Olimpio Gonçalves Rafael Guardado Lacaba Boudzoumou Florent <p>This work studied slopes with different geometric situations. The purpose is to select types of soil for embankment construction to stabilise the site by using nearby accessible filling materials. Then, PLAXIS-2D software was used including five (6) phases of sequential calculation such as soil, structure, mesh generation, conditions of flow and construction stage and the use of Vetiver grass for embakment stability reinforcement. Choices were made on soil properties, loading, water table effect, embankment geometry and reinforcement actions of vetiver grass. The method is based on using diverse filling materials and varied slope gradients with different heights. So, the slope analyse involves homogeneous soils, in addition to slope section by various soils strata. Results obtained showed that the increase in soil shear strength is related to the mechanical effects of vetiver roots and make the soil able to resist shear stress due to the presence of roots density within the soil mass and the root tensile strength. It is also noticed that the soil suction effects and roots reinforcement increased the apparent cohesion of the soil, showing an important role played by vetiver grass in stabilising shallow-seated slopes failure with significant effect on slopes stability.</p> 2022-10-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Agronomic Response of Bell Pepper to the Aplicatión of Ultrasol Chile® in Fertigatión to the Open Field 2022-10-28T10:26:04+00:00 Josué Israel García López Antonio Flores Naveda Francisco Alfonso Gordillo Melgoza Perpetuo Álvarez Vázquez Martín Cadena Zapata Xochitl Ruelas Chacón Neymar Camposeco Montejo <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To determine the agronomic response of the bell pepper grown in open field to the application of the Ultrasol chile<sup>®</sup> fertilizer via fertigation.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> It was with the completely randomized model with five treatments (T0 or control, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 g L<sup>-1</sup> of Ultrasol chile<sup>®</sup>) and four repetitions each. The comparison of means was by Tukey <em>≤ </em>.05.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Experimental fields "the Bajío” Buenavista, Plant Breeding Department of the Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro. between June 2019 to December 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In bell pepper five treatments were applied (T0 or control, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 g L<sup>-1</sup> of Ultrasol chile<sup>®</sup>). The treatments were carried out via fertigation and applied three times a week, the applications started 15 days after the transplant and until the end of the cycle.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The yield behaved in a similar way with the applied doses of the fertilizer, however, they exceeded the control by more than 90%. Average fruit weight (AFW), fruit length (FL) and equatorial diameter of fruit (EDF) showed a differential statistical response, in which the application of 1 g L<sup>-1</sup> of Ultrasol chile<sup>®</sup> via fertigation resulted in a better response and it surpassed the control in 120, 44 and 13.5% respectively. The height of the plant was statistically similar between the control and the 1.2 and 0.8 g L<sup>-1</sup> treatments. The correlations indicate that the crop yield is a function of the AFW, FL and NFP, in turn the FL and EDF, are what determine the AFW.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The most appropriate dose of Ultrasol chile<sup>®</sup> for bell pepper grown in the open field was 1 g L<sup>-1</sup>, since it improves the average weight of fruit, equatorial diameter of fruit and length of fruit, therefore, there is feasibility in the use of this commercial formulation.</p> 2022-10-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Changes in Physico-Chemical Properties of Mango Pickle during Storage 2022-10-28T12:29:28+00:00 Hatneikim Haokip Tabuiliu Abonmai Alok Singh <p>The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of recipes and varieties of Mango (<em>Mangifera indica</em>&nbsp;L.) pickle on changes in physico-chemical properties during storage at the Post Graduate Laboratory of the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal during 2020-2021.&nbsp;&nbsp;The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized&nbsp;block design (FRBD) with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments consist of four&nbsp;pickled recipes and two varieties. Among all pickles, the salty pickle was found to have maximum&nbsp;pH whereas, the sweet mango pickle was found to be minimum. The TSS increases continuously&nbsp;during storage irrespective of the recipe and variety used. Sweet pickle showed maximum TSS.&nbsp;Among all pickles, oily mango pickle was found to have maximum moisture content whereas, salty&nbsp;mango pickle was found to be minimum. Sweet mango pickle has the highest score and is&nbsp;organoleptically more acceptable among other types of a pickle. The findings also showed that with&nbsp;the advancement of the storage period organoleptic quality improved in all mango pickles. The&nbsp;local mango was also found to be the better variety for pickling. It can be concluded that mango of&nbsp;the local kind was better suited for pickling.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-10-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Estimation of Water Productivity of Cucumber and Potato Crops for Water Management in Palestine 2022-10-28T12:30:17+00:00 Mahmoud Rahil <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study was to survey the agronomic practices that practiced by the farmers for potato and cucumber crops, and to estimate the water productivity of these crops.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A questionnaire was designed to collect data about the agronomic practices that practiced by the farmers during the growing period of cucumber cultivated in open field and potato crops.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> A field survey was carried out at Al-Bqaia’h and Kashda areas located at Tubas governorate of the West Bank, Palestine between December 2021 and July 2022.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The questionnaire includes several parts: soil characteristics, crop cultivation, crop development, crop fertilization, yield production, type of irrigation systems used, irrigation water management, and amount of applied irrigation water. Crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was estimated using AQWACROP program. Soil samples were collected from the selected field to evaluate the soil fertility status.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It is indicated that the crop evapotranspiration of potato (378 mm), higher than that of cucumber crop (343 mm). Huge amount of water (754 and 689 mm) were applied by the farmer during the growing period of potato and cucumber, respectively compared to calculated actual water requirement. The water productivity of cucumber crop varies among different farmers and varies from (3.56 – 6.82 kg/m<sup>3</sup>) in Al-Bqaia’h area, and (3.7 – 7.5 kg/m<sup>3</sup>) in Kashda area. The water productivity of potato crop varies from (4.29 – 8.10 kg/m<sup>3</sup>) in Al-Bqaia’h area, and (5.1 – 8.1 kg/m<sup>3</sup>) in Kashda area. It is found that the dripper discharge of 2 L/hr enhanced the water productivity compared to the dripper discharge of 4 and 8 L/hr.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The field survey found that the water productivity of cucumber and potato crops was mainly affected by the performance of individual farmers, the amount of water applied, method of water application and the crop verity.</p> 2022-10-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Combining Ability Analysis for Fruit Yield in Bottle Gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl] 2022-10-28T12:28:32+00:00 Raja Bhaiya G. C. Yadav <p>Present investigation was carried out during <em>Zaid</em> season 2019-2020 in (Y<sub>1</sub>) and <em>Zaid</em> 2020-2021 in (Y<sub>2</sub>) at the Main Experimental Station (MES), Department of Vegetable Science, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture &amp; Technology, Narendra Nagar, Kumarganj, Ayodhya (U.P) with 21 genotypes with six parental line and their fifteen F<sub>1</sub> hybrids of bottle gourd by using diallel (excluding reciprocal) mating fashion. Experiment was laid out in RBD include three replication having each experimental unit with rows space at 3 (m) apart with a plant to plant spacing of 0.50 (m). Significant variances over seasons were found for general as well as sca for all the 17 traits studied during over season pooled which suggested that both additive and non-additive gene action were most important in the expression of all the traits. Pooled combining ability analysis revealed that parents <em>viz.</em>, P<sub>4</sub>, P<sub>6</sub> and P<sub>2</sub> were good general combiner for fruit yield per plant. An attempt to identify desirable parents based on gca effect as well <em>per se </em>performance of the most of the character studied. Among the 15 F<sub>1</sub> crosses P<sub>3</sub> x P<sub>4</sub>, P<sub>2</sub> x P<sub>6 </sub>and P<sub>2</sub> x P<sub>5</sub> have found good specific combiners for total fruit yield per plant along with most of the other yield contributing characters follow days to first staminate flower anthesis, days to first pistillate flower anthesis, fruit length and&nbsp; average fruit weight.</p> 2022-10-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Microclimate under the Cup of Papaya Planted in the North-South and East-West Directions 2022-10-29T10:31:21+00:00 Evelyn Trevisan Moises Zucoloto Gustavo Pereira Valani Vinicius de Souza Oliveira Fábio Luiz Partelli <p>The objective of this work was to evaluate the variations of environmental factors under the canopy of papaya planted in a north-south and east-west orientation. Two areas were studied, one oriented north-south and the other east-west, both planted with a spacing of 3.20 mx 2.40 m, planted in April 2015. The distances from the papaya line (levels of shading) and a place in full sun, where it was evaluated, in the North-South direction: in the papaya planting line, at 40 cm west side, 40 cm east side and in full sun; in the East-West direction: In the papaya planting line, at 40 cm on the north side, 40 cm on the south side and in the planting line in full sun. The following atmospheric variables were determined: temperature, irradiance and relative humidity. Tukey's test was used to compare means at a confidence level of 95%. Papaya planted in the east-west direction, under the conditions studied, provided lower incident irradiation, reduced temperature and higher values ​​of relative humidity under its canopy, compared to papaya planted in the north-south direction. It is possible to intercrop papaya planted in the east-west direction with other agricultural crops, including conilon coffee.</p> 2022-10-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Bio-regulators on Seed Germination of Santalum album L. under Laboratory Conditions 2022-10-29T12:49:46+00:00 Sachin Verma Vimal Chauhan Aditi Sharma Jayashree Behera <p>The present investigation was carried out during the year 2020-2022 in the laboratory of the Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (H.P). The interaction effect of seed collection time (S), locations (L) and pre-sowing seed treatments (T). The seeds collected during September-October from Dholra (Bilaspur) site; treated with GA<sub>3</sub> 400 ppm (S<sub>1</sub>L<sub>2</sub>T<sub>5</sub>) showed maximum germination percentage (75.00%), germination capacity (80.56%), germination energy (44.44%), mean daily germination (2.50) and peak value (7.27).</p> 2022-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Soil Fertility Status under Soils of Sugarcane-Ratoon-Wheat Cropping System of Meerut District of Uttar Pradesh, India 2022-11-01T07:05:51+00:00 G. R. Charankumar B. P. Dhyani . Vivek U. P. Shahi Satendra Kumar S. P. Singh <p>The present study was undertaken to assess the soil fertility status os soils under sugarcane-ratoon-wheat cropping system. Soil samples were collected from farmers fields at three depths <em>viz.,</em> 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm and analysed for various soil properties. Results revealed that soils were sandy clay loam to clay loam in texture, neutral in soil reaction and non saline in salt content. Mean values of CEC 15.96, 13.13 and 10.80 C mol (p+) kg<sup>-1</sup>, SOC 4.57, 3.93 and 2.95 g kg<sup>-1</sup>, available nitrogen 263.01, 209.90 and 173.73 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, available phosphorus 15.37, 12.49 and 9.00 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, available potassium 156.43, 118.16 and 102.11 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, DTPA Zn 0.49, 0.35 and 0.21 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, DTPA Fe 9.53, 7.71 and 5.28 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, DTPA Mn 8.20, 6.80 and 5.20 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> and DTPA Cu 0.99, 0.74 and 0.56 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> were recorded at 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm, respectively. Soils under this cropping system were low in available nitrogen content and medium in available phosphorus and potassium content. Among DTPA extractable micronutrients soil were deficient in available zinc while sufficient in available iron, manganese and copper content.</p> 2022-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Variability and Divergence of Morphological and Seed Quality Traits of Greengram (Vigna radiata L.) Genotypes 2022-11-01T12:24:23+00:00 Aparna Perala Ramesh Malothu Sujatha Patta Ch. Anuradha <p>Forty greengram genotypes were evaluated for their morphological traits and to find the extent of genetic variability. Analysis of variance revealed that the genotypes were highly significant for all the characters studied, indicating the existence of considerable magnitude of variability. High (&gt;20%) phenotypic co-efficient of variation and high genotypic co-efficient of variation for seed yield (kg/4.05 m<sup>2</sup>) in the present investigation was noticed and indicating the minimal influence of environment and presence of high genetic variability for the trait in the experimental material. Hence, selection based on phenotype in these genotypes can also be effective for improvement of seed yield. High heritability to plant height (cm), days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, pod length, 100 seed weight, protein estimation and medium heritability to seed yield (kg/4.05 m<sup>2</sup>). High GAM to plant height and seed yield demonstrates the presence of additive gene effect indicating effectiveness of selection for improvement of these traits. Mahalanobis D<sup>2</sup> analysis suggested the maximum contribution of seed yield (74.87%) towards genetic diversity followed by Plant height (8.08%), Days to Maturity (7.69%), Pod length (4.36%), Days to 50% flowering (3.59%), Seedling Dry Weight (0.64%), Protein Estimation (0.64%), 100 seed weight (0.13%). All 40 genotypes were grouped into 12 clusters. The clustering pattern revealed that genetic diversity was associated with geographical diversity in the present research. Based on mean performances, the genotypes PUSA-9072, MLGG-21-2, IC-436557, MLGG-21-6, RMP-21-11, Gouri, MLGG-21-3, MGG-512, MGG-519 from these clusters can be directly used as parents in the hybridization programme. The output of this study is characterization of greengram genotypes for DUS characters and other traits. This study helps in identification of genotypes with suitable traits, helps in registration of lines with PPV and FRA and the material can be used in breeding programmes.</p> 2022-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Different doses and Modes of Application of Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate for Maximizing Rice Production 2022-11-02T10:03:09+00:00 Sudhanshu Shukla S. B. Agrawal Badal Verma Mahendra Anjna Tanjeem Ansari <p>The field experiment on rice was carried out during the <em>Kharif</em> season 2021 at Agricultural Engineering Research Farm, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.) to evaluate the effect of ferrous ammonium sulfate (FASt) on rice production. Eight treatments were applied, namely RDF- Recommended dose of fertilizer (N:P:K) (120:60:40), RDF + FASt at 15 kg/ha for soil application, RDF + FASt at 25 kg/ha for soil application, RDF + FASt at 35 kg/ha for soil application, RDF + 2 Spray of FASt 0.25% at 25 and 45 DAT, RDF + 2 Spray of FASt 0.50% at 25 and 45 DAT, RDF + 1 Spray of FASt 0.25% at 25 DAT, RDF + 1 Spray of FASt 0.50% at 25 DAT. The studies revealed that applying FASt to transplanted rice significantly increased grain yield over the control. All the growth parameters and yield attributes were found highest in the treatment soil application of ferrous ammonium sulfate (FASt) at 35 kg/ha with a recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) and more effective comparatively foliar application of FASt at 0.25% and 0.50%. It recorded a maximum grain yield (5188 kg/ha) with a higher harvest index (38.85).</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Elite Genotypes of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) for Genetic Variability, Correlation Studies and Path Coefficient Analysis 2022-11-02T10:10:57+00:00 S. Prameela G. Roopa Lavanya J. P. Ekka S. Shanmukha Saikumar <p>An experiment was conducted to assess the induced genetic variability with a view to identify encouraging genotypes for yield and related traits in linseed. Sixteen linseed (<em>Linum usitatissimum</em> L.) genotypes were evaluated in randomized block design in three replications during <em>rabi</em> 2021-2022 for thirteen agro morphological characters to estimate the genetic parameters of variability. Analyses of variance specify presence of wide range of genetic variability among genotypes for all the characters. The higher phenotypic coefficient values than corresponding genotypic coefficient values depicted influence of environment in the expression of characters. Harvest index exhibited highest GCV and PCV (24.284 and 25.232) value while the lowest GCV and PCV was observed for days to maturity (4.998 and 5.757). High rate of PCV and GCV indicates sufficient variability, denotes the effectiveness of the selection of desirable types for development of such traits. The high expected genetic advance expressed as percentage of mean were recorded for final plant stand followed by initial plant stand, harvest index and capsules per plant. High heritability was observed for chlorophyll. Path analysis released, direct and in direct effect. Highest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant was shown plant height (0.371) followed by number of primary branches (0.39), final plant stand (0.245), days to first flowering (0.21) and harvest index (0.114). The obtained results could be used further in breeding programmes.