International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 2022-07-02T12:50:54+00:00 International Journal of Plant & Soil Science Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Plant &amp; Soil Science (ISSN: 2320-7035)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJPSS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Plant &amp; Soil Science research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Scenario of Black Pepper Production in North-East India 2022-06-15T04:04:48+00:00 Rajshree Verma Apurba Das Neha Chakrawarti Prety R. Narzary Pranjal Kumar Kaman Sanjib Sharma Soumitro Goswami Manuranjan Gogoi Roshmi Borah <p>India, the land of spices is one of the major exporters and consumers of black pepper. India lost its top position 20 years ago in pepper production despite the land of origin. Black pepper is cultivated commercially in southern states and on a small scale in north eastern India at present. The farmers started cultivation of black pepper in north eastern states way back. Initially the production from North east India contributed only 1% of country’s total production but currently it is one of the major pepper producers contributing 10% of total production. The North eastern region provides tremendous scope for the cultivation because of diverse agro-climate, well-distributed rainfall, and fertile virgin land. Even though north east India is bestowed with ample of natural resources, growers are still not able to harness them efficiently. This paper discusses the current scenario, constraints, and future thrust of pepper production in the north eastern region.</p> 2022-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of NPK, Zinc and Boron Fertilization on Physico-chemical Properties of Soil under summer Green Gram (Vigna radiate L.) Cultivation in an Inceptisol of Prayagraj, (Uttar Pradesh) 2022-06-06T05:57:53+00:00 Jadhav Ravindra Narendra Swaroop Tarence Thomas <p>The study pertaining to the present topic under field investigation is entitled "Response of N, P, K, Zinc and Boron fertilization on Soil Health, Growth and Yield Attributes of <em>Summer</em> Green gram (<em>Vigna radiata L.</em>) in an Inceptisol of Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh" for two consecutive years, beginning from the <em>summer </em>seasons of the years 2021 and 2022 at Research Farm, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry. Before conducting research operations, an excavated soil sample from the experimental site revealed that the land topography ranged from nearly level to 1-3% slope, the soil is of sandy loam texture with near neutral in reaction (7.62), the electrical conductivity was non-saline (0.23 dS m<sup>-1</sup>) in nature, the low organic carbon content (0.29%), the low to medium available N (146.62 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), available P (13.78 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and available K (207.15kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The best results were seen with treatment (T<sub>11</sub>), which was made up of RDF (20:40:20 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) + Zinc@6 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>+ Boron@3 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. This treatment used NPK and different micronutrient (Zinc and Boron) levels at the same time. regard to physical soil parameters, the cumulative mean value for bulk density (1.27 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>), percent pore space (47.74%), particle density (2.67 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>) and percent maximum water holding capacity (43.68%) were increased and chemical soil parameters with a cumulative mean of slightly saline soil pH (7.81), average electrical conductivity (0.37 dS m<sup>-1</sup>), medium available N (275.93 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), medium available P in T<sub>2</sub> (21.07 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) due to the antagonistic effect of zinc on Phosphorous, medium available K (230.38 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), high available Zn (0.623 mg kg-1), and high available B (0.616 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) were labeled in comparison to other NPK and micronutrients levels treatments.</p> 2022-06-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of NPK, Zinc and Boron Fertilization on Growth, Yield Attributes and Nutrient Uptake by SUMMER GREEN GRAM (Vigna radiate L.) in an Inceptisol of Prayagraj, (Uttar Pradesh) 2022-06-06T05:58:32+00:00 Jadhav Ravindra Narendra Swaroop Tarence Thomas <p>The study pertaining to the present topic under field investigation entitled “Response of N, P, K, Zinc and Boron fertilization on Soil Health, Growth and Yield attributes of <em>Summer</em> Green gram (<em>Vigna radiata L.</em>) in an Inceptisol of Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh)” for two consecutive years, beginning from <em>summer </em>seasons of the years 2021 and 2022 at Research Farm, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry. The excavated soil sample from the experimental site before conducting research operation, mentioned that, the land topography range was nearly level with a 1-3% slope; the soil is of sandy loam texture with neutral to alkaline in reaction. Among eleven treatments, during field experimentation, the conjunctive use of Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium (NPK) and different micronutrients (Zinc and Boron) levels, together came with the best results significantly. However, the growth factors including pre-harvest parameters<em> i.e.</em> height of plant (48 cm), number of branches plant<sup>-1</sup> (14) and number of pods plant<sup>-1</sup> (28.63) opined significantly higher in treatment (T<sub>11</sub>) registering RDF (recommended dose of fertilizer) (20:40:20 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup>)+ Zinc@6 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>+ Boron @3 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, which in turn influenced in achieving highest mean of the number of grains pod<sup>-1</sup> (12.11), protein content (25.12 %) and weight of 100 grains (6.26 gm), which ultimately gave the highest cumulative mean of grain yield (1594.37 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), straw yield (2974.88 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), biological yield (4569.24 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), harvest index (37.04 %), NPK, Zinc and Boron uptake in green gram grain <em>i.e.</em> N 36.28 and 38.18, P 5.46 and 5.73, K 11.84 and 12.47 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> while Zn 91.97 and 92.19, B 45.75 and 45.94 g ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively during two years and straw which was N 30.77 and 31.44, P 3.92 and 4.36, K 23.43 and 23.99 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> while Zn 67.27 and 67.48 and B 63.08 and 63.15 g ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, net returns of 85,511.55 and 86,837.50 (Rs ha<sup>-1</sup>), wider B:C ratio (1:2.73 and 1:2.77) as compared to rest of treatments.</p> 2022-06-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of Submergence Tolerant Shallow Lowland Rice Variety Swarna sub-1 under Frontline Demonstrations in East and South Eastern Coastal Plain Zone of Odisha, India 2022-06-07T05:52:10+00:00 Amit Phonglosa Hemanta Kumar Sahoo Prasannajit Mishra Shiba Prasad Sangramsingh Bishnupriya Patra <p>Frontline demonstrations on rice crop in 15.4 ha area using submergence tolerant variety Swarna <em>sub-1</em> were carried out in participatory mode in farmers’ field during <em>Kharif</em> season of 2016, 2017 and 2018 at Ranapur village of Khordha district under East and South Eastern Coastal Plain Zone of Odisha by University Extension Block programme (UEBP) of Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Odisha, India. Major constraints of traditional rice cultivation are low productivity in shallow lowland areas due to lack of knowledge and partial adoption of recommended package of practices by rice growing farmers. Therefore, present demonstration programmes have been undertaken to popularize/introduce stress tolerant rice var. Swarna <em>sub-1</em> in flood prone and shallow lowland areas of Khordha district of Odisha, India. The present study revealed that there was 20.4% increase in average yield of demonstrated field over the farmers practice field of rice crop. An average yield of 45.68 q ha<sup>-1</sup> was recorded in demonstration as compared to 37.84 q ha<sup>-1</sup> in farmers practice during consecutive three years demonstrations. It might be due to considerable variation in the extent of adoption of improved/recommended technology which was resulted lower yield in farmers practice. Average technology gap, extension gap and technology index was found 12.32 q ha<sup>-1</sup>, 7.84 q ha<sup>-1</sup> and 28.39%, respectively. The demonstrations with improved practice gave higher net return of Indian Rupee (INR) 18180, 26538 and 35605 ha<sup>-1</sup> as compared to farmers practices with INR 12987, 16361 and 17294, respectively during <em>Kharif</em> seasons of 2016, 2017 and 2018. The benefit cost ratio (B:C ratio) of rice cultivation under improved practices were found to be 1.42, 1.60 and 1.80 as compared to 1.31, 1.38 and 1.39 under farmers practices. Moreover, the demonstration practice showed maximum 105.88% increase in net returns over farmers practice.</p> 2022-06-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Appraisal of Soil Physical Properties and Preparation of Soil Variability Maps of Agricultural Research Station, Ummedganj-Kota 2022-06-08T05:01:44+00:00 Kamlesh Bhil M. K. Sharma Rajendra Kumar Yadav B. S. Meena Neha Meena Narendra Danga Rajesh Meena <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The soils of various fields of Agricultural Research Station, Ummedganj-Kota were collected and analyzed for the physical properties <em>viz.</em> soil colour, texture, bulk density, particle density, porosity and water holding capacity. The soil maps were prepared with the help of GIS software using geo-statistical analysis</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Soil sampling, soil analysis and soil mapping.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Agricultural Research Station, Ummedganj-Kota in 2019 and 2020</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Total 300 Geo-referenced surface (0-15 cm) soil samples collected. The bulk density of the soils ranged from 1.25 to 1.57 Mg m<sup>-3 </sup>(mean value 1.43 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>), particle density ranged from 2.57 to 2.71 Mg m<sup>-3</sup> (mean value 2.68 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>) and the porosity of the soils ranged from 41.42 to 51.92% (mean value of 46.42%). Water holding capacity of the soils ranged from 35.11-52.46% (mean value of 44.31%). Soil colour of the different field soils were brown, dark brown, dark gray, very dark gray, and black.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> According to soil analysis data and soil variability maps field no. 14 was best in physical properties like bulk density (1.37 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>), particle density ( 2.62Mg m<sup>-3</sup>)&nbsp; and water holding capacity (49.02%) as compared to other fields of ARS, Ummedganj, Kota.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Field&nbsp; no. 14 was best in physical properties like BD, PD, Porosity and WHC as compared to other fields because organic farming practices leads to increase soil organic matter which have positive relation with physical property of the soil.</p> 2022-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Discriminating of Some Early Maturing Wheat Genotypes under Late Sowing in North Delta of Egypt 2022-06-08T05:02:28+00:00 Mohamed Nabil Awad El-Hawary Mokhtar Moragea Mokhtar Gab Alla Eman Mahmoud Ahmad Hussein Alaa Mohamed El-Mahdy Ahmed Shahein <p>Present study work has been undertaken to evaluate the productivity and quality of early maturity wheat genotypes under optimum and late sowing conditions. For this purpose, two field experiments were conducted on the experimental farm of Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Field Crop Res. Inst., ARC, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, during the two winter growing seasons of 2019/20 and 2020/21. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications to study the influence of two sowing dates on earliness, yield, and its components and quality characters of 22 early maturing beard wheat genotypes and two check cultivars (Misr 3 and Sakha 95) were studied. Each sowing date was sown in a separate experiment; the first experiment was planted on 23rd Nov. (optimum sowing date), while, the second one was on 23rd Dec. (late sowing date) in both seasons. Results indicated that optimum sowing date had significantly higher mean values for all studied characters except grain protein, wet gluten, dry gluten, and grain ash. Sakha 95 was the highest grain yield under the two sowing dates without significant differences from Line-2, Misr 3, and Line-5 under the optimum sowing date, and Line-4, Line-5, Line-2, Misr 3, Line-18, and Line-17 under late sowing date. Discriminant analysis results indicated that growing degree days played the most dominant discriminatory role in explaining the variation of the 24 wheat genotypes. Also, it could be effective in the identification of the wheat genotypes of desirable traits for late sowing date conditions. Discriminant scores used as selection index based on earliness, yield, and its components and quality characters were suggested that the superior genotypes under overall both sowing dates were Line-2, Misr 3, and Sakha 95 in addition to Line-17 and Line-5 under late sowing date. These superior genotypes could be used under late sowing date conditions.