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Iron and Zinc Bio-fortification through Agronomic Intervention in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) 2022-11-03T10:18:27+00:00 Hanwate Pavankumar Sheshrao Sunil Kumar . Gajanand Devilal Birla Sanju Choudhary Devendra Singh <p>Essential micronutrients are required for humans to sustain proper physiological body processes and a healthy health condition. Micronutrient deficiencies, such as iron, zinc, and iodine, create global health concerns for people. Zinc and iron&nbsp;deficiency are frequent in chickpea growing regions across the world. Bio-fortification of pulse grains, especially with Fe and Zn by agronomic bio-fortification, is the simplest, most practical, and quickest method. During the <em>Rabi</em> season of 2019–20, a field experiment was done at the <em>Bairiya Dhab Research Farm of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University</em>, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar, India, to find out effect on chickpea genotypes when Zn and Fe were added to the soil and the leaves. Two genotypes (GCP-105 and GNG-2264) and seven fertilization treatments (control, 0.5% Zn, 0.5% Fe, soil application of Zn and Fe, 25 and 15 kg/ha, respectively) were used in a split plot design with three replications. The GNG-2264 variety had a significantly higher plant height, yield and yield characteristics, such as number of pods per plant, test weight, seed and straw yield and economics <em>viz.</em> gross return, net return (62860 and 37986 ₹/ha), and B: C ratio (2.52) than GCP-105. Among the fertilization treatments, RDF + Zn (0.5%) and Fe (0.5%) foliar spraying at the pre-flowering and pod development stage recorded significantly higher growth and yield parameters <em>viz.,</em> plant height (59.89 cm), number of pods/plant (22.31), seed yield (1283 kg/ha) and straw yields 2433 kg/ha), and quality parameters such as zinc and iron content in seed (31.84 and 17.40 ppm) and straw (72.26, 21.79 ppm, respectively) and economics in term of gross return, net return, and B: C ratio.</p> 2022-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Yield and Economics of Kharif Onion (Allium cepa L.) under Front Line Demonstration in Eastern Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh, India 2022-11-03T10:21:46+00:00 Rajneesh Srivastava Kamlesh Meena Ajay Tiwari Neeraj Singh T. K. Behera <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To disseminate the technology among the farmers through front line demonstration on Kharif onions for enhanced the production and fetching the more income.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Not applicable.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> ICAR-IIVR-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deoria, conducted front-line demonstrations on kharif onion at farmers' fields during the kharif season 2017, 2018, and 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Conducted 33 front-line demonstrations at farmers' fields during the study period. The yield data were recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> To increase the output of onions through enhanced production technology, 33 front line demonstration on kharif onion were conducted. According to the demonstrations that were undertaken, the improved variety of kharif onions (NHRDF Agrifound dark Red) produced an average yield of 274.4 q/ha, which was greater than the average yield of&nbsp;&nbsp; check (N-53) i.e. 228.83 q/ha. The average yield improvement over farmer techniques was 19.91%. It was noted that the average extension gap was 45.57 q/ha. The economics of the data showed that, on average, in demonstrations, gross returns were (277453.3/ha), net returns were (191184/ha), and benefit cost ratio was (3.2) as opposed to&nbsp; check (Niphad-53), where gross returns were 204160/ha, net returns were 122423.3/ha and benefit cost ratio was (2.5).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The average yield enhancement over farmer techniques was 19.91%. It was noted that the average extension gap was 45.57 q/ha. The economics of the data showed that, on average, in demonstrations, gross returns were (277453.3/ha), net returns were (191184/ha), and benefit cost ratio was (3.2). Front line demonstration is one of the most important tools for technology transfer to the farmers&nbsp;at the grassroots level that has a significant effect on the horizontal spread of technology as well as build up the strong interaction with the farmer communities.</p> 2022-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Nanoscale Zinc Oxide Particle on the Growth, Yield and Soil Properties under Agency Area of Andhra Pradesh 2022-11-04T10:15:56+00:00 P. Venkata Ramana T. N. K. V. Prasad Sandeep Naik G. Jogi Naidu <p>Field experiment was carried out on silt clay loam soils at Regional Agricultural Research station, Chintapalle, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh during 2018-2020 to study the yield of response of rainfed groundnut with different levels of Nano particulate zinc oxide application along with NPK Fertilizers. The experiment consisting of eight treatments, three replications with RDF design. Results of nano&nbsp; particulate zinc oxide on pod yield showed that (24.36 Q/ha) in the RDF+ nano scale zinc oxide level @&nbsp; 200 ppm at 25 and 45 DAS was increased over to that of normal recommended dose of N,P,K fertilizers (100% RDF) which recorded pod yield of 17.14&nbsp; Q/ha only. Application of ZnSO<sub>4</sub> through soil along with RDF showed good results (17.24 Q/ha) than RDF + Foliar application of ZnSO<sub>4</sub> @ 2g/lit at 25 and 45 DAS (20.66 Q/ha). Application of micronutrient (ZnO) had helped in further increase in grain yields at both levels of ZnO (150% and 200% ZnO at 25 and 45 DAS). Among different treatments, significantly higher yield (24.36 Q/ha) was recorded with application of RDF + Foliar application of ZnO @ 200 ppm at 25 and 45 DAS than the only with RDF (17.4 Q/ha). With respect to method of application of ZnSO4 through soil and foliar application ZnSo4 @ 2g/lit at 25 and 45 DAS was found to be higher both levels of RDF (Pod yield of 14.6 Q/ha at RDF + Soil application of ZnSO4 @ 50 kg ha-1 and 17.24 Q/ha at RDF+ foliar application of ZnSO4@ 2g/lit at 25 and 45 DAS). With respect to other plant characteristics, comparatively more plant height (43.53 cm) at RDF + foliar application of ZnO @ 200 ppm at 25 and 45 DAS. Regarding yield attributes significantly higher test weight (30.9 g) were recorded at RDF + 200 ppm ZnO at 25 and 45 DAS. Post –harvest soil sample analysis showed highest availability of nutrients in respect of soil, the results revealed that there was no significance difference among the treatments regarding Avail. N, Available K and pH. The lowest Phosphorus (17.20 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded with RDF+&nbsp; Foliar application of&nbsp; nanoscale ZnO&nbsp; 200 ppm at 25 &amp; 45 DAS and highest (24.46 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded in T<sub>9</sub> (RDF+&nbsp; Foliar application of&nbsp; nanoscale ZnO&nbsp; 100 ppm at 25 &amp; 45 DAS). &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>An investigation was initiated at Department of Soil science, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Chintapalle to examine the effects of nano zinc oxide on Groundnut (<em>Arachis hypogea </em>L<em>.</em>) growth, yield and Zn content in Leaves, stem and roots. A field experiment consisted of nine treatments comprised of T<sub>1</sub>: control, T<sub>2</sub>: RDF, T<sub>3</sub>: RDF+ Soil application ZnSO<sub>4</sub>@ 50 Kg/ha, T<sub>4</sub>: RDF+ Foliar application ZnSO<sub>4</sub> 2 g/L at 25 &amp; 45DAS, T<sub>5</sub>: RDF+ Foliar application of&nbsp; nanoscale ZnO&nbsp; 150 ppm at 25 &amp; 45 DAS, T<sub>6</sub>: RDF+&nbsp; Foliar application of&nbsp; nanoscale ZnO&nbsp; 200 ppm at 25 &amp; 45 DAS, T<sub>7</sub>: RDF+&nbsp; Foliar application of&nbsp; nanoscale ZnO&nbsp; 400 ppm at 25 &amp; 45 DAS, T<sub>8</sub>: RDF+&nbsp; Foliar application of&nbsp; nanoscale ZnO&nbsp; 50 ppm at 25 &amp; 45 DAS, T<sub>9</sub>: RDF+&nbsp; Foliar application of&nbsp; nanoscale ZnO&nbsp; 100 ppm at 25 &amp; 45 DAS.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth Parameters, Yield Components and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Central Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh 2022-11-05T11:15:45+00:00 Himani Verma R. K. Pathak Anil Kumar Ravindra Sachan Hanuman Prasad Pandey Abhishek Tiwari Abhishek Singh Yadav <p>Field experiments were conducted to studies effect of integrated nutrient management on growth parameters, yield components and yield of wheat during rabi season of 2020-21 and 2021-22 at students instructional farm, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture &amp; Technology, Kanpur. The experiment consist of 10 treatments combinations in randomized block design with three replications consisted of different combination of inorganic fertilizer, organic manure and biofertilizer. Wheat variety HD-2967 was grown with the recommended agronomic practices. On the basis of results emanated from investigation it can be concluded that among the growth parameters maximum plant height at maturity was 109.25 cm and 110.12, maximum number of effective tillers is 352.67 and 355.72 and maximum spike length is 13.55 cm and 13.79 cm are associated with the treatment T<sub>10</sub> [100%NPK + FYM + S<sub>30</sub>+ Zn<sub>5 </sub>+<em>Azotobacter </em>+ PSB] during the both years of experimentation. Similarly, among the yield components and productivity parameters maximum values in relation to number of spikelet ear<sup>-1</sup>, grain ear<sup>-1</sup>, 1000 grain wt. (gm), grain yield (q ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yield (q ha<sup>-1</sup>) were found in the treatment T<sub>10</sub> [100%NPK+FYM+S<sub>30</sub>+Zn<sub>5</sub>+<em>Azotobacter</em>+ PSB].</p> 2022-11-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determining The Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Yield and Quality of Guava (Psidium guajava L. Cv. Allahabad Safeda) 2022-11-05T12:44:58+00:00 . Lanusungit V. M. Prasad Vijay Bahadur Shilpa Rana <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Guava (<em>Psidium guajava </em>L.) is a member of the family Myrtaceae and the order Myrtales which is 4<sup>th</sup> most important crop in India after mango, increasing productivity. Therefore, In addition to Plant growth regulator are required for proper growth, yield and quality of guava.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The experiment comprised of 10 treatments of different levels of PGR replicated thrice in a Randomized Block Design. The main objective of the experiment was to find out the effect of different PGR on growth, quality as well as to evaluate the yield and yield attributes of guava. Three concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) at 100, 150 and 200 ppm, three concentrations of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 50, 100, and 150 ppm, and three concentrations of Brassinosteriods at 200, 400, and 600 ppm.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>So, to find out Effect of Plant Growth Regulators and Brassinosteroids on Growth, Yield and Quality of Guava (<em>Psidium Guajava</em> L. Cv. Allahabad Safeda") A field experiment was conducted at the Central Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj, during 2021- 22.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Treatment T9, which consisted of the T9 (Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) @150ppm) had the best effect on Plant&nbsp; height (335.7 cm), number of flowers per plant (61.3), fruiting buds per plant (151.8), number of fruits per plant (48.23), fruit weight (137.7 g), Fruit length (5.36 cm), fruit diameter (7.33), weight of pulp/fruit (104.57 g), weight of seed/fruit (6.74 g), total soluble salts (TSS) (10.97<sup>○</sup> Brix), vitamin C content (188.52 gm) ,total sugar (8.03), acidity (1.27 %) and yield (33.3 t/ha).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>According to the present investigation it is concluded that treatment T9 T9 (Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) @150 ppm) was found most effective in terms of growth, yield and quality of Guava (<em>Psidium Guajava</em> L. Cv. Allahabad Safeda").</p> 2022-11-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdcourt) Genotypes Cropped on Plinthite Soil in the Semi Arid-Zone, Burkina Faso 2022-11-07T07:03:39+00:00 Hervé Nandkangre Koulibi Fidèle Zongo Diane Judicaëlle Kambou Boukaré Nikiema Adjima Ouoba Hamed Mahamadi Ouedraogo Moussa N. Golo Konaté Aimé Séverin Kima Mahama Ouedraogo <p>Bambara groundnut (<em>Vigna subterranea</em> [L.] Verdcourt) is grown mainly as a food crop in Burkina Faso. Despite its high nutritional value, it has been among the most neglected crops in the country. This study was undertaken with the objective to investigating the effects of genotypes on the physiological traits, yield and yield related traits of the crop and thereby identify the genotypes having better performance for yield and yield related traits. The field experiment was conducted at the Tenkodogo University Centre site, during the 2021 rainy season. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications and eight genotypes were obtained from INERA germplam bank. Data were collected on number of days to 50% field emergence, number of days from sowing to 50% flowering, number of leaves per plant, plant height, plant spread, number of pods per plant, number of one seed per pod, number of two seeds per pod, weight of seeds per plant seed length, seed width,100-seed weight and yield. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance, and means were separated through Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at 95% confidence. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients between pair of characters were computed using SPSS 2.0. Results showed that significant and highly significant variations were observed among genotypes for almost all studied characters, except plant spread and number of one seed per pod.&nbsp; Majority of the characters had positive correlations. Most of the negative correlation was observed between physiologic and agronomic traits. The result showed that genotypes KVS97-2 (33.75 days; 1578.12 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>); KVS360 (34.75 days; 1181 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>) and KVS235 (34.5 days; 1167.19 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>) performed better than others genotypes in yield parameters and had shorter flowering cycle.</p> 2022-11-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Variability and Character Association Studies in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum. L) 2022-11-07T09:27:35+00:00 T. Harish Vikram T. Haritha H. N. Satyanarayana M. Swapna V. Jayalakshmi <p>Present study was conducted with an objective of knowing degree of variability and association studies among 64 chickpea genotypes including both <em>desi</em> and <em>kabuli</em> for 13 quantitative and six quality traits during <em>Rabi</em> 2021-22. High PCV and GCV estimates were observed for total number of seeds per plant followed by number of pods per plant, biological yield, tannic acid, 100 seed weight and seed yield. Low estimates were found for phenological traits like days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity and quality parameters like protein content, phytic acid. High heritability and high genetic advance as per cent mean was shown by total number of seeds per plant, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant and harvest index indicating the influence of additive gene action. Character association studies revealed that number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, total number of seeds per plant and 100 seed weight showed positive significant correlation with seed yield. Some of the quality parameters like total free amino acid, phytic acid, total flavonoids were also associated positively with seed yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed that days to first flowering, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant and number of pods per plant showed positive correlation due to their positive direct effect on seed yield. Hence knowledge about these biometrical techniques help in designing the selection procedure for effective exploitation of variability and the association of traits with yield for chickpea improvement.</p> 2022-11-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Standardization of Drying Techniques of Rose, Carnation, Gerbera and Value-Added Products 2022-11-08T07:56:21+00:00 Mulla Rubina Samir Ebson Topno <p>The present experiment was carried out to standardize drying methods for Rose (<em>Rosa</em> L.), Carnations (<em>Dianthus caryophyllus</em> L.), and Gerbera (<em>Gerbera</em> L.), and to assess the influence of the drying quality of the dried flowers to make various value-added products. Flowers of Rose, Carnation, and Gerbera Aster were subjected to five different drying methods viz., shade drying method without embedding medium (T1), with sand embedding (T2) and with silica gel embedding (T3), microwave oven drying with sand (T4) and silica gel embedding (T5). Data were statistically analyzed in Completely Randomized Design. The results indicated that in physiological parameters significantly maximum reduction of weight was observed in Rose (1.14g), Carnation (3.44g), and Gerbera (3.44g). Whereas significantly maximum flower perimeter reduction in Rose (11.14cm), Carnation (11.64cm), and Gerbera (18.17cm) was observed in the shade drying method. Maximum quality score regarding color, appearance, texture, and no shattering of dried flowers of Carnation (15.7) was recorded in microwave oven drying with silica gel as embedding medium, in Rose’s highest score (15.7) was observed in microwave oven with sand as embedding medium and in Gerbera (15.51) was given to microwave oven drying within silica gel embedding treatment while shade dried without embedded flowers showed minimum quality score in Rose, Carnation, and Gerbera (3.6, 1.5, 2.52) respectively. Best results were obtained with overall acceptability, quality of flowers, and flower preservation in Rose –treatment T3 (shade drying with silica gel as embedding medium), Carnation- treatment T5 (microwave oven drying with silica gel as embedding medium), Gerbera T4 (microwave oven drying with river sand as embedding medium).