</p> 2022-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Zinc Fortification on Growth and Yield of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.) 2022-06-09T06:37:40+00:00 P. Rathnakar N. Mohan Boyina Aparna Pasala Ramya <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>kharif </em>2021 at CRF (Crop Research Farm), Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (U.P). The soil of the experimental field is sandy loam in texture with a neutral soil pH. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with nine treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of three levels of Zinc <em>viz., </em>10 kg/ha, 15 kg/ha, 25 kg/ha and three levels of Zinc sulphate at 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%, whose effect was observed in finger millet. The results revealed that the treatment with application of 15 kg/ha zinc + 0.5% Znso<sub>4</sub> recorded higher plant height (81.22 cm), number of tillers/plant (7.85/plant), plant dry weight (26.32g/plant), and the yield attributes viz., seed yield (2.79 t/ha), straw yield (4.72 t/ha) and harvest index (37.19%) were also recorded highest in the treatment with application of 15 kg/ha zinc and 0.5% Znso<sub>4</sub>.</p> 2022-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Organic Fertilizers on the Soil Properties and Bacterial Communities of Marigold Rhizosphere Soil 2022-06-09T06:38:04+00:00 K. Taropi S. Mahanta M. C. Talukdar P. Saikia N. Borah <p>The investigation was undertaken to study the impact of different organic inputs on the soil properties of African marigold rhizosphere soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for RBD with three replications was carried out using OPSTAT. The present investigation was conducted in experimental farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam, between 2020-2021. The African marigold variety ‘Seracole’ was chosen for the experiment consisting of 7 treatment combinations with one treatment comprising of the recommended dose of fertilizers and the other six treatment comprising of various organic manures, rock phosphate with a consortium of <em>Azotobacter</em>, <em>Azospirillum </em>and PSB. It was observed that T<sub>7</sub> {Enriched compost (5 t/ha)} exhibited the highest values for soil pH, soil moisture content, organic Carbon, available Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Microbial Biomass Carbon and various soil enzymes followed by T<sub>3 </sub>{Vermicompost (5t/ha) + Rock phosphate (100 kg/ha) + Microbial consortium}<strong>. </strong>Considering the positive effect on growth, yield, quality and soil health, T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>7</sub> both can be considered best for adopting at the field level to reap good economic yield accompanied by better quality and sustainable soil health.</p> 2022-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Soil Physical Properties from Different Blocks of Jaipur District, Rajasthan, India 2022-06-09T06:38:59+00:00 Surykant Sharma Amreen Hasan Tarance Thomas Tarun Kumar Vinayak Sharma Amrita Sharma Arun Alfred David <p>The year 2021-2022, An analysis experiment was done for identification physical properties from the Rajasthan state at the Jaipur district area. For further study, twenty-seven soil samples were taken from farmer's fields in different three blocks of Jaipur district at depths 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm. The soil texture in the examined region was sandy loam. The difference of soil color also noticed in both the Air-dry condition and Moist condition and the color was light yellowish brown (10YR6/4) to brownish yellow (10YR5/8) and bulk density was from 1.24-1.34 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>, The range of particle density was from 2.27-2.34 Mg m<sup>-3</sup> and the pore space 37.77 to 43.65 %. The water retaining capacity % (WRC %) of soil ranged between 43.56 to 57.28 %. The specific gravity of soil ranged between 2.33 to 2.46. The manure and organic fertilizers are suitable for good soil health and maximum crop production at the farmer’s field.</p> 2022-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Grain Yield and Economic Benefit of Soybean as Affected by Integration of Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphorus Application in Chuka Sub-County, Kenya 2022-06-09T06:39:26+00:00 Mulambula Sioma K. Gathungu Geofrey O. Ndukhu Haggai <p>Soybean (<em>Glycine max</em> [L.] Merrill) yields are far below the potential yield on most smallholder farms in Kenya. This necessitates suitable interventions to bridge this yield gap and result to profitable soybean production.&nbsp;An experiment was conducted in Chuka University demonstration farm, Chuka Sub County to determine the effect of integration of <em>rhizobium</em> inoculation (R) and phosphorus (P) on yields and net economic returns in soybean cultivation. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in a split-split plot arrangement with each treatment replicated three times. The experiment which was conducted between 2018 and 2019 was repeated once and the treatments included; three P rates (0, 20 and 30 kg/ha), three <em>rhizobium</em> rates (0, 100 and 200 g/ha) and two soybean genotypes (SB19 and SB24). Triple superphosphate (0:46:0) was used as the source of the phosphorus. The soybean genotypes, <em>rhizobium</em> and phosphorus rates were assigned to the main plot, sub-plot and the sub-sub plots respectively. Data collected included soybean yields (kg/ha) and economic analysis was calculated. The data collected was subjected to analysis of variance using Statistical Analysis System® 9.4 and significantly different means separated using Tukeys test at (<em>p</em>≤<em>0.05</em>). The results showed statistically significant difference in soybean yields and net economic benefit within SB19 and SB24 genotypes in both trials at (<em>p</em>≤<em>0.05</em>). Integration of R and P at the rate of 200 g and 30 kg/ha increased soybean yield by 101% and 98%, and 158% and 138% for SB19 and SB24 in trial I and II respectively. This earned a net economic benefit of ksh. 239,496 and 192,730, and ksh. 297,930 and 239,330 for SB19 and SB24 in both trials I and II, respectively. Both genotypes performed well in yield and net economic benefit and application of R and P at the rate of 200 g/ha and 30 kg/ha promoted yield and net economic benefit of soybean.</p> 2022-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Pre-sowing Seed Treatments on Physiological Potential of Seed Germination in Okra 2022-06-10T04:15:05+00:00 Fasil Fayaz Farooq A. Khan Sajad A. Bhat Sumati Narayan Zakir H. Khan Shakil A. Mir . Moinddin Mohammad Amir <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The present investigation was carried out at SKUAST-Kashmir during the year 2020 to improve the seed vigour and germination potential of okra through pre-sowing seed treatments.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experiment was laid in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The present investigation was carried out at the division of Basic Sciences and Humanities, SKUAST-Kashmir during the year 2020</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>There were nine pre-sowing seed treatments comprised of simple seed <em>soaking</em> and seed <em>priming</em> with water (T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>5</sub>), -1.0MPa solution of PEG (T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>6</sub>), 100ppm solution of GA<sub>3</sub> (T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>7</sub>) and 1.5% solution of KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> (T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>8</sub>), respectively along with untreated control (T<sub>0</sub>). Fifty seeds of each treatment were cultured in 14.0cm Petri dishes lined with 10 layers of moist filter paper. Observations on various germination parameters were recorded at (25±2°C).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Findings of the study revealed that seed <em>soaking</em> in water (T<sub>1</sub>) resulted in maximum FGP (93.3%) and GI (16.29) compared to other treatments. Discrete middling of different <em>soaking</em> (AvS) and <em>priming</em> (AvP) treatments indicated the novelty of seed <em>priming</em> over simple <em>soaking</em>. However, unlike FGP and GI, all other parameters <em>viz., </em>CVG, MGT, MGR, T<sub>50</sub> and Z-index were found superior when seeds were primed in water (T<sub>5</sub>) with their recorded values of 87.34%day<sup>-1</sup>, 1.15day<sup>-1</sup>, 0.614 day<sup>-1</sup>, 1.18 day, 0.790, respectively. Values of CVG, MGR and Z index with respect to separate means of simple seed <em>soaking</em>, AvS (69.5%day-<sup>1</sup>, 0. 0.566day<sup>-1</sup> and 0.53) and <em>priming</em>, AvP (75.6%day<sup>-1</sup>, 0.573day<sup>-1</sup> and 0.63) further confirmed the dominancy of seed <em>priming</em> technique over simple seed <em>soaking</em>. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed strong relationship between different quantities of seed germination attributes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Seed <em>priming</em> resulted in better germination attributes in okra compared to tradirional seed <em>soaking</em> and as such <em>priming</em> treatments should be practiced instead of traditional seed <em>soaking</em> in okra.</p> 2022-06-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Cattle Urine Application on Soil Properties of Lateritic Soils under Spinach Cultivation 2022-06-10T04:15:44+00:00 V. S. Sakhare A. B. Jadhav G. D. Patil D. D. Patange <p>The experiment was undertaken to study effect of soil application of cattle urine on growth and yield of spinach in Lateritic soil at wire house of Division of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry RCSM College of Agriculture Kolhapur during<em> rabi-</em> 2020. There are total seven nitrogen substitution treatments through urea and cattle urine. The treatment consist of absolute control, recommended dose of fertilizers (40:40:40 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and K<sub>2</sub>O), general recommended dose of fertilizers (40:40:40 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and K<sub>2</sub>O + FYM @ 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), 75% RDN-urea + 25% N- cattle urine, 50% RDN-urea + 50% N-cattle urine, 25% RDN-urea + 75% N- cattle urine, 100% RDN-cattle urine replicated thrice in complexly randomized design.</p> <p>It could be observed from the data that pH and EC of lateritic soil was increased with the application of cattle urine for nitrogen substation. Significantly higher pH (7.67) and EC (1.01dsm<sup>-1</sup>) of lateritic soil was reported with the application of 100% RDN through cattle urine at first of spinach (46 DAS). Decreasing trend in soil EC was observed at second ut of spinach in all the treatments under study while non-significant results were obtained for soil reaction (pH) at second cut. Significantly higher (1.40%) and (1.07%) organic carbon in lateritic soil was reported with the application of 100% RDN through cattle urine at first and second cut of spinach. Calcium carbonate content in lateritic soil at both the cuts of spinach were recorded non- significant result due to the application of nitrogen through fertilizer and cattle urine. Significantly higher (253.93 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) soil available nitrogen (253.93 and 184.97 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), phosphorus (30.72 and 29.10 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and potassium (313.43 and 303.00 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded at first and second cut of spinach with the application of 100% RDN through cattle urine respectively. Significantly higher DTPA Fe (26.55 and 24.30 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), Mn (23.39 and 21.70 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), Zn (7.09 and 3.84 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) and Cu (12.01 and 9.12 mg kg<sup>-</sup>1) were recorded with the application of 100 % RDN thorough cattle urine. Further it can be seen from the data that DTPA availability of metallic micronutrients were higher in those treatments received cattle urine for either substitution of nitrogen @ 25,50, 75 or 100 percent.</p> 2022-06-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Soil Nutrient Index and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Soil from Different Blocks of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India 2022-06-16T09:30:49+00:00 K. Manivikas Amreen Hasan Arun Alfred David Tarence Thomas I. Srinath Reddy <p>The evaluation of Physico-chemical properties of soil of different blocks of Kurnool district was carried out in 2021-2022. The main objectives of this study is to evaluate the Physico-chemical properties of soil and to analyze the soil nutrient index of soil. For evaluation 9 sampling sites were selected with different depths of 0-15cm, 15-30cm and 30-45cm. The research findings revealed that the Bulk density ranges from 1.33 to 1.52 (Mg m<sup>-3</sup>). The Particle density ranges from 2.36 to 2.66 (Mg m<sup>-3</sup>). The Pore space ranges from 46.66 to 59.09 (%). The Water Holding Capacity ranges from 49.52 to 60.22 (%). The Soil pH ranges from 7.66 to 8.44. The Electrical Conductivity ranges from 0.15 to 0.57 (dS m<sup>-</sup> <sup>1</sup>). The Soil Organic Carbon ranges from 0.35 to 0.66 (%). The Available Nitrogen ranges from 94.30 to 218.58 (kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The Available Phosphorous ranges from 12.7 to 52.6 (kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The Available Potassium ranges from 135.42 to 402.4 (kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The Exchangeable Calcium ranges from 13.66 to 34.62 (cmol (p<sup>+</sup>) kg<sup>-1</sup>). The Exchangeable Magnesium ranges from 4.21 to 8.35 (cmol (p<sup>+</sup>) kg<sup>-1</sup>). The Available Zinc ranges from 0.16 to 0.57 (ppm). The Available Copper ranges from 0.18 to 0.77 (ppm). The Available Iron ranges from 3.22 to 6.89 (ppm). Based on the outcomes soil is good for cultivation of different crops and this data will aid farmers in application of nutrients to soil and also in maintaining good soil health.