</p> 2022-11-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Weed Management Practices on the Weed Dynamics, Nutrient Uptake Pattern of Weeds and Direct Seeded Rice 2022-11-09T12:06:04+00:00 Kommireddy Poojitha K. N. Kalyana Murthy M. T. Sanjay G. N. Dhanapal <p>Herbicide based weed management is the emerging and effective method for controlling the weed flora of direct seeded rice. Weed growth often has an impact on crop development by interfering with plant nutrients. A two-year weed&nbsp;experiment with twelve treatments was set up at the University of Agricultural Sciences in Bangalore, Karnataka, India to know the effect of weed management practices on weed and nutrient dynamics in direct seeded rice. Significantly lower total weed density and biomass was observed with bispyribac sodium 10 SC 40 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> as post emergence which recorded statistically at par values with bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor 6.6 GR 660 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> as pre-emergence during both the years of study. The allelochemicals used in the study performed well over unweeded control but it was far less when compared with chemical herbicides. Nutrient uptake by the direct seeded rice (82.17, 31.76 and 68.83 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPK in 2020 and 89.38, 38.84 and 75.62 ha<sup>-1</sup> NPK in 2021, respectively) and grain yield (4.98 t ha<sup>-1</sup> in 2020 and 4.99 t ha<sup>-1</sup> in 2021, respectively) was also reported to be higher with bispyribac sodium 10 SC 40 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> as post emergence which was on par with bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor 6.6 GR 660 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> as pre-emergence. As the nutrient uptake by the crop and weeds are negatively correlated, the same treatments have recorded lower nutrient removal by the weeds. Higher weed biomass and rapid nutrient removal by weeds had resulted in poor soil nutritional status in unweeded control compared to all other treatments. Application of bispyribac sodium 10 SC 40 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> as post emergence or bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor 6.6 GR 660 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> as pre-emergence&nbsp; were considered to be best management practices for weed management under direct seeded &nbsp;rice.</p> 2022-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Rice Allelochemical, Mulch and Herbicides on Growth of Wheat under Different Crop Establishment Methods 2022-11-09T12:34:11+00:00 Sadhana Kumari Ramesh Kr. Singh Ajay Kumar <p>In India wheat is grown mostly after rice in Rice-wheat system, which effects the establishment of wheat crop because field requirement of both crop is different so there is need of studying other better crop establishment methods for wheat. This experiment was carried out in research farm of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh in split plot design with three replication, where three different crop establishment methods i.e. conventional method, raised bed and zero-till in main plot and in subplot five different weed control practices along with control (weedy check) allotted. From the observation it found that plant height of crop was significantly higher in zero-till plot than conventional and raised bed method. Among weed management practices rice residue as mulch @ 4 t ha-1 fb clodinofop propargyl + metsulfuron @ 100% of recommended dose ( 2-4 leaf stage of weed), Clodinofop propargyl @ 60g a.i. ha-1 + metsulfuron @ 4g a.i. ha-1 , Rice residue as mulch @ 4 t ha-1 fb rice extract (10gL-1) at 2-4 leaf stage of weed , two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS, Clodinofop propargyl @ 75% of recommended dose + rice extract (10gL-1) at 2-4 leaf stage of weed gave significantly higher plant height than weedy check plot. For higher yield, growth of crop must be enhanced so it’s better to go for zero-till sowing for wheat than conventional method.</p> 2022-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Foliar Application of Panchagavya and Fish Extracts and Application of Organic Substances on Yield and Quality of Ash Gourd under Organic Farming 2022-11-10T08:42:01+00:00 V. Dhanushkodi R. Nageswari <p>Recently, farmers are shifting to organic farming and are interested in the adoption of various plant and animal waste as nutrient sources in organic agriculture to supply the nutrients for getting the expected yield.&nbsp; Currently, farmers believe that the application of panchagavya and fish extracts play a major role in enhancing the biological efficiency of crop plants.&nbsp; Hence, a field study was conducted to assess the effect of foliar application of panchagavya, fish extracts and organic substances on yield and quality of ash gourd under organic farming during <em>Kharif</em>, &nbsp;&nbsp;2020 at Murungai village in Tiruchirappalli district of Tamil Nadu. The results of the study indicated that foliar application of Panchgavya @ 3%, and fish extracts @ 0.5% along with soil application of FYM @25 t/ha, Groundnut cake @ 100 kg/ha and Neem cake @ 200kg/ha recorded significantly higher fruit yield (25.55 t/ha) compared to other treatments. Further, nutrient contents of ash gourd were studied under various foliar applications of organics and the fruit pulp was used for analysis. The quality parameters viz., protein content of fruit (0.54 g/100 g), Fat (0.13 g/100 g), carbohydrate (2.44 g/100 g), Fibre (1.14g/100 g), Zinc (0.14mg/100 g), Iron&nbsp; (0.44 mg/100 g) recorded were significantly higher with the application of Panchagavya, fish extract and oil cake application. Therefore, it is found that foliar application of Panchgavya @ 3%, and Fish extracts @ 0.5% along with FYM (25 t/ha), Groundnut cake (100 kg/ha) and Neem cake (200 kg/ha) could be used for getting more yield under organic farming system.&nbsp;</p> 2022-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Performance of Chickpea in Bundelkhand Region of North India 2022-11-10T10:08:35+00:00 Veerendra Singh Amit Mishra A. K. Chaubey G. S. Panwar Ravindra Sachan Rajesh Pal Deepak Kumar Abhishek Tiwari <p>A field experiment was carried out on chickpea crop during <em>Rabi</em>&nbsp;season 2020-21. The experiments were conducted on heavy clay soil at Agriculture Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Banda University of Agriculture &amp; Technology, Banda. The experimental design was randomized block design with eight integrated nutrient management treatments viz. farmer fertilizer practice (T<sub>1</sub>), 100 % RDF (T<sub>2</sub>), 100% RDF + FYM (T<sub>3</sub>), 100 % RDF + FYM + Zn (10 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) (T<sub>4</sub>), 125 % RDF + FYM+ microbial inoculants (MI)&nbsp; (T<sub>5</sub>), 100 % RDF + FYM+MI (T<sub>6</sub>), 75% RDF + FYM+MI (T<sub>7</sub>) and 50 % RDF +FYM+MI (T<sub>8</sub>), all treatments were replicated thrice. The FYM was applied @ 2 t acre<sup>-1</sup>. The experimental results revealed that application of 125% and 100 % RDF along with FYM and microbial inoculants increased significantly nodule number, nodule weight per plant and number of pods per plant, thereby increased grain yield of chickpea significantly in comparison to farmers fertilizer practice (T<sub>1</sub>), sole application of 100 % RDF (T<sub>2</sub>) and 50 % reduction of RDF along with FYM and microbial inoculants (T<sub>8</sub>).</p> 2022-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determination of Horizon, Its Boundary and Depth in the Soil Profiles of North Western Himalayas 2022-11-10T13:37:41+00:00 Owais Bashir Shabir Ahmad Bangroo Nasir Bashir Naikoo Aamir Hassan Mir Sandeep Kumar Rehana Rasool Hafsa Abdullah Lareb Mir Omer Reshi <p>The scientific study of the soil started almost 70-80 years ago with two school of thoughts, one worked in the lab and others in field. The main aim of the researchers studying in the field was to determine the profiles of soil along with its horizons so as to extent the knowledge on physical, chemical and biological properties. The distinctness of soil with depth means that soil has unique profile. All the soils in the world has some specific depth functions. The change of soil color or soil texture in a soil profile can be considered a good indicator of the soil formation and process and has been used as a proxy for degree of development or soil age. Uniform, gradational and rapidly changing soil textures are examples of soil profile forms used for soil classification. In the current study we studied twelve profiles having four different land uses and observed several horizons having various boundaries. The upper horizons were having diffused and wavy boundaries than the lower horizons. There was seen a clear relationship between the horizons and the various land uses. The study is very important as the soils in Himalayas are not very well developed and are prone to erosion. The study will help researchers and policy makers.</p> 2022-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of Cowpea Variety (Kashi Kanchan) under Front Line Demonstration in Eastern Part of Uttar Pradesh, India 2022-11-12T11:27:22+00:00 Rajneesh Srivastva Kamlesh Meena Anup Pratap Singh Neeraj Singh T. K. Behera <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To promote technology among vegetable growers through front-line demonstrations on Cowpea var. Kashi Kanchan in order to increase production and earn more money.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Not applicable.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>ICAR-IIVR-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deoria, conducted front-line demonstrations on cowoea var, Kashi Kanchan at farmers' fields in the Deoria District of Eastern Uttar Pradesh during the Zaid season 2019 and 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>During the study period, 45 front-line demonstrations at farmers' fields were undertaken to analyse the extension gap of cow pea. The yield data was collected and examined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> According to the demonstrations that were undertaken, the improved variety of cowpea produced an average green pod yield up to 18.18% over farmers practice. Average net return was increased (25.90%) over local (long duration pole type and photo sensitive) varieties during both the year of demonstration. The benefit-cost ratio of two years from demonstrated technology was higher over farmer’s practices. The higher value of the\ B: C ratio (3.52) and net return (Rs. 1,08,275) indicates the more feasibly of the technology in eastern plain of Uttar Pradesh, India.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It has been revealed that the cultivation of an improved variety, together with better crop management techniques, significantly increased the productivity and income of cowpea growers. The farmers were quite delighted with the performance of the cowpea variety Kashi Kanchan and encouraged other farmers to do the same in their fields to aid the variety's horizontal spread.</p> 2022-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bulking Behaviour of Promising Potato Varieties in Northern Region of Bangladesh 2022-11-12T11:40:46+00:00 Muhammad Waliur Rahman Saiful Islam Md. Zakaria Masud Md. Mohiuddin Sheikh <p>The experiment was conducted at Breeder Seed Production Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Debiganj, Panchagarh during November to February of 2014-2015 to learn about the bulking behavior of promising potato varieties in Bangladesh with the suitable time of harvest for getting desirable yield. The experiment was employed with randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six harvesting time at 10 days interval started from 40 days after planting (DAP) and continued up to 90 DAP. Six promising potato varieties such as Bari Alu 40 (4.45w), Bari Alu 41 (5.183), Bari Alu42 (Agila), Bari Alu 43 (Atlas), Bari Alu 44 (Elgar) and Bari Alu 45 (Steffi) were included in the study. Tuber yield was increased up to 90 DAP for all the varieties. The highest tuber yield (55.86ton/ha) was recorded in Bari Alu 45 (Steffi) and the lowest yield of tuber was observed in Bari Alu 43 (Atlas) at 90 DAP. The tuber yield increase rate of Bari Alu 45 (Steffi), Bari Alu 41 (5.183), Bari Alu 42 (Agila) and Bari Alu 40 (4.45w) were reasonable up to 90 DAP, while the increase rate of Bari Alu 43 (Atlas) was reasonable up to 80 DAP and Bari Alu 44 (Elgar) was up to 70 DAP. Bari Alu 44 (Elgar) may be harvested as early variety among the varieties. The percent dry matter was increased up to 90 DAP for all the varieties. The growth rate of tuber was higher at 60–70 DAP for all the varieties except Bari Alu 41 (5.183). In case of Bari Alu&nbsp; 41 (5.183) tuber growth rate was higher at 70-80 DAP. Finally, our study demonstrated that, the optimal period to harvest potatoes is 90 days after planting (DAP), when the tubers are at their largest size, have the most yield, and have accumulated the maximum dry matter.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Coconut Shell Biochar on Physical, Chemical Properties and Available Major Nutrient Status of Acidic Soil 2022-11-14T07:31:36+00:00 D. S. Rohitha B. Mamatha Nagappa Desai K. M. Srinivas Reddy B. Gayathri H. C. Prakasha <p>The effect of coconut shell biochar addition on the physical and chemical properties of acidic soil such as soil bulk density, maximum water holding capacity, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), available major nutrients were investigated in a field experiment with soybean. This study was conducted by application of coconut shell biochar in combination with recommended Lime. The coconut shell biochar was applied at three rates (5, 7.5 and 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and lime (calcium carbonate) was applied at two rates (100% and 50% recommendation) to acidic soil. Amendment type, application rate, and their interaction had significant effects (p &lt; 0.05) on soil bulk density, maximum water holding capacity, pH, EC, and available major nutrients after the harvest of soybean Application of coconut shell biochar at 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> in combination with 50% recommended lime had shown a relatively higher improvement in soil physical and chemical properties after the harvest of soybean.</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inheritance Pattern of Important Qualitative Traits in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) 2022-11-14T12:11:24+00:00 Yengkhom Linthoingambi Devi Rajeev Shrivastava Roshan Parihar <p>Safflower is an important oilseed crop with poorly studied genetic inheritance of the characters. In this study genetically diverse parents were selected which had many contrasting qualitative traits. The parents used in the study were GMU-1217, GMU- 6854, GMU-6891, GMU-2830, EC 755673 and EC755664. Crosses were made between the parents. Observations of parental traits, traits appearing in F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2 </sub>were studied and the data were analysed for goodness of fit by χ<sup>2 </sup>test for appropriate ratio. A total of seven qualitative characters were studied, they were, branching type, mode of branching, mode of spininess, length of bract, leaf dentation, form of leaf shape, flower colour change at maturity, segregation in F<sub>2</sub> generation for different traits showed the presence of either complementary or inhibitory gene action for all the characters studied while other crosses were found to have a combination of both monogenic and digenic gene action.A proper knowledge of inheritance of Agronomic traits helps in planning of efficient strategy for further crop improvement.</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physiological Traits as the Primary Tool for Screening Salt Tolerance in Rice 2022-11-15T05:18:53+00:00 K. Vanitha P. Shanthi K. Subrahmaniyan <p>Salt stress is a common abiotic stress that significantly restricts crop development and productivity. Physiological alterations in response to salt stress were assessed for fourteen rice varieties during the panicle initiation stage at 120mM NaCl. Statistical analysis program (SPSS 15.0) was used to carry out the study. Under salt stress, all the rice varieties were assessed manifested a reduction in chlorophyll accumulation, stable chlorophylls, membranes and hydration status. On the other hand, all the varieties showed an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide dismutase activity. It is noteworthy that the rice varieties <em>surakuruvai, kaivarasamba, mallam punchai, </em>and<em> mappillai samba</em> had better levels of salt tolerance than the salt-sensitive ones due to increased SOD activity, proline accumulation, relative water content, chlorophyll, and membrane stability index. The ability to tolerate salt during the reproductive stage under field conditions will be further investigated using these varieties.</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Planting Time on Yield and Quality of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Varieties 2022-11-15T10:24:11+00:00 Sandeep Kaur Puja Rattan A. H. Reddy Anju Pathania <p>The present investigation was conducted during rabi season of 2020 at Experimental Farm of Vegetable Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, DAV University, Jalandhar to study the effect of different dates of sowing <em>viz</em>., 9 October, 24 October and 8 November and three cultivars, Supriya, All Green, Punjab Green on growth, yield and quality of spinach. The experiment was conducted in a Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications. Observations were recorded on days to emergence, days to complete germination, plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, leaf area (cm<sup>2</sup>), fresh yield per plot, total fresh yield per hectare, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, days to 50% bolting, number of branches, days to harvesting, seed yield per plot and yield per hectare. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among date of sowings, cultivars and interaction effect of dates of sowing and cultivars for all characters under study. It was observed that plants sown on 9 October resulted in superior performance for most of the traits studied. Among cultivars, desirable results were observed in All Green. Considering the interaction of date of sowing and cultivars it was concluded that All Green sown on 9 October can result in superior performance with respect to growth, yield and quality parameters of spinach.</p> 2022-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Ergonomic Assessment of Manually Operated Modified Linseed Crop Thresher 2022-11-15T11:08:23+00:00 Naveendra Kumar Patel Sheen Cline Moses Rana Noor Aalam <p>Manually operated modified linseed crop thresher was developed from ergonomics considerations. Anthropometric data were taken in selected age subjects 25-40 years for male workers. Anthropometric data regarding body dimensions were obtained for male workers from SHUATS, Prayagraj. During the methods of threshing operation (thresher and traditional method) the working heart rate was recorded with proper technique and oxygen consumption rate, energy expenditure rate and body parts discomfort scoring was obtained. The heart rate, oxygen consumption, energy expenditure rate and BPDS were obtained in the mean value 115.19 beats/min, 0.63 l/min, 9.59 kJ/min and 44.93 for thresher operating whereas 127.56 beats/min, 0.77 l/min, 11.56 kJ/min and 55.43 for traditional method operating.</p> 2022-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Micronutrients on Yield of Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cv. Kagzi Lime 2022-11-16T09:59:15+00:00 D. M. Dabhi M. V. Patel N. K. Joshi T. D. Gurjar Mukesh Kumar <p>The present investigation was carried out during <em>Ambe bahar</em> 2019 at Horticultural Instructional Farm, C. P. College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, District: Banaskantha, Gujarat. The present experiment consist fifteen treatments with three replications which was laid out in a Randomized Block Design. The findings of the present studies indicated that the treatment ZnSO<sub>4</sub> 0.5% + FeSO<sub>4</sub> 0.5% + Borax 0.2% (T<sub>8</sub>) was significantly superior with respect to yield over rest of the other treatments. Further, results revealed that the maximum fruit diameter (4.58 cm), average fruit weight (44.06 g), fruit volume (43.83 cc), number of fruit per tree (946), fruit yield (41.68 kg per tree) and total fruit yield (115.46 quintal per hectare) were recorded with treatment ZnSO<sub>4</sub> 0.5% + FeSO<sub>4</sub> 0.5% + Borax 0.2% (T<sub>8</sub>) as compared to other treatments.</p> 2022-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Total Phenol Content of some Common Paddy Cultivars of Odisha with the Application of Biofertilizer in Assessing Resistance to Meloidogyne graminicola 2022-11-16T10:17:05+00:00 Subhrasree Mishra Byomakesh Dash Niranjan Das Gayatri Biswal Kailash Chandra Samal Subhashis Saren <p>The total phenol content of four common paddy cultivars of Odisha namely Abhisek (R), Manik (MR), Bas-12 (S) and Lalat (HS) were studied under pot culture condition in the net house following CRD design under different treatments using biofertilizer A<em>zospirillum. brasilense </em>alone or in combinations against rice root-knot nematode <em>Meloidogyne graminicola</em>. The objective of&nbsp; the work was to study the quantitative changes in phenolic compounds content and the effect of&nbsp; <em>A.brasilense</em> in the induction of phenolic compounds on the test nematode. It was observed&nbsp; that there was a significant increase in total phenol content in both resistant and moderately resistant paddy cultivars Abhisek and Manik in treatment T<sub>2</sub>&nbsp; (<em>Azospirillum brasilense</em> @ 12kg/ha at 15DAT + <em>M. graminicola</em> @ 1000J2 after 7days of <em>Azospirillum </em>inoculation) were seen higher than the susceptible variety Bas-12 and highly susceptible variety Lalat&nbsp; as compared&nbsp; to control T<sub>5 </sub>with increase percentage of 38.77%, 36.58%, 35.02% and 39.28% respectively in shoots. Similarly the trend was continued in roots containing total phenol content of 0.25mg/g&nbsp; in Abhisek, 0.18mg/g&nbsp; in Manik, 0.21mg/g in Bas-12 and 0.19mg/g in Lalat as compared to&nbsp; other treatments. There were increase in percentage of change (<em>p</em>≤0.05) in roots under treatment T<sub>3 </sub>(<em>A</em> alone) in all the four varieties followed by T<sub>2 </sub>(A→N)<sub>,</sub> and T<sub>1 </sub>(N→A) with respect to control T<sub>5.</sub> Basically, shoots of control plants in all four cultivars were observed more content of phenolic compounds than their roots. But after <em>M. graminicola</em> invasion and the action of <em>A. brasilense</em> the amount increased&nbsp; in both the roots and shoots of all the cultivars. The T<sub>4 </sub>(N alone) treatment in all the R, MR, S and HS varieties were recorded higher as compare to T<sub>5 </sub>but less than the treatments T<sub>3,</sub> T<sub>2, </sub>and T<sub>1 </sub>in both roots and shoots against the test nematode, which could exacerbating for eco-friendly RKN management approach.</p> 2022-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Land use Change on Total Phosphorus and Its Fractions in North-Western Himalayas 2022-11-16T10:54:37+00:00 Owais Bashir Shabir Ahmad Bangroo Nasir Bashir Naikoo Sandeep Kumar Rehana Rasool Aamir Hassan Mir Sheikh Amjid Omer Reshi Roohi Jan Irfan gani Larieb Mir <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Conversion of land from forest to cropping has a serious effect on soil phosphorus and its fractions</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Land use is now widely understood to be a primary factor in environmental change across all time and space scales. The purpose of this research was to ascertain how different land uses affected the concentration of phosphorus in soil.&nbsp;Soil phosphorus (P) reserves are depleted when land is converted from natural vegetation to permanent agricultural cropping. The transformation of North-Western Himalayas from a forest-dominated to a grassland-dominated ecosystem is just one example of the diversity of land significantly less soil aggregation occurred when agricultural land was cleared of its native vegetation. Total organic carbon in soils was reduced when grassland was converted to cropland.&nbsp; Reduced total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations by 62-79% and organic phosphorus (Po) concentrations by 47-53%. Even though, the total silt+clay fraction's contribution was negligible, it contained a significant amount of C and Po reserves and the C/Po ratio has been holding fairly steady, they have proven to be more robust. This impact of cropping on soil P reserves has been demonstrated in research, but changing land use practices can alleviate these problems significantly.</p> 2022-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Distribution of Microorganisms and Fractionation of Sulphur in Anthropogenic Wetlands under Long-term Elevated CO2 Soil 2022-11-16T11:59:15+00:00 Nyamath Syed Subburamu Karthikeyan Balachandar Dhananjeyan Meena Suresh Sara Parwin Banu Kamaludeen <p>The fate of extra carbon accessing soil under elevated CO<sub>2</sub> levels, as well as the repercussions for plant nutrition, is primarily determined by soil microbe activity. However, most increased CO<sub>2</sub> research has reported changes usually increases in soil organic carbon and reduction in the pH of the soil which is merely the first step in understanding how soil processes are altered. We analyzed these variables by assessing enzyme activities and identifying the individual components impacted by high CO<sub>2</sub> and those that reflect changes in soil organic matter pools. The majority of the microbial variables studied showed a significant increase under eCO<sub>2</sub> conditions, The rise in dehydrogenase activity suggests that the increased biomass of bacteria coincided with an increase in their activity. The rise in phosphatase activities implies that organic matter breakdown is being stimulated overall. The sulphur fractions had a significantly increased number of substrates consumed by soil microorganisms under increasing CO<sub>2</sub>. Moreover, direct examination of data from these perspective&nbsp;steep shifts in soil biological activity points to possible areas of investigation.</p> 2022-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Different Varieties of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) 2022-11-16T13:09:11+00:00 J. Joble V. M. Prasad Vijay Bahadur <p>A research experiment was carried out at department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom university of agriculture, Technology and science, Prayagraj during the rabi season of year 2021-2022. The experiment were laid out in Randomized Block Design comprising of eight Varieties viz., Kashmiri, Japani 57, Panth Haritha; Green King, Sughanda, Simco 55, Simco s 33, Simco with three replications. Based on the present investigation, it is concluded that the treatment&nbsp; Japani 57was found to be superior all-over other treatments with respect to Plant height at 90 DAS (100.11 cm), Number of leaves per plant at 90 DAS (62.67 cm), number of primary branches&nbsp; (10.58 ),&nbsp; number of secondary branches (18.95), no of flower per umbellet (8.43), no of umbellets per plant (239.63), days of 50% flowering (44.93), no .of seeds per umbel (28), seed yield per plant(g) (6.03), seed yield per plot (kg) (478.67),seed yield per ha (q) (22.03)ascorbic acid (mg/100 gm) (160.50)content and TSS (5.98°Brix) of coriander under agro-climatic condition of Prayagraj. Among all other treatments, Japani 57 has obtained Highest Gross return, Net return, and Benefit Cost ratio (1:1.68) which states that it is economically profitable compared to all other treatments.</p> 2022-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Status of Nitrogen Pools Under Important Cropping Systems in Inceptisols and Vertisols of Northern Telangana, India 2022-11-17T10:46:02+00:00 V. Shalini A. Krishna Chaithanya K. Chandrashaker CH. Aruna Kumari <p>Vertisols have showed 11.58, 26.92 and 19.80 % higher amount of available nitrogen, 20.42, 36.65 and 16.72 % higher amount of total nitrogen in 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depths, respectively over inceptisols. CS<sub>1</sub> has maintained higher amount of available nitrogen content (237 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by CS<sub>2</sub> (219 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) &gt; CS<sub>4</sub> (189 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) &gt; CS<sub>3</sub> (184 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) at surface soil (0-15 cm). In vertisols, ammonical nitrogen contributed 48.72 percent to available N, whereas in inceptisols it was 44.46%. Nitrate nitrogen content was recorded significantly higher under vertisols at 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil depths. At 30-45 cm depth inceptisols recorded significantly higher values. However, NO<sub>3</sub>-N contributed 32.52 percent towards available N in inceptisols, whereas the share was 30.33 percent under vertisols. In the soil profile, percent contribution of ammonical nitrogen to available N followed as CS<sub>1</sub> &gt; CS<sub>4</sub> &gt; CS<sub>2</sub> &gt; CS<sub>3</sub> with the values 53.13, 48.26, 44.49 and 41.49 %. On the other hand, percent contribution of NO<sub>3</sub> –N towards available N followed different order as CS<sub>4</sub> (40.08%) &gt; CS<sub>3</sub> (37.42%) &gt; CS<sub>2</sub> (32.44%) &gt; CS<sub>1</sub> (20.92%).</p> 2022-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Irrigation Methods, Nutrient Management and Intercropping System on Grain Yield, Maize Equivalent Yield, Protein Content and Economics of Maize (Zea mays L.) 2022-11-18T11:18:59+00:00 Devendra Singh Mritunjay Kumar Devilal Birla . Gajanand Sameer Shrivastava <p>This study aims to determine Effect of Irrigation Methods, Nutrient Management and Intercropping System on Grain Yield, Maize Equivalent Yield, Protein Content and Economics of Maize (<em>Zea may</em>s L.). An experiment was conducted during the <em>rabi </em>season of 2020-21 at Tirhut College of Agriculture, Dholi (Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar). To study the effect of irrigation methods, nutrient management and intercropping system on grain yield, MEY, protein content and economics of maize (<em>Zea mays </em>L.). The growing of maize under drip irrigation recorded significantly higher grain yield (9.42 t/ha), MEY (11.67 t/ha), protein content (8.7%), gross returns (215942 ₹/ha), net returns (146679 ₹/ha) and B: C ratio (2.11) over furrow and surface irrigation. Application of nutrients as par STCR, recorded higher grain yield (9.24 t/ha), MEY (11.15 t/ha), protein content (8.57%), gross returns (206343 ₹/ha) and net returns (134893 ₹/ha) as compared to RDF and SSNM whereas, highest B: C ratio was noticed under RDF (1.94). Increment in grain yield (5.50 % and 12.14 %), MEY (18.16% and 18.84%), protein content (4.58 % and 7.87%), gross returns (15.85% and 15.37%), net returns (19.8% and 21.59%) and B: C ratio (13.10% and 19.41%) were observed under vegetable pea over lentil and rajmash intercropping respectively. Overall results revealed that irrigation applied through drip method, nutrient management through STCR and maize + vegetable pea intercropping system is a promising option for higher productivity, quality and profitability of maize.</p> 2022-11-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Farm-scale Mapping of Soil Phosphorus and Potassium Fractions Using Geostatistical Technique 2022-11-18T13:01:34+00:00 Tapan Gorai Nayan Ahmed Rabi Narayan Sahoo <p>Phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are two major nutrients for agricultural productivity and sustainability. The spatial variability maps of soil phosphorus and potassium content in surfacesoils collected through grid sampling technique were developed using geo-spatial technology for Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR-IARI) farm, New Delhi, India. Soil available P content (NaHCO3-P) and P-fractions such as NaOH extractable-P(NaOH-P), citrate-bicarbonate extractable P (CB-P), citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite extractable-P(CBD-P) and HCl extractable-P (HCl-P) through sequential fractionation techniques and K fractions(available-K and non-exchangeable-K) were estimated. In geostatistical technique, exploratory data analysis and semivariogram analysis for P &amp; K fractions were conducted and ordinary kriging was used for spatial interpolation and mapping. On average basis, among the P-fractions, Ca-boundphosphorus (HCl-P) had highest value followed by non-occluded Fe- and Al-bound-P (i.e. NaOH-P)and occluded-P within iron oxide and hydrous oxide (i.e. CBD-P). Soil available K in the farmranged from 43.9 to 839.3 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> and non-exchangeable-K content was found to be in high to veryhigh level (820-1921 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>). Among the P &amp; K fractions, occluded-P and Ca-bound P showed first order polynomial surface trend, which were removed before ordinary kriging interpolation. Semivariogram analysis of soil P- &amp; K-fractions at the IARI farm indicated the effective spatial range dependency. Prediction maps of P- &amp; K- fractions in the semiarid agricultural farm thorough ordinary kriging were found superior to log-normal ordinary kriging. The spatial variability map based fertilizer recommendation and management practices for major cropping systems in the farmarecrucial for precision nutrient management and sustainable agriculture.</p> 2022-11-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Irrigation Levels, Nipping and Foliar Spray of Nutrients with Growth Regulators on Yield, Yield Parameter and Economics of Transplanted Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (l.) Millsp.) 2022-11-19T10:18:54+00:00 N. Manjunatha A. S. Halepyati P. Vasudev Naik B. M. Chittapur K. Narayana Rao <p><strong>Background:</strong> Agronomic practices like supplemental irrigation, nipping, foliar nutrition of macro and micro nutrients and growth regulators are important for realizing the maximum yield potential in transplanted Pigeonpea. Hence the present study was carried out&nbsp; in combination with agronomic production management practices via&nbsp; supplemental irrigation, nipping, and foliar nutrition of macro and micronutrients, growth regulators on transplanted pigeonpea.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The experiment was carried out using a split plot design with sixteen treatment combinations with three replications during Kharif 2016-17 and 2017-18. The experiment included two degrees of irrigation as the primary factor, eight management techniques, fertilizer nipping and foliar spray, as well as a growth regulator as sub factor.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings showed that among the different irrigation levels, irrigation each at pre-flowering and pod filling stage recorded significantly higher seed yield and yield parameter&nbsp; viz., number of &nbsp;pods&nbsp; and seed yield per plant at harvest. Among the management practices, nipping +1% pulse magic +1 % 19:19:19 NPK Spray at flowering and 15 days after first flowering recorded significantly higher yield and yield parameter and also higher returns.</p> 2022-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Soil Enzymatic Activities and Nutrient Status in an Inceptisol under Varying Levels of Fly Ash with Fym 2022-11-21T11:46:21+00:00 Shraddha Tikariha Vinay Bachkaiya Vedhika Sahu Pragya Pandey Kirtiwardhan Sukhdeve <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> A study was carried out during <em>kharif</em> season of 2021. Field experiment was laid out in a randomized block design having 8 treatments which were randomized thrice viz. T1-Control; T2-100% RDF (100:60:40 N: P2O5:K2O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>); T3 -75% RDF + 25t/ha Fly ash; T4-75% RDF + 25t/ha Fly ash + 5t/ha FYM; T5-75% RDF + 30t/ha Fly ash; T6-75% RDF + 30t/ha Fly ash + 5t/ha FYM; T7- 75% RDF + 45t/ha Fly ash; and T8 -75% RDF + 45t/ha Fly ash + 5t/ha FYM. The results showed that application of fly ash with fertilizer and FYM could be viable source for increasing the production of crops under degraded land conditions. The experiment resulted a significant effect on the soil enzymatic activity viz. dehydrogenase (47.21 µg TPF 24 hr-1g-1 soil), urease (38.65 μg NH4<sup>+</sup>- N g<sup>-1</sup> soil h<sup>-1</sup>), acid phosphatase (27.41µg p-nitrophenol g-1 hr-1) and alkali phosphatase activity (69.54µg p-nitrophenol g<sup>-1</sup>hr<sup>-1</sup>) which were found highest with the 75% RDF + 45t/ha Fly ash + 5t/ha FYM. Overall result concluded that use of 75% RDF + 45t/ha Fly ash + 5t/ha FYM can save 25% of fertilizer (NPK) and increase the soil biological activity. N, P, K were significantly enhanced with the incorporation of fly ash with FYM whereas there was no effect on content of micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn,Cu) in soil.</p> 2022-11-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Earthing up and Pruning Systems on Post-Harvest Quality of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) 2022-11-21T13:00:00+00:00 I. K. Keter G. O. Oloo-Abucheli M. Muraya C. T. Kiplangat <p>Tomato is a popular and extensively cultivated vegetable among the economically promising commodities in the horticulture sector in Kenya. It provides a wide variety of nutrients with many health-related benefits. &nbsp;&nbsp;This study investigated the effect of integration of pruning and earthing up on postharvest. The experiments were carried out in a split-plot arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and in CRD for both field and laboratory work respectively. Fruit yield data was taken after each harvest. The results from the analysis of variance for the effect of factors (earthing up and pruning system) and their combined effect showed that there was a significant effect on the average weight loss percentage and total soluble solids in both cultivations. The treatments had a significant effect on the average weight loss percentage, total soluble solids, and fruit firmness in both cultivations. The highest fruit weight loss percentages were recorded from all stem pruning system with no earthing up. The highest fruit firmness (3.41 N mm<sup>-1</sup> in cultivation 1 and 3.24 N mm<sup>-1</sup> in cultivation 2) was recorded from a single stem pruning system and earthing up to 30 cm. The highest total soluble solids (TSS) percentage 6.09 % was recorded in both cultivations under a single stem pruning system and earthing up to 30 cm.