</p> 2022-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phenotypic Diversity of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes for Grain Yield Characters 2022-06-16T09:28:54+00:00 D. Madhusri G. Roopa Lavanya M. Elangovan <p>Analysis of variance showed high significant differences among 40 finger millet genotypes for all the characters under study. High GCV and PCV was recorded for number of tillers per plant, biological yield and peduncle length respectively suggesting that there was predominance of additive gene action. Number of tillers per plant, biological yield, peduncle length, harvest index, grain yield per plant, finger length, ear head length, Number of fingers, days to 50 % flowering exhibited&nbsp; high&nbsp; estimates&nbsp; of heritability&nbsp; with&nbsp;&nbsp; high&nbsp;&nbsp; genetic&nbsp;&nbsp; advance, indicating&nbsp;&nbsp; that&nbsp;&nbsp; these&nbsp; characters are predominantly&nbsp; governed&nbsp; by&nbsp; additive&nbsp; gene&nbsp; action&nbsp; and&nbsp; selection&nbsp; on the&nbsp; basis&nbsp; of&nbsp; these characters would be more effective. Based on the relative magnitude of D<sup>2</sup> value, the genotypes were grouped into 4 clusters. The maximum inter cluster distance was observed between clusters II and IV (25.95) followed by cluster II and III (12.16) and crosses involving genotypes from these clusters can be selected to yield superior segregants and future genetic improvement. Peduncle length, biological yield, days to 50% flowering and grain yield per plant appeared to be the most important trait contributing 79.11% towards genetic divergence.</p> 2022-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Foliar Application of Nano-Urea Under Different Nitrogen Levels on Growth and Nutrient Content of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) 2022-06-13T06:09:09+00:00 Sachin Kumar Sharma P. K. Sharma Rameshwr Lal Mandeewal Vishakha Sharma Rani Chaudhary Rajnish Pandey Shubham Gupta <p>A field experiment entitled “Effect of Foliar Application of Nano-Urea under Different Nitrogen Levels on Productivity and Quality of Pearl millet (<em>Pennisetum glaucum </em>L.)” was conducted at Research Farm, Vivekananda Global University, Jaipur (India) during <em>Kharif</em> season of 2021. The experiment was laid out with 9 treatment combinations comprising in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that highest plant height, dry matter accumulation, chlorophyll content, nitrogen content, phosphorus content and potassium content in grain and straw of pearl millet was obtained with the application of 100% RDN which was significantly superior to 50% RDN. Results further showed that foliar spray of Nano-Urea (4 ml/l water) at 30 and 45 DAS significantly increased the plant height, dry matter accumulation, chlorophyll content, nitrogen content, phosphorus content and potassium content in grain and straw of pearl millet over control and foliar spray of Nano-Urea (4 ml/l water) at 30 DAS.</p> 2022-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Tillage Methods under Rainfed Cultivation of Cotton-Pulses Crop Rotation 2022-06-13T06:17:07+00:00 N. Anandaraj M. Manikandan V. Sanjivkumar A. Solaimalai <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To evaluate the effect of tillage methods on soil moisture storage, grain yield, economics and rain water use efficiency in semi-arid region</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Four tillage methods viz. conventional tillage, Rotovator ploughing + chisel ploughing, chisel ploughing + tiller ploughing, conservation tillage (Minimum tillage with retention of crop residue) at different time of ploughing.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Kovilpatti, a representative location of semi-arid regions of Southern Tamil Nadu. This study was conducted from 2015 to 2021 with the alternate years of crop rotation of cotton and greengram.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The field experiments were in cotton and greengram in black soil under rain fed situations. Soil samples were collected at different depths to assess the soil moisture storage. Yield was recorded and cost of cultivation was worked out. Rainwater used for obtaining higher yield was calculated. .</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Soil moisture storage in subsurface soil layers was higher in conservation methods of tillage followed by rotatvator and chisel ploughing method. For both crops, Rotovator plough followed by chisel plough recorded the higher rain water use efficiency, yield and net return.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study clearly indicated that Rotovator ploughing once followed by chisel ploughing once could be adopted as a promising strategy to retain soil water availability and boost crop productivity in semiarid regions of Tamil Nadu.</p> 2022-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of Inorganic Fertilizers, Crop Residues, Organic Manure and Bio-fertilizer on Soil Health and Yield attributes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) 2022-06-14T05:31:12+00:00 Rinku Kumari Arun Alfred David Tarence Thomas I. Srinath Reddy <p>During Kharif season 2021-22 at the central research farm of the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry in Naini Agriculture Institute research was carried out on response of cowpea by applying crop residues, organic manure, inorganic and Bio-fertilizers for effective crop growth. The experiment trial was conducted based on Randomize Block design with 9 treatments and 3 replications. The results revealed that the soil bulk density ranged from 1.15 to 1.45 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>, particles density ranged from 2.04 to 2.44 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>, and pore space ranged from 40.69% to 45.62%. The pH ranged from 6.63 to 7.27, E.C from 0.146 to 0.253 dS m<sup>-1</sup>, Soil Organic carbon ranged from 0.344 to 0.627%, Available Nitrogen ranged from 142.38 to 248.39 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, Phosphorus ranged from 15.28 to 35.37 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, Potassium 179.63 to 240.67 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively. T<sub>3</sub> was shown the best yield compared to respective treatments which is 19.45 q ha<sup>-1 </sup>Thus, it indicates that the process of integrated nutrient management may be a better option for the physical and chemical condition of the soil to achieve better growth and yield attributes for Cowpea.</p> 2022-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determination of Nutrient Content of Guava Cv. ‘Pant Prabhat’ Affected by Different Canopy Heights and Planting Densities 2022-06-15T05:47:03+00:00 Reena Prusty Rajesh Kumar Satish Chand Pooja Devi <p>The study was conducted to determine the changes in nutrient composition of both affected by canopy heights, planting densities, and their interactions in comparison with both rainy and winter seasons. The experiment was composed of 4 different canopy heights [1.25m (H1), 1.5m (H2), 1.75m (H3), and unpruned (H4)] and 3 planting densities [5555 (D1), 3333 (D2), and (D3) 4444 plants ha-1] with total 12 treatment combinations laid out in factorial RBD was conducted. Fruits from the winter season were high in the nutrient content than in the rainy season. Canopy height H1 (1.75 m) recorded the maximum N, P, K, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn (1.43%, 0.40%, 1.22%, 2.31 ppm, 2.28 ppm, 2.50 ppm and 1.31 ppm) in the winter season while, in the rainy season, maximum (0.88%, 0.35%, 0.98%, 2.07 ppm, 1.92 ppm, 2.14 ppm, 1.05 ppm) canopy height H3 (1.75m). Planting density D2 (3333 plant ha<sup>-1</sup>) recorded the maximum nutrient content for both seasons. It is therefore concluded canopy height H1 (1.25m) with planting density D2 (3333 plant ha<sup>-1</sup>) is best for producing fruits with high nutrient content for the winter crops.</p> 2022-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphology and Influence of Abiotic Factors on Magnaporthe grisea 2022-06-15T05:45:38+00:00 Bintu Dagar Rakesh Kumar Vinod Kumar Malik Preety Verma Pankaj Yadav Lokesh Yadav Tarun Verma <p>The present study entitled “Studies on <em>Magnaporthe grisea </em>incitant of blast disease of pearl millet [<em>Pennisetum glaucum </em>(L.) R. Br.]” was conducted during the <em>kharif</em> 2019 at research farm, Department of Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. Pearl millet blast disease is a devastating fungal disease causing considerable yield losses. Blast of pearl millet incited by <em>Magnaporthe grisea </em>is the most widespread and destructive disease of pearl millet in India and other pearl millet growing area of the world. This disease is a major factor limiting full exploitation of high yield potential hybrids in India. In the present investigation, culture medium plays an important role in growth and sporulation of fungus. Among 5 media tested, rice meal agar was found most effective for all the 3 isolates of pearl millet blast were tested. Combined effect of temperature and relative humidity also play an important role in growth and spore germination of fungus. Among five combination of temperature and relative humidity, 30℃ temperature with 100 % relative humidity was found most effective for spore germination.</p> 2022-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Nutrient Management Sources on the Vegetative Growth, Flowering and Sex Expression of the Bottle Gourd [Lagenaria siceraria L.] c. v. BBOG-3-1 2022-06-15T05:49:34+00:00 Menka Pathak Sunil Kumar Dash Gouri Shankar Sahu Pradyumna Tripathy Antaryami Mishra Rabindra kumar Nayak <p>A field research was carried out in the Department of Vegetable Science, Odisha University of Agricultural and Technology (OUAT), India, during the 2018 <em>kharif</em> season to investigate the impact of various&nbsp;&nbsp; sources of nutrient management on the vegetative growth and flowering of <em>Kharif</em> Season Bottle Gourd. The research project was set up in a randomized block design with replicated three times of twelve treatment. According to the results, the maximum vine length (529.33cm) was noted in treatment T<sub>10 </sub>(100% RDF + FYM @ 7.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>+ Biofertilizer), maximum number of Primary branches (8.97), internodal length (15.83),minimum no. of node bearing 1<sup>st</sup> male flower (4.67), minimum no. of node bearing 1<sup>st</sup> female flower (7.67) was recorded in treatment T<sub>12 </sub>(50% RDF + FYM @7.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>+ Vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>+ Biofertilizer) whereas minimum number of days until the 1<sup>st</sup> male flower (46.33 days ),minimum days to the first female blossom (49.00days),&nbsp; minimum days to 1<sup>st</sup> Fruit set (50.67days) were found significant as vegetative, flowering parameters and Sex ratio (3.10)&nbsp; while the lowest response for these parameters was obtained with T<sub>1 </sub>(control).</p> 2022-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Balanced Fertilization in Rice-maize Cropping System to Enhance Productivity, Economics and Soil Fertility Status in North Coastal Zone, Andhra Pradesh 2022-06-17T06:02:54+00:00 M. M. V. Srinivasa Rao D. Nagarjuna K. Tejeswar Rao M. Srinivas T. S. S. K. Patro N. Ravisankar <p>A study was conducted in 24 farmers fields during both kharif, rabi seasons in two successive years i.e., 2017-18 and 2018-19 in Vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh to demonstrate the importance of optimal fertilizers schedule in rice-maize cropping system. The seven treatments consist of control, N, NP, NK, NPK, NPK+ ZnSO<sub>4</sub> and farmer practice. The results revealed that yield and yield components showing significantly higher with optimal fertilizers schedule of NPK (80-60-50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) along with ZnSO<sub>4 </sub>(50 kgha<sup>-1</sup>) to rice and recommended dose of NPK (200-80-80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) to maize. NPK+Zn combination in Rice-Maize cropping sequence noticed statistically superior higher mean grain yield (5338kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 7286kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yield (7335kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 9065kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) during both kharif and rabi seasons. Highest Rice equivalent yield(8814kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), higher gross returns (Rs 1,13,173 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and net returns (Rs 75,647 ha<sup>-1</sup>) is fallowed same trend with balanced nutrition during both the years of study. Higher sustainable yield index (0.81) and system productivity per day (55.50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>day<sup>-1</sup>) were noticed with recommended dose of NPK+ ZnSO<sub>4 </sub>&nbsp;besides enhanced soil fertility.