&nbsp; To improve tomato postharvest, farmers are encouraged to consider triple stem pruning system in combination with earthing up to level 30 cm.</p> 2022-11-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Front Line Demonstration of Paddy Drum Seeder (8 Row) under Well Irrigated Rice in Nalgonda District, Telangana 2022-11-22T07:25:12+00:00 T. Bharath V. Sri Ramya M. Shankaraiah M. Shankar S. Pallavi T. Himabindu A. Ramulamma A. Sai Kiran <p>Front line demonstration was conducted on drum seeding technology the farmers, assessment of drum seeder implement was done with the assistance of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kampasagar, Nalgonda under Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Telangana for consequently three years during <em>Kharif,</em> from 2018-19 to 2020-21. The comparison was made between drum seeding technology and manual transplanting with an objective to reduction of cost of cultivation and subsequently increase farmer’s net returns. Frontline Demonstrations revealed that, there were more number of tillers (395) and panicles (370)/m<sup>2</sup> in direct seeded technology with drum seeder compared to farmer’s practice (365 and 346/ m<sup>2</sup>). Drum seeder technology influence plant height (68.2cm), number of tillers/m<sup>2</sup> (395) and yield attributes viz., Number panicles m-<sup>2</sup> (370), length of panicle (16.9 cm) and Number of grains / panicle (182). Direct seeded technology with drum seeder has recorded higher grain yield (6,512 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) which was 6.4 per cent over farmer’s practice (6,094 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) with a net saving of Rs. 8,990/- on the cost of cultivation ha<sup>-1</sup>. The Gross returns and net returns (Rs.1, 20,795and Rs. 69, 265/ha) by the drum seeder method were more compared to farmer’s practice (Rs.1, 13,036/ha and Rs. 52, 516/ha).</p> 2022-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Increasing Greengram Productivity with ICM Practices under Rice Fallow Conditions through CFLD in Srikakulam District of Andhra Pradesh, India 2022-11-22T10:01:30+00:00 P. Amarajyoti B. Mounika G. Naven Kumar D. Chinnam Naidu <p>The Cluster Front Line Demonstration (CFLD) on Greengram was conducted in 50 locations during two consecutive years 2019-20 and 2020-21 in 3 villages namely K. P. Valasa, Kongaram and Ambavilli of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, during Rabi season 2019-20 and 2020- 21 under rice fallow conditions to demonstrate yield and economic benefit of improved technology in crop management and taking up of complete package of practices for greengram. The findings of the study discovered that enhanced technology (ICM) recorded the mean yield of 494 kg/ha which was 30.8 per cent increased than obtained in farmers’ practice (377.5 kg/ha). Superior mean net income of Rs.19390/ha with a Benefit : Cost ratio of 2.2 was obtained with ICM technologies in contrast to farmers’ practices (Rs. 12758/ha). Further, it was also revealed that the taking up of enhanced technologies notably augmented the yield as well as yield attributing characters of greengram crop and also the net returns of the farmers. Hence, there is an urgent requirement to spread the enhanced technologies among the farmers with efficient extension methods like training and demonstrations. The farmers’ be supposed to be encouraged to take on the recommended package of practices for realizing higher net returns.</p> 2022-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Phosphorus and Zinc on Growth and Yield of Baby Corn (Zea mays L.) 2022-11-24T09:32:25+00:00 P. Mohan Krishna Rajesh Singh <p>A field experiment was conducted at the Crop Research Farm (CRF), Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj (UP) during the year 2021 zaid season. The experiment comprised of 9 treatments with different combinations of phosphorus and zinc levels replicated thrice in a Randomized Block Design. The main objective of the experiment was to evaluate the Effect of phosphorus and zinc levels on growth and yield of Babycorn (<em>Zea Mays</em> L.). The phosphorus levels include (50, 60 and 70 kg/ha) and levels of zinc include (05, 15, 25 kg/ha). From the present investigation the profitable production of baby corn can be secure with application of phosphorus (70 kg/ha) and zinc (25 kg/ha).</p> 2022-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Analysis on Impact of Different Mulches on Growth and Yield Parameters of Mulberry under Rainfed Condition of Poonch District of Jammu and Kashmir 2022-11-23T07:06:37+00:00 Suraksha Chanotra Priyanka Thakur Muzafar Ahmad Bhat Jyoty Angotra Gurvinder Raj Verma Abdul Aziz <p>The current study was formulated to analyse the impact of different biodegradable and synthetic mulches on growth and yield parameters of mulberry plant. Among the selected parameters survival rate of mulberry plants was recorded to be maximum in T-2 i.e, paddy straw and husk as 95% followed by T-1 and T-3 i.e, Black polythene mulch and Green branches of tree respectively as 90% and least for Control i.e, without any mulch as 70%. Least population of weeds with minimum intensity was recorded in T-1 (05) followed by T-2 (08) and T-3 (10). Maximum weed flora with highest intensity of weeds was found in Control i.e, without any mulch (20). For the studied samples, maximum soil moisture percentage and moisture retention capacity (MRC) of 66.57 &amp; 95.6% was recorded in T-1 followed by T-3 as 40.31 &amp; 87% and T-2 as 16.36 &amp; 91% and minimum in control as 13.43 &amp; 85.56%. The pH was recorded as 6.1 in T-1 depicting the slightly acidic soiland could be viewed as the most appropriate soil pH for mulberry cultivation. Available NPK were recorded to be in the most ideal range for T-1 as 8.2, 1.3 and 9.6%. Maximum leaf size was recorded in T-1 as 126cm followed by T-2 and T-3 as 116cm and 110cm respectively and 105cm in control. Moisture percentage was recorded to be highest 76.23% followed by 74.61% and 54.16% for T-3, T-1 and T-2 respectively and 68.2% in control. Maximum MRC was observed in case of plants grown under Black polythene mulch (73.24%) and least in green branch mulch (61.39%). Therefore, it can be concluded that application of suitable bio-mulches in mulberry fields can reduce the dependency of chemical weedicides.</p> 2022-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Organic Manures on Establishment of Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.) cv. Coorg Purple and Coorg Yellow under Prayagraj Agro-climatic Conditions 2022-11-23T10:37:07+00:00 Chonyaphi Vashum Samir E. Topno Anita Kerketta Vijay Bahadur V. M. Prasad <p>The experiment entitled “Effect of different organic manures on establishment of passion fruit (<em>Passiflora edulis</em> Sims.) cv. Coorg Purple and Coorg Yellow under Prayagraj Agro-climatic conditions” was carried out at Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj during the year 2020-2021.The experiment were laid out in Randomized Block Design comprising of 8 treatments <em>viz</em>., T<sub>1 </sub>Control, T<sub>2 </sub>Poultry manure (100%), T<sub>3 </sub>FYM (100%), T<sub>4</sub> Vermicompost (100%), T<sub>5</sub> Control, T<sub>6 </sub>Poultry manure (100%), T<sub>7</sub> FYM (100%) and T<sub>8</sub> Vermicompost (100%), with three replications. The use of appropriate organic manure can help in its early growth, development &amp; establishment and also there will be an efficient use of some of the animal wastes. The growing media here to be used are also cheap, efficient &amp; easily available, suitable for the farmer’s use. Result showed that treatment T<sub>4 </sub>performed best in terms of plant height (86.77cm), number of branches plant (3.99) , number of leaves plant (40.33), stem girth (4.69mm), leaf area (124 sq/cm) and Chlorophyll Content (92.39 µmol per m2) .</p> 2022-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In vitro Screening of New Fungicide Molecules against Alternaria sp. Isolated from Tomato 2022-11-23T11:27:33+00:00 J. Jane Blessina Manjunath Hubbali Raghavendra K. Mesta Norulla Haveri Shankar Meti Namita Bhaskar Raut <p>Early blight disease caused by <em>Alternaria </em>spp. is one of the major limiting factors in tomato-growing areas of the country, causing considerable yield loss. Early blight can be effectively managed by cultural practices, chemical fungicides, and through the use of resistant genotypes. Cultural practice alone are not sufficient for the control of early blight, hence several fungicides have been developed and tried for the management of early blight. In the present study, in order to develop effective management practices against the early blight of tomato, a total of 22 fungicides comprising six systemic, six contact and ten combi products were tested for their fungitoxicity against <em>Alternaria</em> sp. under <em>in vitro</em> by following the poisoned food technique. All the fungicides significantly reduced the radial mycelial growth of <em>Alternaria </em>spp. Based on the maximum inhibition at the lowest concentration, the six fungicides <em>i.e.</em> Hexaconazole 5% EC (50.00), Propiconazole 25 % EC (65.00), Tebuconazole 25.9% EC(53.03),Mancozeb 75 % WP (54.44), Propineb 70 % WP (50.00), Copper oxychloride 50 % WP(63.15), Tricyclazole 45% W G + Hexaconazole 10 % WG(93.17), Fluxapyroxad 250 g/L + Pyraclostrobin 250 g/L SC (92.08)and Zineb 68% + Hexaconazole 4% WP(86.01)were recorded the best against <em>Alternaria </em>sp. compared to control.</p> 2022-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Plantation Tree Species with Varied Cropping Systems on Depth Wise Rate of Soil Carbon Sequestration and Soil Chemical Properties in Uttar Pradesh, India 2022-11-24T09:42:53+00:00 Deepak Kumar Suresh Kumar Sunil Kumar Sandeep Kumar Diwakar Archana Verma Sudhir Pal Sandeep Yadav <p>Litterfall and root turnover from trees enrich the organic material and nutrient content of soil beneath the trees. The influence of seven different cropping systems with tree species was evaluated on pH, EC, CEC, OC and carbon sequestration. Soil sampling was done on GPS basis investigation area of the agro-forestry farm to assess the effect of plantations of tree species and cropping systems on soil carbon sequestration. One hundred twenty representative soil samples from the five soil depths viz. 0-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90 &amp; 90-120 cm, soil samples were collect from 17 years older<em>Casuarina + Guava + Turmeric, Casuarina + Paddy + Wheat, Shisham, Shisham + Peragrass, Shisham + Mustard, Shisham + Paddy + Wheat, Eucalyptus</em>in plots of Forestry farm have been collected during August-September, 2019, from ANDUA&amp;T, Narendra Nagar, Kumarganj, Ayodhya Uttar Pradesh, India. The initial condition of research area considered as control. The soil samples were analyzed with following the standard procedures. Among the investigation plots of the farm, the maximum buildup of carbon sequestration was found in the plantation of Casuarina+ Guava+ Turmeric followed by Casuarina+ Paddy+ Wheat, Shisham+ Paddy+ Wheat. The minimum buildup of carbon sequestration was found plantation with Eucalyptus. Soil organic carbon decreased with increase in deepness irrespective of tree species. The chemical properties the pH from 7.85-10.40, E.C ranged from 0.15 – 4.97 dSm<sup>-1</sup>, organic carbon ranged from 2.07- 6.81 gkg<sup>-1</sup> and CEC ranged from 9.50- 30.03 cmol(p+)kg<sup>-1</sup>. Soil carbon sequestration was ranged from 0.20-0.32 tonne ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>. Soil organic carbon decreased with increase in depth and soil pH, EC and CEC increase with decreased in depth irrespective of tree species. Therefore, the tree plantations can improve the physico-chemical properties of the soil profile.</p> 2022-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Growing Media on Growth, Establishment and Survival of Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.) cv. Coorg Purple 2022-11-24T11:06:14+00:00 Paritosh Lodhi Samir E. Topno V. M. Prasad <p>The current study was conducted in the Research Field at the SHUATS, Prayagraj, Department of Horticulture, from 2020 to 2021. Seven treatments were used in the experiment, which included growing media (farm yard manure, vermicompost, and poultry manure) on passion fruit. The experiment was carried out using a Randomized Block Design (RBD). the treatments were T1 Control (RDF 100% NPK)/ Plant, T2 Vermicompost (50%) +Poultry Manure (25%) + FYM (25%), T3 Vermicompost (25%) +Poultry Manure (50%) + FYM (25%), T4 Vermicompost (25%) + Poultry Manure (25%) + FYM (50%), T5 Poultry Manure (50%) + FYM (50%), T6 Poultry Manure (50%) + Vermicompost (50%) and T7 FYM (50%) + Vermicompost (50%). The results from the present investigation revealed that treatment T7 followed by T4 and T5 was found superior in terms of Survival percentage and growth parameters of Passion fruit in growing media i.e. (Vermicompost, Poultry manures, and Farm yard manures), in an agro-climatic condition of Prayagraj in terms of cost of cultivation maximum cost was recorded in treatment T3 and minimum in treatment T1.</p> 2022-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Variability of Rainfall and Canal Water under Telugu Ganga Project Command in Andhra Pradesh 2022-11-24T12:06:46+00:00 CH. Murali Krishna D. Sai Gangadhara Rao A. V. S. Durga Prasad B. Ramana Murthy N. V. Sarala M. V. Ramana <p>The present study was conducted to make a detailed assessment of the variability and relationships of rainfall (mm) received, canal water (Mcum) supplied and the yield (kg/ha) of major crops viz., paddy, groundnut, sugarcane, sorghum and cotton crops attained under the Telugu Ganga Project (TGP) command area in Andhra Pradesh during 1997 to 2021. The crop productivity would always be influenced by the water resource available to a crop. Accordingly, linear and quadratic regression models of yield were calibrated to predict the yield of crops through canal water supplied in different years. The regression models were assessed based on the significance of coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) and magnitude of prediction error (PE) of the yield over years. The canal water released in different years was found to significantly influence the yield of paddy, groundnut, cotton and sugarcane crops under the TGP command area. The quadratic regression models gave higher and significant values of R<sup>2</sup> compared to the linear regression models calibrated for different crops. The predictability of yield was found to be 0.725 under quadratic model compared to 0.605 under linear model for paddy, while it was 0.458 under quadratic model compared to 0.406 under linear model for groundnut. In case of sugarcane, the predictability of yield was found to be 0.488 under quadratic model compared to 0.431 under linear model. The models were found to be useful for prediction of yield of crops through varying levels of canal water released in different years. This will greatly help to efficiently utilize the canal water resources with regard to the quantity and frequency of water to be provided for irrigation of crops. Since the canal water released under TGP command area is highly assured,we recommend that the farmers could efficiently utilize the available canal water by growing less water requiring crops and attain maximum yield and profit by adopting the improved agricultural technologies of different crops grown under the TGP command area.</p> 2022-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphological Characterization of a Sudanese Soil: Case Study of the Yilou in the Centre-North Region of Burkina Faso 2022-11-25T07:37:31+00:00 Jean Paul Bazongo Madjelia Cangré Ebou Dao Der Some Edmond Hien <p>Soil data are essential to know the soils and improve agricultural yields, especially in a locality like Yilou in Burkina Faso. Soil samples were taken from five soil types, namely FLIPP, FLTC, FLIMP, BEHV/F and hydromorphic. The morphological and physicochemical parameters were studied according to the national reference of Burkina Faso. The results of the soil analyzes were compared with reference standard values. The morphological aspect indicates that FLIPP had a light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) horizon at the beginning and becomes pale brown (10YR/6-3). FLIMP ranged from yellowish brown (10YR5/4) to yellowish yellow (10YR6/6) and BEHV/F had a pale reddish brown horizon (2.5YR6/3-2.5YR6/4). FLTC had a yellowish brown (10YR5/4) matrix color in the first 20 cm and turns light brown (7.5YR5/6) in the next three horizons. The hydromorphic soils were gray at the surface (2.5Y 5/1) and light brown gray (2.5Y 6/2) at depth. The textures of soils were sandy loams (FLIPP, FLTC, FLIMP and BEHV/F) and sandy clay loams (BEHV/F/F, hydromorphic). The soils were slightly acidic (Hydromorphic, FLIPP and FLTC), and slightly alkaline (FLIMP and BEHV/F) with an organic matter below the reference standard (3.6% &lt;OM&lt;6.5%). Hydromorphic soils had the level of very high fertility (OM&gt;2). The total nitrogen content was lower (1.2-2.2%), except for hydromorphic soils (1.81%). The soils had a C/N ratio of 11, except for FLTC soils where C/N ratio was 10 below the baseline standard of 11-15. Hydromorphic and BEHV/F soils had the highest levels of assimilable phosphorus with respective values of 6.24 mg/Kg and 4.65 mg/Kg. The iron levels of the five soils varied from 968 to 1423 mg/Kg. Soils were low in exchangeable cations and the highest level was found in hydromorphic soils (8.37 meq (+)/100g) but remains below to reference standards (10 &lt;CEC&lt; 20). BEHV/F and hydromorphic soils were most fertile.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Sources and Levels of Sulphur on Quality, Nutrient Content and Uptake of Summer Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) under South Gujarat Condition in India 2022-11-25T11:37:02+00:00 T. B. Patel A. D. Raj V. Surve P. M. Sankhala V. T. Parmar <p>A field experiment was conducted during 2021 to study the effect of sources and levels of sulphur on summer cowpea (<em>vigna unguiculata</em> L. walp.) under south Gujarat condition. The results revealed that application of sulphur with gypsum source showed significantly higher seed yield (1392 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), stover yield (2502 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), crude protein yield (295.18 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), nutrients content and uptake (N, P, K and S) by seed and stover and maximum net realization of Rs. 56100.38 ha<sup>-1 </sup>with BCR of 1.74. The application of 30 kg S ha<sup>-1</sup> gave significantly higher crude protein yield (302.03 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), seed yield (1393 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), stover yield (2508 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), nutrients content and uptake by seed and stover and maximum net realization of Rs. 55861.08 ha<sup>-1 </sup>with maximum BCR 1.71.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Understanding Genetic Variability Parameters of Greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) Germplasm for Agro-Morphological Traits 2022-11-26T07:59:58+00:00 Sunny Thakur Stuti Sharma Surbhi Pachori Sachin Nagre Kumar Jai Anand Priya Tiwari Nidhi Pathak <p>The greengram, also known as mungbean or <em>Vigna radiata </em>L. Wilczek, is a significant pulse crop in India. Throughout India, it is mostly cultivated in subsistence agricultural systems. Even though it may be cultivated in three seasons across India, the average production is unbelievably low. The local germplasm has a significant genetic variation since the crop has developed in a wide variety of environmental settings. To comprehend the genetic variability and identification of distinct germplasm lines, a study was conducted on 300 green gram accessions utilising 14 quantitative traits. For pods per plant, pod clusters per plant, branches per plant, biological yield per plant, 100 seed weight, nodes per plant, harvest index, and seeds per pod, relatively high PCV and GCV were found. Additionally, an evaluation of the genetic advance (GA) and broad-sense heritability (h<sup>2</sup>) was done to select the most significant quantitative variables. Due to their high broad sense heritability (h<sup>2</sup>) and genetic advance, biological yield per plant, pods per plant, plant height, and harvest index were shown to be highly suited for mungbean breeding programmes. The breeder must typically utilise an appropriate breeding strategy to use these traits in subsequent breeding programmes.</p> 2022-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Amendments and Inorganic Nutrient Management Approaches in Correcting Sodicity under Paddy Eco System 2022-11-26T10:23:02+00:00 K. M. Prakhyath S. S. Prakash H. M. Honnappa <p>Agricultural production in sodic soil may be hindered by its unfavorable physicochemical properties. In order to find effective measure to improve the health of sodic soil and make it to favourable for crop production, a field experiment was conducted at ZARS VC Farm Mandya to study the effect of different amendments on properties of sodic soil. The experiment was laid under split plot design with inorganic nutrient management viz., RDF, SSNM and STCR as main treatments and amendments such as press mud, gypsum and Mangala setright, (a commercial soil conditioner containing 15% calcium and 3% magnesium and 5% sulphur) as sub treatments. Results of experiment revealed that application of gypsum significantly reduced pH to 8.5 from 8.96 of initial soil which was on par with application of setright at 600kg/ha (8.68) and press mud (8.69). Whereas exchangeable sodium and ESP was reduced significantly due to application of setright at 400 kg/ha (1.78 cmol/kg and 6.52 respectively) and pressmud at 100% GR (1.85 cmol/kg and 7.03) compared to control (3.69 cmol/kg and 13.72 respectively) and initial soil. Thus application of Mangala Setright at 400kg/ha or pressmud at 100% GR are more beneficial in rectifying sodicity of soil.</p> 2022-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Photosynthetic Activity, Nutrient Concentration, Yield and Soil Properties Altered by Long Term INM Practices of Knol-khol (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.) under Acidic Inceptisols 2022-11-26T11:13:41+00:00 Suman G. Sahu Ashish Kumar Dash Narayan Panda Sushanta Kumar Pattanayak Meenakhi Prusty Ambika Prasad Mishra Kshitipati Padhan Sweta Nanda Bishnupriya Patra <p>A long-term field experiment was started in the campus of College of Agriculture, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha since <em>kharif</em> 2010 in a randomized block design with 08 treatments and three replications under a cereal-vegetable-pulse cropping system. Different observations on plant and soil parameters were taken during <em>kharif</em> 2018 to evaluate the performance of the test crop towards different package and practices followed. The test crop was Knol-khol, the 25th crop in the sequence. The treatments were T<sub>1</sub>: Control, T<sub>2</sub>: Soil Test Dose (STD), T<sub>3</sub>: STD + Farm Yard Manure (F), T<sub>4</sub>: STD + Vermicompost (VC), T<sub>5</sub>: STD + F + Biofertilizers (BFs), T<sub>6</sub>: STD + VC + BFs, T<sub>7</sub>: STD + F + L + BFs, and T<sub>8</sub>: STD + VC + L + BFs which consisted of different combinations of inorganic fertilizers, organic manures (FYM and vermicompost), ameliorant (lime) and biofertilizers. Knol-khol crop was grown in the experimental plot with different organic and inorganic fertilizers as per the treatment plans. Leaf samples from different treatments were collected at 45 days after planting (DAP). The economic yield was highest (3.44 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) in the treatment supplied with inorganic and organic source of nutrient with lime (T<sub>7</sub>) which was at par with T<sub>8</sub> (3.34 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) whereas significantly higher than rest other treatments and lowest was obtained in STD (1.45 t ha<sup>-1</sup>).&nbsp; The highest values 2.68%, 1.11mg g<sup>-1</sup> of fresh leaves and 46.34 were recorded for leaf nitrogen content, chlorophyll content and SPAD value respectively were recorded with treatment T<sub>7</sub> whereas lowest value of 1.91%, 0.54 mg g<sup>-1</sup> of fresh of leaves and 21.81 were recorded for leaf nitrogen content, chlorophyll content and SPAD value respectively with T<sub>1</sub>. However, the soil properties after harvest of the crop were found to be better with T<sub>8</sub> where vermicompost was integrated with inorganic fertilizer and lime.</p> 2022-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cytological Study of Anthers for Pollen Sterility in the F7 Generation of a Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cross 2022-11-26T12:49:09+00:00 Priyanka Kumari Jenny Priya Ekka Krishna Prasad Ekhlaque Ahmad Manigopa Chakraborty <p>The present research work was proficiently done at the experimental plot of Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke under the rainfed conditions of Jharkhand, India during kharif 2021. The F<sub>7</sub> generation seeds of the cross Pusa-1176 x BPT-5204 was sown as panicle to progeny rows in the seed bed nursery and thereafter transplanted into the field. In this investigation, the study has been oriented more towards the male sterility as it is more sensitive than female gametes based on the observation recorded in previous generation (F<sub>6</sub>) regarding spikelet sterility percentage. Henceforth, the study has been focussed on the microscopic study of pollen grains to validate the reason behind the cause of spikelet sterility in the panicles. To understand this phenomenon, pollen viability test was done by staining the anthers with 1% Iodine- potassium iodide in order to know the extent of fertility or sterility present in the pollen grains of the rice segregants. Through microscopic study, segregation was observed in the pollen sterility % among the families studied which might be due to the change in the environmental conditions such as temperature, photoperiod and humidity etc. The expected genetic ratio obtained was 9:3:3:1(partially sterile+highly fertile/completely fertile/ highly sterile/completely sterile) revealing that it is controlled by 2 genes since the ratio fitted in digenic ratio.</p> 2022-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Different Treatments Combination under Hydroponics and Pot Cultivation Condition in Climatic Zones of Prayagraj for Better Growth and Yield of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) cv. Chandler 2022-11-28T07:16:15+00:00 Shilpa Rana V. M. Prasad <p>An experiment was conducted during the year 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 at Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (India), to study the effects of different treatments combination under hydroponics and pot cultivation condition in climatic zones of Prayagraj for better growth and yield of strawberry<strong>.</strong> The experiment was laid out in Factorial randomized block design with three replications each consisting of two cultivation system i.e., hydroponics system and pot culture, each having 12 treatments with T0 (control). The two type (Pot Experiment + Hydroponic Experiment) of planting system, and their interaction have a significant effect on the growth and yield of the plants. According to the findings, plants cultivated in hydroponic system along T<sub>7</sub> (with Grow, Micro &amp; Bloom) at 24 hours interval of 42 days maximize yield while also performing best in growth, quality, and yield contributing attributes. The hydroponic system yielded 20.92 per cent and 16.91 per cent higher than soilless media and soil, respectively. The nutrient uptake was also recorded highest under this treatment leading to conclusion that nutrients are more readily available to the plants under hydroponic system as compared to soilless media or soil and gave the maximum net returns and maximum benefit: cost ratio.</p> 2022-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Utilization Pattern of Weather Based Agro-advisory Services among the Farmers of Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh 2022-11-28T09:54:05+00:00 M. Mallikarjun D. Nagarjuna Hari Sadu G. L. Siva Jyothi V. Sumathi <p>The success or failure of agricultural production is determined mainly by weather as it effect on every phase of crop growth, development and yield. Weather abnormalities during the crop season, would affect the crop growth and finally the quality and quantity of the yield. The advent of forecasting technologies and decision-making skills have not yet spread among small and marginal farmers who constitute major part of farming community in the country. Now a step further the Indian Council of agricultural Research (ICAR) and India Meteorological Department (IMD jointly planned to provide Agrometeorological Advisory Services (AAS) at block level in every district in both English and local language across the country for the benefit of farming community by setting up of District Agro-Meteorological Units (DAMUs) in the premises of KVKs to provide AAS to farmers. To understand the utilization pattern of the mobile AAS offered by the DAMU by the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Nellore, Andhra Pradesh a survey was conducted. Sample size of 150 respondents was selected by employing proportionate random sampling method. The survey was carried out in terms of dimensions viz., technology adoption, information processing behaviour, information storage behaviour and information sharing behaviour. Results of the survey showed that nearly two-third of the respondents adopted Pest management practices and harvesting time information disseminated through agromet advisory system. Medium level of information processing behaviour was seen among the 66% of respondents, 48% of the respondents have medium information storage behaviour and around three-fourth (74%) of the respondents have medium level of information sharing behaviour.</p> 2022-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Integrated Nutrients Management on Nutrients Content and Uptake of Forage Sorghum 2022-11-28T09:55:16+00:00 K. P. Bhuriya V. L. Nagar V. P. Bamaniya K. L. Pargi <p>The field study was “Effect of integrated nutrients management on nutrients content and uptake of forage sorghum’’ was carried out during summer season at Main Forage Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat. Result showed that treatment T6 (100-40 N-P kg ha-1 + <em>Azospirillum</em>) recorded higher N, P and K content and uptake in plants. Significantly higher content N (1.56 %) and P (0.25 %) and was remained at par with treatment T3 N (1.39 %) and P T<sub>5 </sub>(0.24 %) T<sub>9 </sub>(0.24%)<sub>, </sub>T<sub>11 </sub>(0.22 %) and T<sub>12 </sub>(0.23%). Significantly higher N uptake (205.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) recorded in T6 and was at par with treatments T<sub>3 </sub>(179.6 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and T<sub>9 </sub>(184.2 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and P uptake (33.3 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) recorded in T6 and was remained at par with treatments T<sub>9 </sub>(32.2 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>)<sub>,</sub> T<sub>3 </sub>(31.8 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>5 </sub>(28.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and T<sub>5 </sub>(27.9 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The INM effect on potash content and uptake was found non-significant.</p> 2022-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genotype × Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Grain Yield and Yield Related Traits in Little Millet (Panicum sumatrense L.) 2022-11-28T12:14:14+00:00 G. J. Dela Harshal E. Patil U. N. Patel R. G. Zala Purnima Ray <p>The present study was conducted to evaluate Genotype × Environment interaction and stability analysis for grain yield, its components in 50 little millet genotypes under three environments <em>i.e. </em>Waghai, Vanarasi and Navsari locations (Gujarat, India) in year <em>Kharif</em>-2020. Stability analysis revealed that G x E interaction was significantly differed for all the characters except calcium content (mg/100g) and ash content (mg/100g) indicated that different genotypes reacted differently to different environmental conditions. Estimates of environmental indices indicated that Waghai location was favourable for most of the yield contributing characters along with quality parameters followed by Navsari and Vanarasi. The results of present study revealed that none of the genotypes exhibited average stability for all the characters. Among the genotypes, WV 262, WV 258, WV 256, WV 293 and WV 273 were found average stable over environments for grain yield per plant with one or more yield contributing characters and quality parameters. So, these genotypes may be used in further breeding programme in little millet.</p> 2022-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of Weed Management Practices on Growth, Yields and Economics of Rabi Onion (Allium cepa L.) 2022-11-29T09:59:18+00:00 . Deepanshu R. B. Singh Ram Pyare Nimit Singh Abhishek Raj Ranjan <p>The present investigation entitled, “Studies on weed management in Rabi onion (<em>Allium cepa</em> L.)” was carried out at the Vegetable Research Farm of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture &amp; Technology, Kanpur (U.P.) during Rabi season 2021with the objectives of relative efficacy of herbicides and hand weeding on weed control in onion. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design for nine treatments with three replications. It was observed that the growth attributes viz., plant height (80.25 cm), leaves/plant (10.82), fresh weight of bulb (32.65 gm) and dry weight of onion (17.51 gm) were significantly higher in (T2) over rest treatments, respectively. The yields attributes viz., the polar diameter of bulb (56.70 mm), Equatorial diameter of bulb (68.58 mm) and total bulb diameter (5.97 cm) were significantly more recorded in T2, while the minimum was recorded in control. The bulbs yield (27.03 t / ha). TSS (15.43) was significantly highest in weed free check over remaining all treatments, respectively. Among the herbicidal treatment pre and post emergence application of treatment T8. The number of weeds (m2) and weed dry matter (g/ m<sup>2</sup>) were significantly noticed that weed free check (T2) was most effective treatment as it recorded less weed count 0.68/m<sup>2</sup> and dry matter 1.25g followed by 3.63/m<sup>2</sup> and 3.45g, respectively. The maximum weed control efficiency (93.3%) and minimum weed control index (0.00%) was significantly recorded by treatment T2, compared to remaining treatments, respectively. The gross monetary returns (Rs.3,24,360.00) were recorded higher in the treatment weed free check (T2) followed by among the herbicides T8 Rs 3,15,240/ ha and net monetary returns were recorded statistically higher in the treatment T8 Rs. 2,21,648.00. Whereas, the highest benefit cost ratio (1:3.71) was recorded in the treatment T7 followed by T6, in the present investigation.</p> 2022-11-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies on Various Levels of Organic Sources and Major Nutrients on Growth and Yield of Sprouting Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) 2022-11-29T11:05:10+00:00 Nimit Singh R. B. Singh Ram Pyare Riya Pandey . Deepanshu Abhishek Raj Ranjan <p>A field experiment was carried out at the Vegetable Research Farm, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (U.P.) during Rabi season 2021-22. The experiment consists of twenty-four treatment combinations of six sources of organic manure and four levels of major nutrients. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with replicated three times. Palam samridhi variety of broccoli was transplanted at spacing of 45x45 cm. Results of the experiment revealed that the growth characters of broccoli like plant height (cm), number of leaves plant<sup>-1</sup>, plant spread, stem diameter and Yield attributes viz total head yield per plot(kg) and total head yield (q/ha) were significantly higher under M<sub>6</sub> (FYM 20t + Vermicompost 5 t + Poultry manure 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) source of manure which was at par application of M<sub>4</sub> (Vermicompost 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) whereas in case of major nutrients it was significantly higher under application of (140:80:80 kg NPK ha<sup>-1</sup>) but it was at par with (120:60:60 kg NPK ha<sup>-1</sup>) and significantly superior to rest sources of organic manure.</p> 2022-11-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Identification of New Four Races of Barley Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) for the First Time in Egypt 2022-11-30T07:44:44+00:00 B. R. Mohdly A. E. Khalil Mohamed Mansour Sally E. El-Wakeel S. D. Ibrehim <p>Four pathogenic races belonging to <em>Puccinia graminis </em>f. sp. <em>tritici</em> Eriks and Henn, were genetically identified in Egypt for the first time on barley (<em>Hordeum vulgare</em> L.), using the molecular biology method, using specific ITS primers (PCR) and Fingerprinting using (RAPD) markers, these races were recorded, during the present study, in the gene bank under accession numbers MW 931757, 931758, 931759 and 931760.