</p> 2022-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance Evaluation of Coccinia (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) under Different Training Systems and Growing Environments 2022-06-17T06:04:22+00:00 B. Madhu Mitha R. Swarna Priya L. Pugalendhi M. K. Kalarani <p>The present investigation was conducted during 2021-2022 at the Department of Vegetable Science, Horticultural College and Research institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) to examine the performance of coccinia in different growing environments and training systems. The experiment was laid out in Factorial randomized block design (FRBD) with three replications. The treatment combinations comprised of two growing environments <em>viz</em>, open field (G<sub>1</sub>) and polyhouse (G<sub>2</sub>) with four training systems <em>viz.</em>, Trellis system (T<sub>1</sub>), Vertical system (T<sub>2</sub>), Fish net (T<sub>3</sub>) and Pandal system (T<sub>4</sub>). Among these treatments, vertical training system and polyhouse cultivation was found to be superior for growth and yield attributing traits. In the vertical system of training the fruit yield was superior in polyhouse with the yield of 154.76 t/ha/year and 80.49 t/ha/year in open field. The interaction effect of polyhouse environment and vertical training (G<sub>2</sub>T<sub>2</sub>) was revealed by the highest number of fruits per vine (17.92), fruit yield/plant (5.15/kg), annual fruit yield (61.90 kg/plant) recorded in plants trained by vertical system. From the results it was concluded that, highest productivity in coccinia could be obtained from Polyhouse condition (G<sub>2</sub>) with the adoption of vertical system of training (T<sub>2</sub>).</p> 2022-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of the Performance of Parental Line and their F1 Hybrids for Yield and Quality Traits in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) 2022-06-18T04:04:29+00:00 Vipin Kumar Maurya G. C. Yadav <p>Brinjal or eggplant (<em>Solanum melongena L</em>.) is one of the most important cultivated solanaceous vegetable, mainly grown for its edible fruits. The present investigation was carried out in order to obtained <em>per se</em> performance of parents and their cross combinations for genetic improvement in brinjal. Ten parents were crossed in diallel fashion excluding reciprocal. Half diallel set of crosses and their all possible 45 F<sub>1</sub>’s (excluding reciprocals) in brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena L</em>.)were evaluated in Randomized Complete Block Design (RBD) with three replications for nineteen yield and yield contributing traits during <em>Kharif </em>2020-21 (Y<sub>1</sub>) and 2021-22 (Y<sub>2</sub>) at the Main Experiment Station (MES) of Department of Vegetable Science, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar, Kumarganj, Ayodhya (U.P.) India. The study revealed that highly significant differences were observed for most of the traits under study. Based on the <em>per se</em> performance, the parentP<sub>9</sub> (2.61 kg) registered highest fruit yield per plant followed by P<sub>7</sub> (2.49 kg) in both the year and pooled. The <em>per se</em> performance of crosses <em>viz.,</em> P<sub>2 </sub>x P<sub>9 </sub>(3.11 kg)<sub>, </sub>P<sub>4 </sub>x P<sub>6</sub>(2.66 kg), P<sub>1 </sub>x P<sub>8</sub>(2.55 kg)and P<sub>6 </sub>x P<sub>7</sub>(2.42 kg) were produced significantly highest fruit yield per plant than the general mean. These hybrids may be subjected to multi-locational and multi-seasonal trials for their release for commercial cultivation. The findings with respect to salinity tolerance must be correlated to develop the salt tolerant cultivars.</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Variability and Character Association Studies on Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) for Seed Yield, Maturity and Resistance to Yellow Mosaic Virus 2022-06-18T04:22:56+00:00 A. Sivakumar G. Roopa Lavanya <p>Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among 20 genotypes of blackgram for 12 characters studied. High GCV and PCV was recorded for number of pods per plant followed by number of clusters, number of primary branches, seed yield per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for number of clusters per plant, number of primary branches, harvest index, number of pods per plant, seed index, plant height, seed yield per plant and biological yield. Seed yield per plant showed positive and significant correlation at both genotypic and phenotypic levels with harvest index followed by pod length, days to maturity and biological yield. High positive direct effect on seed yield per plant was exhibited by harvest index followed by biological yield, seed index, number of pods per plant and number of primary branches per plant at genotypic level. At phenotypic level high positive direct effect on seed yield per plant was exhibited by harvest index, biological yield, number of pods per plant and days to 50% flowering. Hence, selection based on these traits would be effective in increasing the seed yield. Twenty genotypes were screened against YMV out of which only PU-31 showed resistant reaction. Fifteen genotypes showed moderately resistant reaction. Two of them showed moderately susceptible reaction and the other two genotypes showed susceptible reaction towards YMV.</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of STCR-IPNS Based Nutrient Application on Soil Health, Yield, Nutrient Content and Uptake of Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in Eastern Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh, India 2022-06-18T05:06:58+00:00 Ravindra Sachan Tarence Thomas Hanuman Prasad Pandey Abhishek Tiwari Avanish Kumar Pratistha Yadav Abhishek Yadav Mandeep Kumar <p>The improvement in grain yield characters was the manifestation of improved growth characters as a result of higher uptake of nutrients caused by balanced supply of nutrients in this regard soil test based nutrient management approaches aims provide a scientific basis for balanced fertilization to obtain more yield per unit of fertilizer investment. An experiment was conducted during kharif season 2017-18 in the Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Research Farm, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The cursory glance of data revealed that the bulk density and particle density of soil was found to be non-significant in different levels of fertilizer recommendation based on soil test values. The maximum soil pore space (60.37%) and water retaining capacity (81.25 %) was recorded in treatment T<sub>4</sub> [STCR + 5 t FYM]. The maximum available Nitrogen (305.82 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), available Phosphorus (26.90 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), available Potassium (205.07 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and available Sulphur (14.23 ppm ha<sup>-1</sup>) in soil was recorded in treatment T<sub>8</sub> [STCR + @ 50 % FYM + @ 50 % S]. The maximum seed yield of mustard (11.53 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) and stover yield (16.03 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) was associated with the treatment T<sub>8</sub> [STCR + @ 50 % FYM + @ 50 % S]. Result showed that that application of T<sub>8</sub> [STCR + @ 50 % FYM + @ 50 % S] significantly recorded maximum nutrient content viz. N (2.19%), P (0.23%), K (1.68%) and S (4.8%) content in grain N (1.73%), P (0.21%), K (1.47%) and S (3.9%) content in stover and maximum nutrient uptake viz. N (25.25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), P (2.65 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), K (19.37 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and S (55.34 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) uptake in grain is and N (27.73 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), P (3.36 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), K (23.56 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and S (62.51 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) uptake in stover.</p> 2022-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Spent Mushroom Substrate on Glomus mosseae Establishment in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) 2022-06-18T05:19:00+00:00 Rakesh Kumar Chugh Satish Kumar Mehta <p>The application of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in soil increases yields and improves quality of agriculture produce. <em>Glomus mosseae</em> is a predominant species of arbascular mycorrhizae (AM) fungus in soils and it help the plant in many ways. The substrate from the production process of cultivated mushrooms is a material with a high lignocellulosic content and rich in organic matter, which, when incorporated into the soil, changes its chemical attributes. Thus, this substrate can be used in the preparation of organic compounds, the manufacture of biofertilizers and chemical soil conditioner in semi-arid regions. Thus, the research tried to evaluate the presence of the substrates at different concentrations in the growth, development and establishment of <em>G. mosseae</em> fungi at 45 and 60 days after sowing to help the productivity of wheat and pearl millet for three consecutive years from 2018-19 to 2020-21under screenhouse conditions.</p> <p>One year old button mushroom SMS was mixed in sterile sandy loam soil at 10, 20, 30<em>%</em> (w/w basis) and pure culture of <em>G. mossea</em> was applied at 450-500 sporocarp/kg of soil and then filled with earthen pots of 30 cm diameter. Twenty seeds of wheat cv. WH 1105 were sown in each pot during the third week of November every year and maintained. Similarly, twenty seeds of pearl millet cv. HHB 67 (I) was sown in each pot in first week of July every year and maintained. The plants raised in soil without SMS but inoculated with <em>G. mosseae</em> served as control. The treatments were replicated ten times and the experiments were laid out as per RCBD design. The observations on mycorrhizal colonization (<em>%)</em> and sporocarps numbers per 100g soil were taken at 45 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) in wheat and pearl millet.</p> <p>In wheat cv. WH 1105, the root colonization (%) and sporocarp numbers/100 g soil of <em>G. mosseae</em> were higher when SMS at 30% was applied in soil and lowest in control.&nbsp; These increased further in all treatments at 60 DAS as compared to 45 DAS stage during three years of experimentation. The root colonization at 60 DAS was significantly high at 24.9, 34.8 and 27.9 % when SMS applied in soil at 30% and it was lowest at 20.2, 30.1, 23.1% in control during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively. The sporocarp numbers at 60 DAS were also found to be high at 255, 195 and 325 sporocarps/100 g soil when 30<em>%</em> of SMS was applied in soil and lowest at 210, 172, 265 sporocarps/100 g soil in control during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively.</p> <p>In pearl millet hybrid HHB-67 (Improved), the root colonization and sporocarp numbers/100 g soil of <em>G. mosseae</em> were higher when SMS at 20% was applied in soil and lowest in control.&nbsp; These increased further in all treatments at 60 DAS as compared to 45 DAS stage during three years. The root colonization at 60 DAS was significantly higher in 34.0, 35.3 and 34.7% when SMS was applied at 20% and it was lowest at 34.3, 33.2, 31.1% in control during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively.&nbsp; The sporocarp numbers at 60 DAS were also found to be high at 229, 250 and 174 /100 g soil when SMS at 20<em>%</em> was applied and it was lowest at 219, 205, 150 sporocarps/100 g soil in control during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively.</p> 2022-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Correlation of Physico-chemical Parameters of Soil and Soil Nutrient Index Status of Kollam District, Kerala, India 2022-06-18T05:19:48+00:00 Vishnu Gopan G. M. Amreen Hasan Tarence Thomas Arun Alfred David Iska Srinath Reddy <p>The present investigation was carried out at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences in the department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry lab, India In this study, a total of 27 soil samples were collected from nine different villages on 27 November 2021 in the Kollam district of Kerala, and from each village 3 soil samples were collected and analyzed for their Physico-chemical parameters by using standard laboratory techniques. According to Nutrient Index values, the villages were found to be high in Organic Carbon (2.59), Phosphorus (2.88), Calcium (3), and Magnesium (2.55). The low category was found in Nitrogen (1). The medium category was found in Potassium (1.88). According to the critical limits of soil nutrients the results observed, 100% soil samples were in low range of Nitrogen (N) (64.5 – 181.32 kg ha-1), 92.5% soil samples were in high range of Phosphorous (P) (9.40 – 56 kg ha-1), 89%&nbsp; soil samples were in low to medium range of Potassium (K) (100 – 403 kg ha-1), 100% of soil samples were in the high range of Calcium (Ca) (3.2 – 18 Meq/100g), 78% of soil samples were in high range of Magnesium (Mg) ( 0 – 7.60), 100% of soil samples were in the low range of Sulphur (S) (0.96 – 7.2). The results showed that improvement has to be one for improving soil fertility and quality by practicing improved cropping patterns, decomposition of organic wastes, mulching, and tillage practices.