&nbsp; Also, five Egyptian barley varieties, <em>i.e.</em> Giza 123, Giza 124, Giza 125, Giza 126 and Giza 2000 were evaluated for their resistance to stem rust and some vegetative traits under field conditions in Sids, Giza, Nubariya and Sakha agricultural research stations during growing season 2020/2021. All tested barely cultivars were resistant to the pathogen races. Cultivar Giza 125 exhibited an earliness for heading and maturity, while cv. 2000 exhibited the highest values for spike length, grain numbers/spike, 1000 grain weight, biological and grain yield.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Cropping Systems and Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth and Yield of Coconut in Littoral Sand 2022-12-01T08:03:19+00:00 A. K. Karna G. Mishra P. K. Nayak S. C. Sahoo R. K. Nayak R. K. Panda <p>An experiment was carried out in a 38 years old coconut plantation of Sakhigopal Local Tall variety at All India Coordinated Research Project on palms, Konark (OUAT) during July 2017 to June 2019. The treatments comprised of three cropping system and three integrated nutrient management practices. The experiment was laid out in a Split Plot Design with three replications. The studies revealed that adoption of cropping system of coconut + sapota + pineapple with application of green manuring + biofertilizers + organic recycling + soil test based nutrients NPK (chemical fertilizers) application significantly increase the number of female flowers (245.83/palm/year), nut yield (65.21/palms/year), weight of whole nut (1206.54 g), weight of dehusked nut (603.01 g), kernel weight (293.41 g) and copra weight (168.33 g). Similarly minimum number of female flowers, nut yield, kernel weight and copra weight were recorded in treatment combination of monocrop of coconut with green manuring + biofertilizers + organic recycling. The study indicated that cropping coconut + sapota + pineapple cropping system with organic and soil test based nutrients NPK are suitable for better growth and development of coconut.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Irrigation Schedules on Economics of Winter Wheat in Eastern Uttar Pradesh 2022-12-01T12:56:16+00:00 Vipin Mishra D. M. Denis Rajesh Singh Anupriya Paul <p>This research was aimed to investigate the influence of irrigation schedules on the economic return of winter wheat during the Rabi season of years 2020-21 and 2021-22 for two consecutive years in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India. Irrigation was scheduled as influenced by limiting soil water conditions, climatological factors and factors of energy balance. Irrigation was scheduled as influenced by limiting soil water conditions; the maximum cost of wheat production 46702.14 Rs/ha was found with 396 mm of total water applied at irrigation level 0 % soil moisture depletion and maximum benefit cost ratio 1.93 was found with 316.8 mm of total water applied at irrigation level 20 % soil moisture depletion, while a minimum benefit cost ratio 1.30 was found with 79.2 mm of total water applied at irrigation level 80% soil moisture depletion. Irrigation was scheduled as influenced by climatological factors, the maximum cost of wheat production 46702.14 Rs/ha was found with 396 mm of total water applied at irrigation level (IW/CPE=1.75) and maximum benefit cost ratio 2.07 was found with 330 mm of total water applied at irrigation level (IW/CPE=1.5) while minimum benefit cost ratio 1.44 was found with 132 mm of total water applied at irrigation level (IW/CPE= 0.50). Irrigation was scheduled as influenced by factors of energy balance, the maximum cost of wheat production 50306.08 Rs/ha was found with 528 mm of total water applied at irrigation level (EB=0.50) and maximum benefit cost ratio 2.19 was found with 396 mm of total water applied at irrigation level (EB=0.75) while the minimum benefit cost ratio 1.72 was found with 198 mm of total water applied at irrigation level (EB=1.75). Total water applied and B:C ratio of wheat as influenced by limiting soil water conditions, climatological factors&nbsp;and factors of energy balance showed a quadratic relationship R<sup>2</sup>=0.90, 0.85, and 0.65, respectively.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phenology and Heat Unit Requirement of Wheat Varieties under Different Thermal Environments and IW: CPE Ratio-Based Irrigation Scheduling 2022-12-02T07:38:05+00:00 Aakanksha Lanjhewar K. K. Agrawal Manish Bhan Kiran Patel <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>rabi</em> seasons of 2020-21 and 2021-2022 to study the heat unit indices viz; accumulated growing degree days (GDD), helio-thermal unit (HTU), photo-thermal unit (PTU), phenothermal index, helio-thermal use efficiency (HTUE), photothermal use efficiency (PTUE) and heat use efficiencies (HUE) at different phenological stages of two wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum </em>L.) varieties (Lok 1 and MP 3336) grown under different thermal environments (3<sup>rd</sup> December, 18<sup>th</sup> December and 2<sup>nd</sup> January) and irrigation schedules (IW: CPE= 1.0, IW: CPE= 0.9, IW: CPE= 0.8 and IW: CPE= 0.7). Results of present study reveals that the crop sown on thermal environment of 3<sup>rd</sup> December took maximum duration (113), GDD (1595.7°C days), HTU (11,146.3°C days hours), PTU (16,628.6°C days hours), HUE (2.97 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>°C<sup>-1</sup> day), HTUE (0.43 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>°C<sup>-1</sup> day), and PTUE (0.28 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>°C<sup>-1</sup> day). Among irrigation schedule I<sub>1</sub> (IW: CPE= 1.0) attained maximum crop duration (103 days), GDD (1513.8°C days), HTU (10,550.0°C days hours), PTU (15,461.3°C days hours), HUE (2.96 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>°C<sup>-1</sup> day), HTUE (0.43 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>°C<sup>-1</sup> day) and PTUE (0.29 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>°C<sup>-1</sup> day). As regards varieties, MP 3336 took maximum duration (104), GDD (1548.1°C days), HTU (10818.9°C days hours), PTU (15863.5°C days hours), HUE (2.84 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>°C<sup>-1</sup> day), HTUE (0.41 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>°C<sup>-1</sup> day) and PTUE (0.28 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>°C<sup>-1</sup> day). The heat unit indices decrease during vegetative stages but increases during reproductive phase. The crop duration, heat indices (GDD, HTU, PTU and PTI), HUE, HTUE, PTUE and grain yield was higher under thermal environment of 3<sup>rd</sup> December sown crop with irrigation schedule I<sub>1</sub> (IW: CPE= 1.0) and wheat variety MP 3336.</p> 2022-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Selected Bio-agents and Botanical on Alternarial Leafspot of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Caused by Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler 2022-12-02T08:05:42+00:00 Veeragandham Supriya Shashi Tiwari Patthi Lakshmi Sindu Pottupalli Govardhani <p>Coriander (<em>Coriandrum sativum</em> L.) is one of the important spice crops of Apiaceae family. Coriander seeds are used as medicine to cure indigestion, dysentery, vomiting as well as cold and like all other green leafy vegetables, its leaves are a rich source of vitamins, minerals and iron. The country's annual production of coriander seeds in the year 2021 was over 822 thousand metric tons cultivated over 2.92 lakh hectares. Alternarial leaf spot of Coriander which is caused by <em>Alternaria alternata</em> is one major disease in the coriander. The <em>Trichoderma viride,</em> <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtillis</em> and Garlic extract were tested under field conditions during rabi season 2021 for their efficacy against the disease and growth &amp; yield parameters. Among the treatments the maximum plant height (cm) at 90 DAS was recorded in T<sub>2</sub> – <em>Trichoderma viride+ Pseudomonas fluorescens </em>followed by T<sub>3</sub> – Pseudomonas fluorescens as compared to untreated check control T<sub>0</sub>. The maximum number of branches at 45 DAS was recorded in T<sub>2</sub> – <em>Trichoderma viride+ Pseudomonas fluorescen</em>s followed by T<sub>3</sub> – Pseudomonas fluorescens as compared to untreated check control T<sub>0</sub>. The maximum root length at 90 DAS was recorded in T<sub>5</sub>– Trichoderma viride+ Bacillus subtillis followed by T<sub>2</sub> – <em>Trichoderma viride </em>+ <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em> as compared to untreated check control T0. The minimum disease intensity (%) at 75 DAS was recorded in T<sub>2</sub> – <em>Trichoderma viride+ Pseudomonas fluorescens</em>, followed by T<sub>1</sub>–<em>Trichoderma viride </em>as compared to untreated check control T0. The maximum yield (q/acre) of onion was recorded T4 –<em>Trichoderma viride +Pseudomonas fluorescens </em>followed by T<sub>1</sub> – <em>Trichoderma viride </em>as compared to untreated control T<sub>0</sub>.</p> 2022-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of the Effects of Selected AM Strain on the Growth and Yield of Brinjal 2022-12-02T09:26:14+00:00 Most. Bilkis Banu Musharraf Hossain Mian M. Mazibur Rahman Abu Zofar Md. Moslehuddin Mohammad Quamrul Islam Matin <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can increase plant uptake of nutrients especially relatively immobile elements such as P, Zn and Cu and consequently, improve plant growth and yield. The study was conducted to identify native AM strains, multiply and test their effects in reduction of P fertilizer brinjal production. Rhizosphere soils and roots of and brinjal were collected from each of four AEZs, viz. AEZ-9 (RARS, Jamalpur), AEZ-11 (RARS, Jashore), AEZ-25 (ARS, Bogura) and AEZ-28 (BARI, Joydebpur) in 2014-2015. Characterization and identification of arbuscular mycorrhizal strains was studied in the microbiology laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI). Nine AM strains such as <em>Glomus geosporum, G. mosseae, G. fasciculatum, Acaulospora dilatata, A. mellea, A. morrowiae, Entrophospora infrequens, Sclerocystis coremioides </em>and <em>Gigaspora margarita </em>were identified in brinjal. The collected mycorrhizal strains were maintained with trap crop sorghum under net house condition in 2014-2015 onwards. The best performing AM strain (<em>Glomus mosseae</em>) was selected from pot experiments at greenhouse of BARI. The sandy clay loam soil was used as the potting media. Nine each AM strains each from brinjal were tested with corresponding crops. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was followed with four replications. Dry matter yield (both root and shoot), some vegetative parameter, % root colonization and number of spores were observed. Finally the efficiency of the selected mycorrhiza, <em>Glomus mosseae </em>was tested under field condition during 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. Factorial RCBD was followed for field experiments with eight treatments and four replications. Selected soil-based AM inoculum (<em>Glomus mosseae</em>) that preserved in sorghum culture were used in seedbed of respective crops. Many morphological parameters and yield attributes were found as highest from 75% P. The highest crop yield was found from 75% P+AM, which was statistically similar to 100% P-AM indicating the possibility of saving 25% P in these three crops in AEZ 28 of Bangladesh. It was observed that <em>Glomus mosseae </em>could save 25% P in brinjal cultivation.</p> 2022-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Diversity and Evaluation of Assembled Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Germplasm for Breeding Purposes in Northern Ghana 2022-12-02T12:13:23+00:00 Samuel Oppong Abebrese Sanatu Alidu Mustapha Okyere Kumi Alex <p><strong>Background of the Study: </strong>Rice (<em>Oryza sativa L</em>) is an important staple food crop that feed over half of the global population and it has become the cereal that provides a major source of calories for the urban and rural poor in Africa. Rice has is the second most important food staple after maize in Ghana and its consumption keeps increasing as a result of population growth, urbanization and change in consumer habits. Rice yield across Ghana is far below achievable yield. The need for increasing rice yield depends not only on cultural/traditional practices but also on their inbuilt genetic potential to withstand stresses. Adequate diverse rice germplasm is a pre-requisite for breeding varieties to meet local biotic, abiotic and grain quality challenges. Knowledge of germplasm diversity and genetic relationships among breeding materials is valuable information for crop improvement.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To identify the diversity among assembled rice germplasms for evaluation and possibly exploit its genetic variability for earliness for cultivation in the Guinea and Sudan Savanna ecologies.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experiment was conducted at CSIR-SARI research station, Nyanpkala. Using a Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications, and a plot size of 4 m x 3 m was used. Field data taken included 10 qualitative and 11 quantitative traits. The data were statistically analyzed for various descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> Correlation analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster analysis were used to assess genetic variability. Most of the morphological traits showed remarkable differences in their distribution. Five significant principal components were identified accounting for 78.11% of the total variation. Cluster analysis based on the morphological data grouped the germplasm into two distinct clusters suggesting diversity among the assembled rice germplasms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The rice germplasm used in the present study displayed variability for most of the studied traits with the exception of ligule. Twenty one out of the 100 germplasm were distant from the rest, and were selected to constitute a core collection for further improvement.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong> Diversity revealed in this study is narrow. It is, therefore, recommended that rice breeding programs in Ghana should include new genetically unrelated genotypes in order to broaden the genetic base of Ghanaian rice germplasm.</p> 2022-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study on Positions of Twin Scales and Growth Regulators on Propagation of Narcissus (Daffodil) cv. Stamen Cream 2022-12-03T09:07:20+00:00 Nasir Hamid Masoodi M. Nayeem Sofi <p>Study was carried out to evaluate the influence of position of twin scales and growth regulators on propagation of <em>Narcissus</em> (Daffodil) cv. Stamen creamx. Results of the study reveals that out of eight treatment combinations tested in the experiment minimum days for&nbsp; callus initiation (26.00 days),root initiation (36.50 days) and bud initiation (44.50 days) after incubation resulted with combination of&nbsp; outer scales treated&nbsp; with IBA 100 ppm. Further maximum number of buds per chip (2.00), bud diameter (11.95 mm), bud length (2.76 cm) and bud weight (0.41g) were recorded with the same treatment. Inner scales treated with IBA 100PPM resulted with maximum days for callus initiation (37.50 days), root initiation (48.00 days) and bud initiation (60.50 days) after incubation. Least number of buds per chip (1.00), minimum bud diameter (7.45 mm), bud length (1.30 cm) and bud weight (0.19 g) were also recorded with same treatment. Most of the differences among the treatments for almost all recorded parameters were statistically significant.</p> 2022-12-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization, Extraction of Biochar and Humic Acid on Yield Parameters of Maize in Maize-Chickpea Cropping System and Its Residual Effect on Chickpea under Rainfed Condition 2022-12-03T11:36:17+00:00 . Sahebagouda K. Narayana Rao K. Basavaraj S. N. Bhat Satyanarayana Rao . Mahadevaswamy <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>Kharif </em>2019 and 2020 in a at ICAR-Krishi Vigyana Kendra, Kalaburagi-II (Raddewadagi), Jewargi taluk, Kalaburagi district, to study the characterization, extraction of biochar and humic acid on yield parameters of maize in maize-chickpea cropping system and its residual effect on chickpea under rainfed condition .The results showed that, the biochar was highly alkaline in nature (pH of 8.91), medium in salt content with an electrical conductivity of 1.89 dS m<sup>-1</sup>. The total carbon content (78.20 g kg<sup>-1</sup>), nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (0.64, 0.29 and 1.02 %, respectively). It also showed good amount of secondary and micronutrients. Biochar had also lower the bulk density (0.54 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>) and good water holding capacity (67.50 %). Whereas, the humic acid showed acidic in reaction (pH 4.20) and higher the nitrogen content (1.38 %). The maize was the test crop to study the direct effect and chickpea was raised to study the residual effect. The experiment were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with fifteen treatments and replicated thrice. The pooled analysis revealed that significantly higher significantly higher yield and yield parameters of maize and succeeding chickpea crops were recorded with application of 100 % NPK + biochar @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + HA @ 10 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and it was on par with the treatment receiving 100 % NPK + biochar @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + HA @ 10 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> compare to other treatments.</p> 2022-12-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Zinc–Fortification of Vegetable Pea Zinc and ZSB Solubiliser on Soil Properties 2022-12-03T12:21:04+00:00 Archika Awasare Y. M. Sharma G. S. Tagore Kiran Patel <p>The investigation was carried out in the pot experiment during 2021-2022 at the Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur, to study Zinc Fortification of vegetable pea through Zinc and ZSB Solubiliser. There were fourteen treatments viz. T<sub>1</sub>-Absolute control, T<sub>2</sub>-RDF (30 N, 60 P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, and 30 K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>3</sub>-(T<sub>2</sub> + Soil application of 25 kg ZnSO<sub>4</sub>·7H<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>4</sub>-(T<sub>2</sub> + Seed treatment ZnSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O @3g kg<sup>-1</sup> of seed), T<sub>5</sub>-(T<sub>2</sub> + Foliar application @ 0.5% ZnSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O, at flowering and pod formation stage), T<sub>6</sub>-(T<sub>3</sub>+T<sub>5</sub>), T<sub>7</sub>-(T<sub>4</sub>+ T<sub>5</sub>), T<sub>8</sub>-(T<sub>3</sub>+ T<sub>4</sub>+T<sub>5</sub>), T<sub>9</sub>-(T<sub>2</sub>+ Soil application of 2 L<sup>-1</sup> Acre (liquid ZSB), T<sub>10</sub>-(T<sub>2</sub>+Seed treatment (Liquid ZSB) @10 ml kg<sup>-1</sup> of seed), T<sub>11</sub>-(T<sub>2</sub>+Foliar application of 2 L<sup>-1</sup> Acre (liquid ZSB) at flowering and pod formation stage), T<sub>12</sub>-(T<sub>9</sub>+T<sub>11</sub>), T<sub>13</sub>-(T<sub>10</sub>+T<sub>11</sub>), T<sub>14</sub>-(T<sub>9</sub>+T<sub>10</sub>+T<sub>11</sub>). The treatments were replicated three times in a completely randomized design (CRD). The vegetable pea (PSM -3) was grown in the rabi season. Results revealed that the treatment of T<sub>5</sub>-(T<sub>2</sub> + Foliar application @ 0.5% ZnSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O, at flowering and pod formation stage), maintained the soil health in terms of pH, EC, organic carbon and available nutrients (N, P and K) and Zn in soil which were better than control.</p> 2022-12-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## General Outlook of Identified Genomic Regions/QTLs Associated with Salt Tolerance Traits in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 2022-10-11T06:37:37+00:00 Shiksha Chaurasia <p>Salinity stress declines plant growth and its efficiency, which is leading to a substantial reduction in crop yield. Presently, the worldwide challenges are to meet the food consumption demand, along with the decreasing crop productivity per unit area at the same time of stress environment. Wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum </em>L.) is one of the major cereal grain crops and losses gain yield exceeds the 60% due to salinity stress. Now, it is imperative to develop a comprehensive understanding of salt tolerance contrivances and the assortment of reliable tolerance indices is crucial for breeding salt-tolerant wheat cultivars.&nbsp;The specific chromosomal location of these salt-tolerant genes or genetic loci has also been partially characterized through QTLs mapping that cannot use directly in breeding programs. This information helps the efficient transfer of these genes into other crop cultivars through molecular breeding tools. This review highlights the using association techniques for identifying novel QTLs/genomic regions associated with salinity tolerance in wheat that can help to improve salt tolerance in wheat through marker-assisted breeding programs.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Eminent Roles of Micro-nutrients in Quality Seed Production 2022-10-11T06:37:38+00:00 Aritra Mukherjee Sanjoy Kumar Bordolui <p>There are seventeen vital nutrients required for plant growth and development.&nbsp; Out of these essential nutrients the elements needed in trace amounts are known as micro-nutrients. Seed priming and treatment with micronutrients has the potential to meet crop micronutrient demand and improve seedling emergence and stand establishment, grain micronutrient enrichment and yield.&nbsp; Micronutrients may be applied to the soil, foliar sprayed or added as seed treatments or seed priming. While the essential amounts of micronutrients can be provided by any of these methods, foliar sprays have been more successful in yield improvement and seed quality enrichment. Due to high cost has limited its wider adjustment, particularly by wealth poor farmers. Micronutrients may be applied either by coating with micronutrients or by soaking in nutrient solution of a specific concentration for a specific duration (seed priming). The potential micronutrients for seed treatments are Zinc (Zn), Boron (B), Molybdenum (Mo), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu) and Cobalt (Co) for improving growth, development, yield and seed quality enrichment. Treated or primed seeds generally have better, faster and more integrated germination. Micronutrient application in seed can also be done through seed coating and pelleting. Seed priming or seed coating seems reasonable, inexpensive and an easy method of micronutrient delivery mostly by small land holders in developing countries.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Improving Resource Utilization Efficiency and Productivity in Rice-wheat Cropping System through Cutting Edge Technologies: An Overview 2022-10-11T06:37:39+00:00 Himanshu Tiwari R. K. Naresh Udit Debangshi Shalini Roy B. Rajeswara Reddy G. U. Vismaya Tarun Sharma Akashdeep Singh Arjun Singh <p>Rice-wheat cropping system is one of the major cropping system practiced in South Asia on 13.5 m hectares area, 10.3 million hectares of which are in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). The Indian Rice-Wheat Cropping System (RWCS) accounts for more than 70% of the country’s total grain production which is essential for ensuring national food security. Widely used RCT known as Zero Tillage (ZT) in which wheat is directly sown into the undisturbed soil after rice harvested. The Adoption of Furrow Irrigated Raised Bed System (FIRBS) in wheat production saves 30-40% water, seed use by 25-30% and nutrients use by 25% without reducing yield. The RCTs involve residue management (mainly residue retention), crop diversification and no- or minimum tillage with direct seeding and bed planting. AWD in rice save water by 10 to 30% while reducing seepage and deep drainage losses and Brown manuring is highly beneficial for weed control, water and soil conservation and nutrient supplementation. The cultivation of aerobic rice is a new system of growing in non-flooded, non-puddled soils, with high external inputs using innovative technique of aerobic rice that require less water than transplanted rice. A simple and inexpensive diagnostic tool leaf colour chart can be used for monitoring the relative greenness as a measure of the plant N status. Thus, it can be concluded that RCT adoption improving soil health, water use efficiency and nutrient use efficiency with higher sustained yields which leads to sustainable improvements in RWCS. By saving on labour, time, diesel, fertilisers, pesticides, and farm power, resource conservation technologies lower the cost of farming and also lessen environmental pollution.</p> 2022-10-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Microbes in Enhancing the Composting Process: A Review 2022-10-13T12:48:51+00:00 Deblina Roy Sunil Kumar Gunri Suchandra Neogi Osman Ali Jyoti Sharma Anil Bhadu Bhim Singh <p>The increase in global population and the resulting economic activity have led to major environmental problems such soil, air, and water pollution. This rise in population growth has resulted in increased use of chemical fertilizers to boost agricultural production resulting in loss of microbiological and physicochemical equilibrium of soil. These factors have led to an increased need for eco-friendly agricultural products that help to enhance the soil's physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics and, in turn, provide nutrients for plants. Composting has emerged as the preferred method for treatment of organic wastes in order to produce a final, sterilized product that can be used as an organic amendment. Different organic substances are converted into more stable molecules during the aerobic, microorganism-mediated, solid-state fermentation process known as composting. One effective strategy for accelerating the biotransformation of organic materials during the composting process is microbial inoculation. The inclusion of microorganisms could improve the composting process by speeding up the decomposition of organic matter, mineralization, and the activities of microbial enzymes, as well as the quality of the finished products. This review will give a brief idea about the composting process, quality of compost and the most recent strategies for enhancing the composting process mainly with the help of microbes.</p> 2022-10-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Millets for Food and Nutritional Security in the Context of Climate Resilient Agriculture: A Review 2022-10-31T09:53:11+00:00 Lalit Kumar R. K. Naresh Himanshu Tiwari S. K. Kataria Sachin Saharan B. Rajeswara Reddy Omkar Singh Sidra Qidwai Ram Pratap Singh <p>The world is dealing with both agrarian and nutritional issues. We must concentrate on dry lands in order to further increase grain production because agricultural lands with irrigation facilities have been fully utilised. It is difficult to use dry lands to produce enough high-quality grains because of their low fertility. Millets, a crop that complies with climate change regulations, outperform other grains like wheat and rice in terms of poor growing conditions and high nutritional value. Sustainable food systems aim to provide sufficient and nutritious food, while maximising climate resilience and minimizing resource demands as well as negative environmental impacts. We perform a series of optimizations to maximize nutrient production (i.e., protein and iron), minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and re-source use (i.e., water and energy), or maximize resilience to climate extremes. We find that increasing the area under coarse cereals (i.e., millets, sorghum) improves nutritional supply (on average, +1% to+5% protein and +5% to +49% iron), increases climate resilience (1% to 13% fewer calories lost during an extreme dry year), and reduces GHGs (−2% to −13%) and demand for irrigation water (−3% to −21%) and energy (−2% to −12%) while maintaining calorie production and cropped area. The extent of these benefits partly depends on the feasibility of switching cropped area from rice to coarse cereals.</p> <p>Climate-resilient millets are regarded as "Miracle Grains" because of their ability to adapt to a wide range of ecological conditions while using less water for irrigation and producing more effectively in low-nutrient soils. They exhibit little vulnerability to environmental stresses and only minimal demand for artificial fertilisers. Reviving interest in millet groups as nutritious foods that can improve food and nutritional security and reduce malnutrition is necessary. Two main groups of millets are great millets (Sorghum and Pearl millet) and Small millets (Finger millet, Foxtail millet, Little millet, Proso millet, Barnyard millet, Kodo millet and Brown top millet) classified based on the grain size. Both great and small millets have traditionally been the main components of the food basket of the poor people in India. India stands first in area of millets with 90.94 lakh Hectare followed by Niger with 69.99 lakh Hectare. Millets area of the entire world accounts for 312.44 lakh Hectare. India also stands first in production of millets with 115.6 lakh tonnes followed by Niger with 37.9 lakh tonnes. Millets Production of the entire world accounts for 284.59 lakh tonnes. Uzbekistan stands first in yield of millets with 7563 kg per ha followed by Switzerland with 4236 kg per Hectare, yield of the entire world accounts for 910 kg per ha (Food and Agricultural Organization, 2017).</p> <p>Millets contain high amounts of proteins, fiber, niacin, thiamine and riboflavin, methionine, lecithin and little of vitamin E. They are rich in minerals like iron, magnesium, calcium and potassium also. Due to their nutritional value, millets may help prevent cancer, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, stop the growth of tumours, lower blood pressure, lower the rate at which fat is absorbed, delay gastric emptying, and increase gastrointestinal bulk. Value-adding millet grains as ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook foods provides farmers with a good opportunity to increase income generation, promotes production, and fosters marketing, all of which lead to the creation of jobs, income, and nutritional security. However, the successful harvest of small millets justifies the incorporation of tried-and-true and climate-smart technologies for the satisfaction of the population's future needs. The review paper focused on all these aspects. Moreover, the research scope mentioned in the review paper implies future directions for enhancing millet-based agriculture viable in diversifying food baskets and achieving food and nutritional security in a hunger-free society.</p> 2022-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Customized Fertilizer: A Key for Enhanced Crop Production 2022-10-31T11:34:48+00:00 Anil Bhadu Bhim Singh Tajalee Gulshan Shesh Narayan Kumawat Rakesh Kumar Choudhary Faraaz Farooq <p>One of the most important inputs in increasing food grain production is fertiliser. In terms of nutrients (N, P, and K), annual fertiliser consumption has increased from 0.07 million tonnes in 1951–1952 to more than 26.5 million tonnes in 2017–2018 [1], and consumption per hectare has increased from less than one kilogramme in 1951–1952 to the level of 137.62 kilogrammes in 2015–16. An important component for crop yield and productivity is fertiliser. Fertiliser use accounts for 55% of increased food output. India's annual food grain requirement is around 300 mt per annum by 2020. The area under cultivation cannot be expected to grow beyond the current 142 mha, hence a large portion of the increase in food grain output must be achieved by increasing productivity per unit area. In comparison to most crops, rice has a nitrogen fertiliser efficiency of just 30–40% and other cereals have a phosphorus fertiliser efficiency of 15–20%. Combinations of primary nutrients, secondary nutrients, and micronutrients may be included in the customised fertiliser. At customised fertilisers, major ingredients like Urea, Diammonium Phosphate (DAP), and Potash are combined with micronutrients like sulphur, zinc, and boron in a ratio that is appropriate for certain crops and soil types. As we know that, in addition to bigger amounts of fertilizer&nbsp;being removed, the development of high yielding systems is likely to make the problem of secondary and micronutrient deficiencies worse by applying huge amounts of N, P, and K to meet higher yield targets. As a result, there is a chance that in intensive systems, a negative balance may develop and there will be a shortage of secondary and micronutrients. Balanced fertilisation, site-specific nutrient management, and customised fertilisers will all be crucial in achieving sustainable&nbsp;future goals. In long run, such a strategy may also increase agricultural yields and prevent the loss of soil fertility. As a result, the current article concentrates on the various features of customised fertilisers connected to their necessity, production, standards, and long-term prospects.</p> 2022-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Various Methods Involved in Studying Persistence and Residues of Pesticides in Soil 2022-10-31T11:43:31+00:00 D. Balaji Naik K. T. Gurumurthy <p>Pesticides protect plants or plant products from crop pests, plagues, and weed competition, improving yields and protecting the assembly's availability, quality, dependability, and economic competitiveness for the benefit of farmers and consumers. The introduction of cutting-edge technologies, from breeding to harvesting, has contributed to an increase in agricultural yields. These activities are aided by the use of agrochemicals, which in general endanger the environment's sustainability by polluting soils, water, and air. Pesticides' harmful effects pose a threat not only to nearby natural habitats, but also to cropland itself.</p> 2022-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutrient Transformation in Different Land Use Systems 2022-10-31T12:12:22+00:00 D. Balaji Naik K. T. Gurumurthy <p>Land use is an emerging socio-economic activity wherein a region of one major specific purpose utility may be converted into another land for general purpose utility. Land use and management practices influence soil nutrients related to soil processes, such as erosion, oxidation, mineralization and leaching, consequently modifying the transport and redistribution processes. Deforestation is widespread in the tropics, and future changes in land use may have an impact on soil nutrient conversions. Understanding how the ecosystem operates and estimating the effects of future land use change on soil properties require characterising the spatial variability of soil nutrients in relation to site properties such as climate, land use, topography, and other variables.</p> 2022-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies on Phosphorous Dynamics in Soils 2022-11-22T13:21:24+00:00 Sumana Balo Debasis Mahata <p>Over two-thirds of the soils in the world suffer from phosphorus (P) shortages. Due to phosphorus being unavailable to all but a small portion of plants, agricultural productivity diminishes. Phosphorus-deficient soils have traditionally been fertilized in order to decrease the severity of the environmental impact. Improving agricultural management practices for sustainable crop output, including reduction in phosphorus loss in terms of runoff, is the emphasis of this study. Investigating chemical fractionation mechanisms to distinguish between occluded P, acid-extractable calcium-bonded P, and non-occluded P is necessary for increasing inorganic phosphorous (Pi) in mung bean (<em>Vigna radiata</em>) types and establishing net grazing systems. Phosphate (P) is known to be transferred between pools due to weathering, with the highest P retention rates found in clay-rich soils. Soil with a finer texture is better able to absorb and fix phosphorus, which means more nutrients and water can be made available to the plant when mungbean varieties are inoculated into it. More photosynthesis means more accumulated dry stuff. The P-treated variety of mungbean had the greatest yield index (13.28). Pods per plant (46.02), pods per crop (8.20), test weight (40.63 gm), pod weight (8.0 g), and seed weight (1.0 g) were all significantly increased when fertilization done with Diammonium phosphate (DAP). An increase in nodule count, leaf area index, plant height, grain yield, total chlorophyll content, and straw output of up to 40% was observed at higher P2O5 concentrations (2988 kilograms per hectare). Each plant developed the maximum number of nodules after receiving injections of Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and Aspergillus awamori. Its plants were the biggest and most productive overall, and its leaves contained the highest concentrations of chlorophyll. In acidic piedmont soil, liming increased mungbean yields by adjusting other chemical properties and boosting pH. They contend that expanding India's production of pulses is essential for the country to eventually achieve food security. P nutrition needs to be incorporated into farmers' and extension workers' balanced nutrient management programs if they wish to see higher quality pulse yields and greater long-term profitability.</p> 2022-11-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##