&nbsp;</p> 2022-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Plastic Mulching and Irrigation Levels on Soil Temperature, Moisture and Water Use Efficiency of Tomato Crop (Solanum lycopersicum) 2022-06-20T04:24:16+00:00 Gottam Kishore Banda Maheswara Babu Lakshmi Durga Mattaparti <p>Farmers in India rarely employ plastic mulches in tomato&nbsp;cultivation, despite the fact that it has the potential to save irrigation water, manage weeds, and increase output. The precision of irrigation water for tomato production using various colour&nbsp;plastic mulches was evaluated in an experimental farm at UAS-Raichur. Because of the effect of irrigation levels, the 120 percent evapotranspiration based irrigation treatment had the most soil moisture availability, while the 60 percent evapotranspiration irrigation by drip had the lowest, and optimal soil moisture was maintained using plastic colour mulches. The maximum temperature was recorded in white on black plastic colour mulch (3.69<sup>0</sup>C), which absorbs 100 percent of solar radiation, and the highest temperature was measured in black plastic colour mulch (3.69<sup>0</sup>C), which absorbs 100 percent of solar radiation (2.25<sup>0</sup>C). The water use efficiency was highest when 80 percent ET was combined with white on black plastic colour mulch (26.77 kg/m<sup>3</sup>).</p> 2022-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of Baby Corn (Zea mays L.) to Levels of Nitrogen and Detasseling 2022-06-20T04:52:41+00:00 O. Vamshi S. C. Sahoo <p>A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2020-21 to study the effect of levels of nitrogen and detasseling on yield and economics of baby corn. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications comprising of six main plot treatments (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) and two sub plot treatments (with tassel and without tassel). Application of 160 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>produced 2.22 cobs plant<sup>-1</sup>, which was statistically similar with application of 200 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> (2.44). Application of 160 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> produced optimum weight (9.23 g cob<sup>-1</sup>) of dehusked baby corn. Detasseled plots produced in higher number of cobs plant <sup>-1</sup>(1.69) and heavier dehusked cobs (8.63 g) than the plants having tassel. The optimum yield of baby corn (2072 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained with application of 160 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>. Detasseling resulted in 8.4 per cent higher production of dehusked baby corn as compared with plots having tassel. But, the plots with tassel produced 10.3 per cent higher yield of green fodder as compared to the crop without tassel. The highest net return of Rs 155144 ha<sup>-1</sup> was obtained from the treatment receiving 160 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>. Detasseled plots gave 9.97 per cent higher net profit than the plots with tassel.</p> 2022-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Appraising Components of Genetic Variation and Association among Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Breeding Lines for Yield and Its Component Traits 2022-06-21T05:15:57+00:00 Bupesh Kumar <p>The present study was undertaken to estimate components of genetic variation and to ascertain association among rice breeding lines for yield and its component traits. Sixty eight rice breeding lines along with four checks were evaluated in Augmented Block Design during <em>kharif</em> 2021. Analysis of variance indicated presence of sufficient genetic variation among the lines, while estimates of components of variation revealed maximum contribution of genotypic variance to the phenotypic variance indicating its exploitation through selection and hybridization. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for 1000 grain weight, plant height, days to 50 per cent flowering and grain yield per plant indicating that these traits can be improved through selection. Simultaneously, estimates of association revealed that grain yield was found to have significant and positive association with 1000 grain weight and grain length indicating that these traits are suitable for indirect selection whereas, it exhibited significant negative association with days to 50 per cent flowering and panicle length.</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Different Microbial Inoculum on Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Growth, Development and Nutrient Availability 2022-06-22T04:46:20+00:00 Vikash Singh Adesh Singh Shikhar Verma Mausmi Rastogi Praveen Kumar Yadav Vivek Kumar <p>A field experiment was conducted on Mung Bean (<em>Vigna radiata </em>L.) during the <em>autumny </em>season of 2020-21 at Technology Park of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD). Results revealed that the growth parameters of mung bean <em>viz</em>., number of (331229 plants/ha), plant height (67.7 cm/plant), trifoliate leaves/plant (12.7), number of branches/plant (4.5), dry matter accumulation (18.7 g/plant), leaf area index (5.72), CGR (7.6 g/m<sup>2</sup>/day) 50-at harvest and grain yield of (1,106 kg/ha) improved by various treatments over control, being highest under NPK Consortia+ZSB, each @ 20 ml/kg. Similarly, this treatment also produced an accumulation of 59.8% more dry matter/plant than control. However, application of NPK Consortia+ZSB, each @ 20 ml/kg recorded higher available N, P, K and Zn followed by NPK Consortia @ 20 ml/kg and RDF (20:40 kg/ha).</p> 2022-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Seed Priming as Pre-Treatment Factors on Germination and Seedling Vigour of Tomato 2022-06-22T04:47:10+00:00 Jui Ray Sanjoy Kumar Bordolui <p>This study investigated the germination and seedling vigour of tomato seeds cultivar BCT-25 under different priming treatments with the objective of enhancing the crop establishment under field conditions. We primed seeds with Moringa leaf extract for 18 hours; 1% NaCl for 36 hours; 10% Polyethylene glycol (PEG) for 12 hours; 100 ppm GA<sub>3</sub>, 5% KNO<sub>3</sub> (under dark condition) and 1000 ppm Thiourea for 24 hours; distilled water for 12 hours; 2% KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> and 93 ppm NAA (at 4°C) for 6 hours and the control (T<sub>0</sub>). All the treatments improved the seed germination and seedling vigour; however, we found the highest vigour from hydro priming followed by KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> in both years in contrast with the minimum vigour index from T<sub>0</sub>. The highest mean germination percentage was found with hydro priming (T<sub>7</sub>) followed by T<sub>8</sub>, T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub> during both years, while the lowest average germination percentage was recorded for T<sub>0</sub>. The highest magnitude of seedling emergence under field conditions was recorded with hydro priming, i.e., 89.67% in first and 86.67% in second year followed by T<sub>8</sub>, T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2 </sub>while it was lowest for T<sub>0</sub> under laboratory condition. Hydro priming had the highest field vigour indexes than all other treatments. Hydro-priming and KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4 </sub>had the best performance than other priming treatments. But, in some cases the hydro-priming and KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4 </sub>were similar in both laboratory and field condition. We concluded that during the initial stage of plant growth hydro-priming and KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4 </sub>had the best responses than other priming treatments.</p> 2022-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment on the Impact of Various Agroforestry Systems on Soil Quality Parameters 2022-06-22T05:10:16+00:00 V. Ramaswamy K. Sivakumar S. Thiyageshwari R. Anandham <p>An experiment was conducted during month of February 2022 at Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to identify the effect of different agroforestry systems on soil quality parameters. Soil samples were collected from nine different agroforestry systems from three major agroforestry sites such as agrisilviculture, silvihorticulture and silvipasture systems. Soil was analysed for soil quality parameters viz., pH, EC, bulk density, porosity, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and available micronutrients. Different agroforestry systems show their effect as variations in soil physical and chemical properties. Results from the study reveals that the agroforestry system <em>Acacia leucophloea</em> + Guinea grass shows higher fertility status than other agroforestry systems. This system was noticed to have higher amount of available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and available micronutrients compared to other agroforestry systems taken into account for research. <em>Casuarina </em><em>equisetifolia</em> + Sorghum agroforestry system was observed to have low available P, available K and available micronutrients than other systems. Further studies are needed to define an agroforestry system for proper land use management and improving fertility status of the soil by including other soil quality parameters viz.,&nbsp; biological and microbial parameters.</p> 2022-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Growth Regulators on Plant Growth and Yield of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria L.) cv. Arka Bahar 2022-06-23T04:39:20+00:00 Anna Sabu Anita Kerketta Samir E. Topno <p>An experiment was conducted during 2021 to study the effect of different growth regulators on bottle gourd cv. Arka Bahar during kharif season with three growth regulators at different concentrations: Ethrel (100ppm, 200ppm, 300ppm), NAA (150 ppm, 200ppm, 250ppm) and GA<sub>3 </sub>(50ppm, 100ppm, 150ppm).Water was used as control. The growth regulators were sprayed at two and four leaf stage. All the treatments were replicated three times in a randomized block design keeping the plot size 2m×2m. Plant growth regulators treatments rendered their significant effect on almost all the growth, flowering and yield of bottle gourd. The treatment T<sub>9 </sub>GA<sub>3</sub> 150 ppm was found maximum in increasing the vine length (9.01m) whereas T<sub>3 </sub>Ethrel 200 ppm was found most effective in terms of days to first appearance of male (40.89 days) and female flower (45.44 days), node number to first male (8.11) and female flower (10.11), number of male (16.33) and female flowers (11.33) per vine, fruit diameter (8.67 cm), fruit length (39.84 cm), fruit weight (1064.28 g), number of fruits per plant (10.11), fruit yield per plant (8.72 kg), fruit yield per hectare(29.01 t/ha) The significantly higher gross return (Rs 348120/ha), Net profit (Rs 269898/ha) and B: C ratio (4.45) was also recorded under ethrel 200 ppm (T<sub>3</sub>). Overall results revealed that application of ethrel 200 ppm proved to be better for different growth and yield traits in bottle gourd.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Biofertilizer and Phosphorus on Growth, Yield Components and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) 2022-06-23T04:40:22+00:00 Abisha P. Shikha Singh <p>A field experiment was conducted at Crop Research Farm (CRF), Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj (UP) during Rabi 2021 to study the “Effects of Biofertilizer and Phosphorus on Growth, Yield Components and Yield of Chickpea (<em>Cicer arietinum L</em>)”. It was consisting of three combinations of biofertilizer and phosphorus. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments each replicated three times. The experiment results were revealed that the growth and yield parameters such as plant height (54.94 cm), number of nodules per plant (36.28), plant dry weight (23.71g/plant), number of pods per plant (34.29), number of seeds per pod (1.89), test weight (245.76 g) at harvest significantly recorded in T<sub>9</sub> with the application of Rhizobium+PSB + Phosphorus 60kg/ha. Moreover, grain yield (2.07 t/ha), stover yield (3.58 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), gross return (108523.7 INR/ha), net return (75364.02 INR/ha) and B:C ratio (2.27) were also recorded higher in T<sub>9</sub> which is Rhizobium+PSB + Phosphorus 60kg/ha compared to other treatments.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Elites Isolates of Bradyrhizobia Nodulating on Groundnut Varieties (Arachis hypogaea L.) at Assosa District of Western Ethiopia 2022-06-23T04:47:28+00:00 Bakala Anbessa Dessie Almaw Zerihun Getachew <p>A field experiment was conducted on Nitisols of Asossa Agricultural Research Centre during 2017/18 2018/19 cropping season to investigate the response of yield, partial budget analysis of ground nut varieties to bio-fertilizer and inorganic nitrogen. Two locally suitable varieties 4 groundnut rhizobial strains with control and 18 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, totally 12 treatments had combined in factorial RCBD. TSP fertilizer was applied uniformly to all plots at 46 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>. The treatments consists of: two Varieties of groundnut (V1= Muniputer V2= Babile 2) and 4-strains with 18 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and uninoculated (control) factorial treatment combination were tested. Analysis of variance for two factors randomized complete block design (Table 1) revealed highly significant difference (P &lt; 0.001) due to the main effects of rhizobia and verities for the means of seed yield. On the other hand the interaction effects of rhizobia and varieties had non-significant (p&gt;0.05) for the means of seed yield, nodule dry weight and straw dry weight. The highest (186.5) nodules per plants were recorded from the interaction effect of Dibate moderate and Maniputer variety, while less nodules per plant (76.25) were produced by Dibate moderate with Babile variety. The Dibate 2 rhizobia had the highest net-benefit of 67,655 Ethiopian birr. The lowest net benefit was obtained by the application of the Dibate moderate and none inoculant. The profitability of the study showed that application of Moderate 2 rhizobia which provided the relatively high net benefit (67,655 ETB), was recommended to apply bio fertilizers. The % MRR between any pair of undominated treatments denotes the return per unit of investment in fertilizer expressed as a percentage. Economic analysis revealed that maximum marginal rate of return was recorded with application of Dibate 2 (9257.2%). So we could be recommended Dibate 2 strain for ground nut production in Asossa district. The best recommendation for treatments is not necessarily based on the highest marginal rate of return, rather based on the minimum acceptable marginal rate of return and the treatment with the high net benefit, relatively low variable cost together with an acceptable MRR becomes the tentative recommendation.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In silico Analysis of Transcription Factor Binding Sites and Impact of Defense Responsive Phytohormones in OsPR1a 2022-06-23T12:21:28+00:00 Diksha Kumari Bishun Deo Prasad Padmanabh Dwivedi Sangita Sahni <p>A variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions result in the production and accumulation of pathogenesis related (PR) proteins in plant. Transcriptional regulation of PR genes plays a vital role in defense response in plant. In rice, the role of the <em>PR1</em> gene in defense response have been studied, but critical examination of the <em>OsPR1a </em>gene after a treatment with defense responsive phytohormones and their regulation via promoter analysis have not been examined indepth. Several signalling mechanisms are involved in the induction and repression of defense genes, which are mediated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). Expression profiling was carried out to determine the effects of phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after treatment. Expression profiling indicates cumulative upregulation of <em>OsPR1a</em> gene at 12 h after SA and JA treatments, whereas it downregulates at 24 h and 48 h after JA treatment. We also performed a comprehensive <em>in silico</em> analysis of the promoter region of <em>OsPR1a</em> gene to predict how the transcription factor binding site (TFBS) regulate its expression.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Grain Yield and Economic Importance of Bio Fertilizer Rates of Soybean at Begi and Asossa Districts Western Ethiopia 2022-06-23T04:55:55+00:00 Bakala Anbessa Dessie Almaw Zerihun Getachew <p>A field experiment was conducted on Nitisols of Asossa Agricultural Research Centre during 2017/18 to 2018/2019 cropping season toinvestigate the response of yieldpartial budget analysis&nbsp; to biofertilizer rates.The N fertilizer treatments considered in the study consisted of six levels (rates) of biofertilizer, one nationally recommended inorganic N and negative control of N.The treatments consists of: 125 g ha<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; (T1), 250 g ha<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; (T2), 500 g ha<sup>-1</sup> (T3), 625 g ha<sup>-1</sup> (T4), 750 g ha<sup>-1</sup> (T5), 900 g ha<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; (T6), negative control (T7) and 18kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>. The treatments were laid out as a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications.The analysis of variance revealed that bio-fertilizer rates significantly (P <u>&lt;</u> 0.01) affected grain yield at Begi district, while non-siginificant (p&lt;0.05) at Asossa district. The maximum (3483.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and&nbsp;&nbsp; 1750.9 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) grain yield was recorded from 500 g ha<sup>-1</sup>bio-fertilizer at Begi and Asossa district respectively.&nbsp; The application of 500 g ha<sup>-1</sup>biofertilizer had the highest net-benefit of 20850.8 ETB, followed by 125 g ha <sup>-1</sup>biofertilizer which also had a total of 20196.8 ETB net benefit at Asossa district, while the application of 500 g ha<sup>-1</sup>biofertilizerhad the highest net-benefit of 41644.4 ETB, followed by 125 g ha<sup>-1</sup>biofertilizer which also had a total of 38315.6 ETB net benefit at Begi district. The application of 500 g ha<sup>-1</sup>bio-fertilizer ha<sup>-1 </sup>had highest net benefit. Therefore, we recommended the treatment 500 g ha<sup>-1</sup>since it produced high marginal rate of return, high net benefit and relatively small total cost of production, for soybean production in Begi and Asossa area.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Taxonomical Exploration of Arboreal Members of the Family Anacardiaceae in District Poonch, Jammu and Kashmir (India) 2022-06-23T04:57:55+00:00 Rani Mughal Muzafer Ahmad Sheikh Fayaz Qazi Jawerriya Qazi <p>The Poonch district is part of the Pir-Panchal region of Jammu and Kashmir, which is home to a distinct landscape and a variety of climates. Even with these significant variations, this region has been able to maintain a high level of biodiversity. There are certain groups of flora that have eluded researchers' attention, including the <em>Anacardiaceae</em> family, which is one of those groups.&nbsp;The purpose of this study was to investigate the current occurrence as well as taxonomical studies of the arboreal members&nbsp;of the <em>Anacardiaceae</em>&nbsp;family. For several decades, the district has been observing the occurrence of these plant species both in sub-tropical and temperate zones with various ethnobotanical uses. This angiospermic arboreal flora group found at an altitude between 988 and 3004 m is composed of eight species in five genera, including one shrub and seven trees, one evergreen, and seven deciduous species, as well as two indigenous and six exotic species. Among the plant genera, <em>Pistacia</em> and <em>Rhus</em> recorded 2 and 3 species, respectively, while <em>Cotinus, Lannea</em> and <em>Mangifera</em> recorded one species each.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Integrated Nutrient Management Practices on Soil Health Parameters and Yield Attributes of Soybean (Glycine max L.) var. JS-9560 in Inceptisol of Alluvial Soil, District Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh 2022-06-24T05:23:57+00:00 . Balram Arun Alfred David Tarence Thomas Iska Srinath Reddy <p>A field trial was carried out during the <em>Kharif </em>season 2021-22 at the Research farm, of Naini Agriculture Institute Prayagraj India. The experiment was laid down in randomized block design comprised three fertility levels control NPK @ 100%, <em>Rhizobium </em>+ PSB @ 100%, Vermicompost and Sulphur @ 100%, 75% and @ 50% respectively replicating thrice and <em>rhizobium</em> phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculation. Among the fertility levels, the application of 100% N, P, K, 40 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>ha<sup>-1</sup>, 40 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup> and 100% Vermicompost 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, Sulphur 20 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> in the experiment. It was concluded that the texture of soil sandy loam, the soil health parameters respectively Bulk density ranged between 1.21 to 1.31 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>, Particle density 2.08 to 2.50 Mg m<sup>-3</sup> Pore space 45.12% to 51.23% water holding capacity 36.14% to 62.06% Organic carbon 0.319% to 0.613%, soil pH ranged between 7.34 to 7.78, EC ranged between 0.157 to 0.265 dsm<sup>-1</sup>, Nitrogen 182.56 to 320.75 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, Phosphorus 16.12 to 33.67 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, Potassium 182.24 to 238.76 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, Sulphur 16.03 to 29.58 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, It was observed that for post-harvest, treatment T<sub>9</sub> was best in yield attributes plant height 97.18 cm, number of branches plant<sup>-1 </sup>7.1, 5, pods plant<sup>-1</sup> 74.83, seed pod<sup>-1</sup>4.44 and seed yield (2337.25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) T<sub>9</sub> were to be found best treatment combination.</p> 2022-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity among Genetically Different Genotypes of Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) 2022-06-24T05:38:30+00:00 Ajaz Ah. Malik Geetika Malik K. Hussain S. Narayan Shahnaz Mufti Anil Kumar Gazala Nazir Umiyiam Masoodi Mudasir Magray <p>This study evaluated the antioxidant power, flavonoids and the total phenolic contents of forty-five genotypes of chilli. The antioxidant activities were tested forextraction scavenging using diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azinobisethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), assay of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and determining total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents. There were a significant difference in the total phenolic content (17.38–131.5mg GAE/g dry weight), total flavonoid (14.07–56.15 mg quercetin/g dry weight), DPPH (0.55–5.60 mM AAE/g dry weight), ABTS (16.03– 38.12 mM AAE/g dry weight) and FRAP (0.80– 6.40 mM GAE/dry weight). Three genotypes viz. IC-561635, CITH-HP-22 and IC-561731 exhibited highest values for all the assays. Significant correlation coefficients were identified between TP–TF (r = 0.93) DPPH-ABTS (r= 0.71), ABTS-TP (r=0.81) and FRAP-TF (r=0.89). Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the studied genotypes into seven clusters. The identified genotypes of chilli are powerful sources of natural antioxidants that slow down the oxidation processes in the body by protecting them from the active oxygen species.</p> 2022-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Nitrogen Levels and Weed Management Practices on Soil Quality of Wetland Rice 2022-06-24T05:20:29+00:00 Tikendra Kumar Yadav S. P. Singh M. K. Singh M. K. Singh <p>Rice (<em>Oryza sativa </em>L.) is one of the most popular cereal crops serves as the staple food for world’s half of the population<strong>. </strong>Nutrients and weeds are two important factors that determine the productivity of wetland rice. Nitrogen (N) is major nutrient that contributes in rice production. Weeds are the major constraint limiting high productivity of rice. Weeds may remove considerable quantity of nutrients besides competing for light; space and moisture thus become a major constraint in wetland rice. Considering these, a field experiment was conducted for two successive <em>kharif</em> seasons of 2018 and 2019 at Agricultural Research Farm, B.H.U., Varanasi, UP (India). The study included influence of nitrogen levels and weeds management practices (WMP) post harvest soil quality of wetland rice. The experiment was laid out in split plot design involving five nitrogen levels <em>viz</em>. control, 60 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> through inorganic, 60 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> as farmyard manure (FYM), 90 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> &amp; 120 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> in main plots and four weed management practices <em>viz</em>. <em>Azolla</em> 2 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, BGA 1.25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, two hand weeding (2HW) at 20 &amp; 40 days after transplanting (DAT) along with weedy in sub plots and replicated thrice. The results showed that the FYM treated plots exhibited maximum residual NPK and organic carbon with comparatively less pH in post harvest soil of wetland rice. Post harvest soil studies indicated that among weed management practices <em>Azolla</em> facilitated higher residual NPK and organic carbon and least pH in wetland rice field.</p> 2022-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Water Deficit on Productivity of Some Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes 2022-06-25T05:28:50+00:00 E. H. El-Seidy Mohamed Mansour Eman Abokhalifa Ashgan M. Abd El-Azeem <p>Two field experiments were laid out during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 growing seasons at Sakha region, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt to evaluate the productivity and stress tolerance of ten barely genotypes under full irrigation and water stress conditions. Eight traits for barley were measured: days to maturity, plant height, spike length, number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m<sup>2</sup>, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield. Also, stress susceptibility index (SSI) was calculated. Results showed that, all the studied traits were decreased under water stress conditions. Mean squares due to seasons, water treatments, genotypes and their interactions were significant or highly significant for most studied traits. From the results, Giza 133 and Line 3 were the earliest genotypes in maturity. Line 4 under normal irrigation and Giza 2000 and Line 5 under stress gave the highest values of grain yield and most of its components. From SSI data, Giza 124, Giza 126, Giza 2000, Line 3 and Line 5 considered as the most tolerant genotypes where it had values less than the unity. so, it can be used in improving barley productivity under water stress condition.</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Variability and Character Association Study for Yield Enhancement in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 2022-06-25T05:37:26+00:00 Aneeta Yadav . Neha Ravi Das <p>This study was conducted to examine 20 bread wheat genotypes with two checks to investigate genetic parameters, correlations and genetic diversity. This experiment was done in main experimental station of Agricultural Research Farm, Rama University (U.P), Mandhana, Kanpur during Rabi Season, 2020-21 in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Analysis of variance showed a very significant difference between the 20 bread wheats of the 11 characters investigated. Genotype HPAN111 showed high grain yields per plant during the control period based on average production. Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was recorded highest for Biological yield per plant (15.073%). Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) was recorded highest for Biological yield per plant (16.316%). Environmental coefficient of variation (ECV) was recorded highest for Effective tiller per plant (13.591%). High heritability was observed for &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;most of the traits and it was noted highest for Biological yield per plant (85.4%). Genetic advancement was recorded highest for Biological yield per plant (643.733%). The high Genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for Biological yield per plant (28.687%). Grain yield per plant shows Significant Positive Correlation with Biological yield per plant (0.8803**) at genotypic and phenotypic level.</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## N, P and K Uptake by Crop and Weed as Influenced by Nutrient Levels and Weed Management in Mustard 2022-06-25T05:17:08+00:00 Shashank Tyagi Arun Kumar S.C. Paul S.S. Acharya <p>A field experiment was conducted in <em>Rabi </em>season of 2018-19 and 2019-20 at Research farm of Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour to assess the impact of nutrient and weed management on N, P and K uptake by crop and weed in mustard. This experiment with 3 nutrient levels (N<sub>1</sub>-soil test-based recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), N<sub>2</sub>-100 % RDF, N<sub>3</sub>-125 % RDF) in main plot; 8 weed management (W<sub>1</sub>-Weedy, W<sub>2</sub>-Hand weeding (HW), W<sub>3</sub>-pendimethalin, W<sub>4</sub>-pendimethalin followed by (<em>fb)</em> quizalofop, W<sub>5</sub>-pendimethalin <em>fb</em> clodinafop, W<sub>6</sub>-oxyflourfen, W<sub>7</sub>-oxyflourfen<em> fb</em> quizalofop, W<sub>8</sub>-oxyflourfen<em> fb</em> clodinafop) in sub plots, laid in split plot design. Results indicated that in 2018-19, N, P and K uptake by mustard was found maximum under 125% RDF. Hand weeding exhibited highest N, P and K uptake by crop over weedy. Among herbicides, maximum N, P and K uptake by crop was noted with pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PE <em>fb </em>quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PoE. In 2019-20, hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS along with 125% RDF exhibited highest N, P and K uptake by crop. Among herbicides, application of pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PE <em>fb </em>quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PoE along with 125% RDF exhibited highest N, P and K uptake by the crop. In both the years 2018-19 and 2019-20, hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS along with 125% RDF exhibited N uptake by weeds, zero value being lower than weedy. In 2018-19, application of pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PE <em>fb </em>quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PoE along with 125% RDF exhibited the lowest N and K uptake by weeds. Among nutrient levels, application of 125% RDF exhibited the lowest P uptake by weeds, however, among herbicides; application of pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PE <em>fb </em>quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PoE registered the lowest P uptake by weeds. In 2019-20, application of pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PE <em>fb </em>quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PoE along with 125% RDF exhibited the lowest N, P and K uptake by weeds. Thus it was concluded that pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PE <em>fb</em> quizalofop 60 g a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> PoE along with 125% RDF (100:50:50:25:6.25 kg NPKSZn ha<sup>-1</sup>) enhanced N, P and K uptake by crop though hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS along with 125% RDF (100:50:50:25:6.25 kg NPKSZn ha<sup>-1</sup>) exhibited significant improvement in nutrient uptake by crop.</p> 2022-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bio-efficacy of Herbicides with Different Water Volumes and Spray Timing under Zero Tillage Rice Residue Retention Scenario against Phalaris minor in Wheat 2022-06-27T06:20:07+00:00 Ankur Chaudhary Dharam Bir Yadav Samunder Singh Todar Mal Poonia Satbir Singh Punia Narender Singh <p><strong>Background:</strong> Continuous use of the similar modes of action-based herbicides leads to the development of herbicide resistance in wheat-associated weeds in north-west India. Accelerated development of multiple resistance against most of the available post-emergence herbicides emphasize the use of pre-emergence herbicides. But, the efficacy of pre-emergence herbicide is a matter of concern as surface retained stubbles and/or straw alter herbicide efficacy associated with a direct interception of herbicide.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A field study was conducted for two <em>rabi </em>seasons (2018-19 and 2019-20) to optimize spray volume and time of application for improving the bio-efficacy of pre-emergence herbicides under zero tillage full rice residue scenario. The herbicidal treatments (g/ha) included pendimethalin + pyroxasulfone (1000.0+127.5) as pre-emergence (PE), pyroxasulfone (127.5) as PE, pyroxasulfone (127.5) as early post emergence (EPoE), aclonifen+diflufenican (1002+200) EPoE, halauxifen methyl+ fluroxypyr (7.3+233.4) as EPoE, flumioxazin (100) as PE with two different water volumes 500 and 1000 liter/ha along with pendimethalin <em>fb </em>pinoxaden (1500+50) in 500 l/ha water volume, pendimethalin (1500) as PE in 375 l/ha water volume, weed free and weedy check.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The present study showed that pendimethalin + pyroxasulfone as PE with a higher spray volume of 1000 l/ha and alone application of pyroxasulfone as EPoE produced similar <em>Phalaris minor </em>control as with pendimethalin <em>fb </em>pinoxaden (PE <em>fb </em>Post) under full rice residue scenario in zero-till wheat.</p> 2022-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Potassium and Sulphur on Growth and Yield of Greengram (Vigna radiata. L) 2022-06-27T06:21:14+00:00 Guggilla Akhil Victor Debbarma Addanki Tejaswi <p>The experiment was conducted during <em>Zaid </em>season 2021 at KVK, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P.) to study the influence of potassium and sulphur on growth and yield of greengram. The treatments consist of potassium 15, 25, 35 kg/ha and sulphur 10, 20, 30 kg/ha. The result reported that application of potassium 35 kg/ha + sulphur 30 kg/ha (Treatment 9) recorded significantly highest Plant height (45.77 cm), maximum number of branches (6.50), maximum number of nodules (21.73), maximum plant dry weight (9.66 g). It is also observed that the maximum grain yield (1,109.67 kg/ha) and stover yield (2,431.00 kg/ha) was obtained with the application of potassium 35 kg/ha along with sulphur 30 kg/ha. It was concluded that application of potassium and sulphur performs positively and improves growth and yield parameters of Greengram.</p> 2022-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Selected Bioagents against Alternaria Leaf Spot of French Bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.) 2022-06-27T06:28:11+00:00 Pottupalli Govardhani Shashi Tiwari Veeragandham Supriya Patthi Lakshmi Sindu <p>French bean (<em>Phaseolous vulgaris </em>L.) is a significant food, legume crop utilized as a pulse and green vegetable crop, belongs to family fabaceae. The French bean is a cool-season, day- neutral vegetable that can withstand extreme temperatures. Area, production and productivity on French bean in India (2019-20) were 22.1 Mha, 2226 million Tonnes and 7-10 t/ha. They are high in protein and have a similar texture to meat. Green pods have 1.7 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 4.5 g carbohydrate, 1.8 g fibre, and are high in minerals and vitamins in a 100 g serving. Several diseases affects French bean crop majorly and cause yield loss Alternaria leaf spot (<em>Alternaria alternata)</em>, Angular leaf spot (ALS) (<em>Phaeoisariopsis griseola)</em>, Bean rust (<em>Uromyces appendiculatus</em>), Anthracnose (<em>Colletotrichum lindemuthianum)</em>, Aschochyta leaf spot (<em>Ascochyta phaseolorum)</em> and Cercospora leaf spot (<em>Cercospora canescens)</em>. Among them, Alternaria leaf spot of French bean is one of the most severe disease, which is caused by <em>A. alternata </em>in the French bean. An experiment was conducted in the <em>Zaid </em>season to check the efficacy of bioagents against <em>A. alternata </em>on field conditions. Bioagents <em>viz.,Trichoderma viride</em>, <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em>, <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>as seed treatment. An untreated replication served as control. Among the treatments, the maximum germination percentage maximum plant height (cm) at 90 DAS , maximum no. of primary branches and secondary branches at 60 DAS was recorded in T4 – <em>T. viride </em>@2.5%+ <em>P. fluorescens </em>@ 2.5% followed by T1 – <em>T. viride </em>@ 5% as compared to untreated check control T0 . The minimum disease intensity (%) at 75 DAS was recorded in T4 – <em>T. viride </em>@ 2.5% + <em>P. fluorescens </em>@ 2.5 %, followed by T1 – <em>T. viride </em>@ 5% as compared to untreated check control T0.</p> 2022-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Levels of Mycorrhization on the Growth Parameters and Nutrient Content of Chilli 2022-06-27T06:30:47+00:00 . Sarita Rakesh Kumar Satish Mehta Lochan Sharma Pankaj Yadav <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the effect of different levels of <em>Glomus mosseae</em> on plant growth parameters chlorophyll content, mycorrhizal colonization (%), sporocarp number and nutrient content of chilli.</p> <p><strong>Study Design</strong>: The experiment was conducted using a complete randomized design (CRD).</p> <p><strong>Study Area:</strong> To study the mycorrhizal effect on the chilli plants, observations were documented in Sceenhouse and laboratory conditions. Plant Pathology Laboratory, CCS HAU, Hisar was use for the laboratory work. The experiment was undertaken during crop season 2018</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Mycorrhizal fungi was raised and maintained on wheat and pearl millet in earthen pots. Further experiment was conducted and Plant height, Root length, Dry weight of root and shoot, Mycorrhizal colonization, Sporocarp number, SPAD chlorophyll content and NPK content was observed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the root system of vascular plants. Mycorrhizal associations help the host plants to thrive in adverse soil conditions and drought situations by increasing the root surface area and nutrient uptake efficiency. In the present study <em>Glomus mosseae</em> was tested on chilli plant with different inoculum levels (100, 150, 200 and 400 chlamydospores/kg soil) and found that Plant height, Root length, Dry weight of root and shoot, SPAD chlorophyll content, per cent mycorrhizal colonization and sporocarp number were maximum when 400 spores were used for inoculation and minimum were found in untreated plants. Among all the four observation period <em>i.e.</em> 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after transplanting maximum NPK content was observed at 90 days after transplanting.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Among All the inoculum levels (100, 150, 200 and 400 chlamydospores/kg soil) maximum plant growth parameters, NPK content and chlorophyll content was observed when 400 chlamydospores/kg soil were used.</p> 2022-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Soil Test based Targeted yield equations for blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) through Integrated Plant Nutrition System on Alfisol 2022-06-27T06:16:40+00:00 E. Amutha Sankari R. Santhi M. Gopalakrishnan S. Maragatham R. P. Gnanamalar <p>Using Ramamoorthy's inductive methodology for assessing the soil test based crop requirement by adopting an Integrated Plant Nutrition System to create Fertilizer Prescription Equations (FPEs) for blackgram with the prime objective of attaining the targeted yield by the farmers. A field experiment was conducted out on red non-calcareous sandy loam soil belonging to the Palaviduthi soil series (<em>Typic Rhodustalf</em>) during rabi 2021-22. The experiment comprised of eleven treatments&nbsp;<em>viz</em>., STCR - NPK alone and STCR - IPNS for yield targets 1.0,1.2,and 1.4 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, Blanket (25:50:25) @ 100% with and without FYM (12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), FYM alone @ 6.25 and 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and absolute control in randomized block design with three replications. From the experimental data, basic parameters&nbsp;<em>viz</em>., nutrient requirement (NR), per cent contribution from soil (Cs), per cent contribution from fertilizers (Cf), and per cent contribution from FYM (Cfym) were computed. The quantity of fertilizers contributed by the application of Farmyard manure was assessed. It has been found that the nutrient requirement for producing one quintal grain of blackgram was 4.77 kg of N, 4.50 kg of P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, and 5.05 kg of K<sub>2</sub>O. The per cent contribution from soil (Cs) was 15.61, 29.91, and 8.12 for N, P, and K respectively and the percent contribution from fertilizers (Cf) and FYM (Cfym) was 48.61 and 37.19 for N, 44.78, and 14.63 for P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and 55.72 and 31.71 for K<sub>2</sub>O<strong>.</strong>&nbsp;FPEs for blackgram were generated using these basic parameters through a Soil Test Crop Response based Integrated Plant Nutrition System (STCR-IPNS). Fertilizer Prescription Equations (FPEs) created in this mode were used to create nomograms for a range of soil test values and yield targets. Thus the Inductive cum Targeted Yield Model used to develop fertilizer prescription equations provides a strong basis for soil nutrient maintenance consistent with high productivity and efficient nutrient management in farming for sustainable and enduring agriculture.</p> 2022-06-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Newer Selected Insecticides, Beaveria bassiana and Neem Oil against Diamond Back Moth (Plutella xylostella)(L.) in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata) 2022-06-29T04:27:01+00:00 Tejasri Kommoji Anoorag R. Tayde <p>The trail was conducted at Crop research farm, Department of Entomology of Naini Agriculture institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (U.P) during rabi 2021-2022 to study the efficacy of newer selected insecticides, <em>Beaveria bassiana</em> and Neem oil against Diamond back moth (<em>Plutella&nbsp; xylostella</em>) in Cabbage (<em>Brassica oleracea var capitata</em>) and the experiment was laid out in randomised block design with eight treatments and each was replicated thrice using a variety green soccer 546. The treatments are Spinosad 45% SC, Indoxacarb 14.5%SC, Emamectin benzoate 5%SG, Chlorantraniliprole 18.5%SC, Fipronil 5%SG, <em>Beaveria bassaina (</em>1x10<sup>8</sup> CFU/gm), Neem oil 0.3% along with an untreated control. The data on Percent reduction of larval population were significantly superior over control but among all treatments, chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC is best effective for diamond back moth had showing (80.35%) percent reduction of larval population followed by Spinosad 45% SC (77.06%), Indoxacarb 14.5SC (73.43%), Emamectin benzoate 5%SG (71.77%), Fipronil (68.26%),<em>Beaveria bassiana</em> (67.06%) and Neem oil was least effective had showing (61.18%) percent reduction of larval population but superior over control. Among all the treatments, highest yield (314.9q/ha) and Cost-benefit ratio (1:7.59) was recorded in Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 %SC followed by Spinosad 45%SC with a yield of (273.73q/ha) and Cost-benefit ratio (1:6.77) as compared to control.</p> 2022-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Status and Distribution of Sulphur in Acid Soils of Imphal East District, Manipur 2022-06-29T04:28:18+00:00 Kasinam Doruk Indira Sarangthem N. Surbala Devi Edwin Luikham N. Gopimohan Singh <p>A pot experiment was conducted with thirty soils of varying characteristics for selecting the most suitable chemical extractant for available sulphur. Rice variety CAU-R1(Tamphaphou) was grown in pots treated with and without sulphur for eight weeks. At harvest dry matter of rice was recorded. The average dry matter yield increased significantly @30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> levels of S application. Sulphur in the soils was extracted with four different extractants. The extractable S of the soils varied considerably with the soils and the extractant used. In term of the efficiency of extraction,the extractants were in the order : 500 ppm Ca(H<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>.H<sub>2</sub>O &gt; 0.5M NaHCO<sub>3</sub> &gt; 0.5M NH<sub>4</sub>OAc &gt; 0.15% CaCl<sub>2</sub>. Available sulphur extracted by 0.5M NH<sub>4</sub>OAc showed the highest correlation with Dry Matter Yield (0.510882**) , Total Plant Uptake (0.548974**), Bray’s % Yield (0.514887**), Bray’s % Uptake (0.70565**).Therefore,0.5M NH<sub>4</sub>OAc extractant was rated as most promising extractant for assessing S availability for rice in acid soils of Manipur. pH (-0.12481, -0.04153837, 0.15850443, -0.02106*), EC (-0.2696*,-0.08246, -0.21701*,-0.28734*),CEC (-0.27441*, -0.24183*, -0.18531, -0.28287*), sand (-0.00152, -0.0166 , -0.10168, 0.121165), silt (-0.00858 , -0.15039, -0.10699, 0.030722), Ca<sup>2+ </sup>(-0.1528, -0.1056 , 0.007184 , -0.09847) and Mg<sup>2+</sup> (-0.27248*, -0.16614, -0.07896, -0.24056*) had negative correlations with all extractants of S. The positive relationships of almost all extractants of sulphur with clay texture (0.040966, 0.20296*, 0.306651**,-0.0879), organic carbon(0.096396, 0.32224**, 0.201351*, -0.09377), nitrogen (0.036851, 0.203472*, 0.24579*, -0.06179), phosphorus (0.301882**, 0.268273719*, 0.322386047**, 0.209681*) and potassium (0.023932, -0.00667852, -0.04825616 , 0.079524) were observed.</p> 2022-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Phosphorous and Boron Levels on Growth and Yield of Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) 2022-06-29T04:29:27+00:00 Pushpa Vittal Myageri Joy Dawson <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>Rabi </em>season (2021) at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P.). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly natural in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.28%), available Nitrogen (225 kg/ha), available Phosphorous (19.50 kg/ha) and available potassium (213.7 kg/ha). The Treatments consisted of 3 levels of Phosphorous (Phosphorous -30 kg/ha), (Phosphorous -45 kg/ha) (Phosphorous -60 kg/ha) and 3 levels of Boron (Boron -1 kg/ha), (Boron -1.5 kg/ha) and (Boron - 2 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with 9 treatments and replicated thrice. The results reported that significantly maximum plant height (53.50 cm), dry weight (8.26 g/plant) and a greater number of nodules (7.80) were found higher with application of treatment 60 kg/ha phosphorous + 2 kg/ha Boron. No. pods/plant (103.70), seeds/pod (2.00), test weight (24.38 g), grain yield (1837.72 kg/ha) and Stover yield (2906.16 kg/ha) were recorded in (treatment-9) that is with 60 kg/ha phosphorous + 2 kg/ha Boron.</p> 2022-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biology and Population Dynamics of Two Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linnaeus) Under Protected Cultivation 2022-06-29T04:30:39+00:00 K. Prakash V. Baskaran E. Sumathi A. Suganthi R. Swarnapriya <p>Two spotted spider mite,&nbsp;<em>Tetranychus urticae&nbsp;</em>Koch<em>&nbsp;</em>is the major polyphagous pest on crops and cause considerable yield loss. Cucumber cultivation become possible throughout the year in closed condition with improved agronomic practices. The cultivation of cucumber under controlled condition is threatened by the occurrence of various pests, of which mites occupied greater importance in yield reduction. The influences of weather parameters on population dynamics of&nbsp;<em>T. urticae</em>&nbsp;were studied under protected condition during autumn season of 2021 and continued till last week of April. The observations revealed that the mite population was significantly increased under closed condition and the recorded total developmental period of mites&nbsp;was 6.47 ± 0.003 days, these changes in the biology might resulted from variation in the weather parameters in closed conditions. The population dynamics of two spotted spider mites differed significantly under the protected cultivation compared to the open field condition and a peak population of mites were observed during the second fortnight of march (16<sup>th</sup> standard meteorological week) and the lowest population was observed during month of November and December as the results of unfavorable environmental condition.</p> 2022-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Integrated Nutrient Management on Physico-chemical properties of soil in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) var. GS 10 2022-06-29T04:31:43+00:00 Pranav Kumar Arun Alfred David Tarence Thomas Iska Srinath Reddy <p>During the rabi season of 2021-2022, a field experiment was conducted at the soil science research farm of the Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences in Prayagraj, UttarPradesh, India. Three different parameters viz., three levels of NPK, FYM at 0%, 50%, and 100% ha<sup>-1</sup>, and three levels of rhizobium inoculation at 0%, 25%, and 50% ha<sup>-1</sup> were used in the study. The result obtained with treatment T9[I3@100% + F3@ 100% + R3@50%] had a bulk density (1.17 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>) at 0-15cm and (1.18 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>) at 15-30 cm, particle density (2.41 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>) at 0-15cm and (2.42 Mg m<sup>-3</sup>) at 15-30, pore space (58.26%) at 0-15cm and (58.09%) at 15-30cm, water holding capacity (58.60%) at 0-15cm and (58.13%) at 15-30, pH (7.75) at 0-15cm and (7.75) at 15-30cm, EC (0.47dSm<sup>-1</sup>) at 0-15cm and (0.48 dSm<sup>-1</sup>) at 15- 30cm, soil organic Carbon (0.58%) at 0-15cm and (0.49%) at 15-30cm as regards soil available nutrients, available nitrogen (280.86 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) at 0-15cm and (286.40) at 15-30cm, available phosphorus (16.56 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) at 0-15cm and (17.26 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), available potassium (178.13 kg ha<sup>-</sup> <sup>1</sup>) at 0-15cm and (172.80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The use of FYM and <em>Rhizobium</em>, as well as its blend with complete NPK, significantly improves the growth and overall production of Pea.</p> 2022-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Rice Varieties for Growth and Yield Performance in Aerobic Cultivation 2022-06-30T04:32:22+00:00 M. Karthikraja P. Sudhakar S. Ramesh B. Sunil Kumar <p>A field experiment was carried out to identify the best suitable rice variety for aerobic cultivation in the Cauvery delta region. Ten ruling varieties were sown for two consecutive Kharif seasons, with regular nutrient and weed management practices under aerobic condition. Growth parameters viz.,plant height, leaf area index, root length and dry root weight were studied. Similarly yield parameters viz., panicles m<sup>-2</sup>, Dry matter production at flowering and grain yield were studied.&nbsp; The study revealed that the rice variety ANNA 4, proved to be the best in terms of production (ie) 3.9 tonnesha<sup>-1</sup> in the first season and 3.8 tonnesha<sup>-1</sup> in the second season respectively. Pant height at different stages viz., maximum tillering, panicle initiation, flowering and harvest was highest in ANNA 4 followed by PMK 3.Similar was the case with root length,dry root weight, panicles m<sup>-2</sup> and dry matter production at flowering stage. Leaf area index was highest for ADT 45 followed by IR50. The above results reveal that ANNA 4 is the most suitable rice variety for aerobic cultivation in the Cauvery delta region.</p> 2022-06-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Application of Mitscherlich-bray Equation to Establish Fertilizer Recommendation for Strawberry under Adtuyon Clay Loam 2022-06-30T04:59:49+00:00 Gerlie S. Jambaro Louell M. Ozarraga Edgel O. Escomen <p>The nutrient requirement of strawberry plants is high making them very responsive to fertilization. This study utilized the Mitscherlich-Bray equation to determine the theoretical maximum yield as the basis of comparison to the actual yield. The economics of fertilizer application was also considered in the determination of the fertilizer recommendation. The theoretical maximum yield of the study is 12.29 t/ha<sup>-1</sup>. Strawberry is found responsive to nitrogen and potassium fertilization. The application of 225-225-360 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, and K<sub>2</sub>O, respectively could achieve 95% of the theoretical maximum yield, however, it had a much higher amount spent on fertilization per kg of fruit yield compared to the current Hafza’s recommendation. The fertilizer recommendation of 150-150-240 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, and K<sub>2</sub>O, respectively still the best option under Adtuyon clay loam for both economic and horticultural benefits.</p> 2022-06-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Identification of Alternatives to Landraces of Kale (Brassica oleracea Group Acephala) for Off-season Cultivation and Seed-to-seed Production in Kashmir Valley 2022-06-30T05:00:58+00:00 Geetika Malik Alima Shabir Rafiq Ahmad Shah Saima Farooq Asma Jabeen J. I. Mir O. C. Sharma <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To characterize kale (<em>Brassica oleracea</em> group Acephala) germplasm well adapted for July to December cropping season in Kashmir valley for suitability for year round cultivation with respect to leaf yield (t/ha).</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Random Complete Block Design with two replications.</p> <p><strong>Place and duration of study</strong>: The study was done in Vegetable Experimental Field of ICAR-Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India from 2017-18 to 2018-19.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The germplasm comprising breeding lines and landraces as checks was sown and then transplanted at different times of the year to evaluate for leaf yield potential at edible maturity stage. The final yield for each genotype was calculated by summing up all pickings. Critical differences among genotypes for total leaf yield were calculated from ANOVA using OPSTAT online tool for one factor analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Considering the average performance of two years in terms of leaf yield in tone per hectare, NW-Saag-1 (24.77, 25.08 and 25.01), CITH-KC-16 (28.79, 26.74 and 11.20) and CITH-KC-18 (24.25, 24.14 and 11.91) were found to yield significantly better than local checks <em>Khanyari </em>(7.77, 8.47 and 21.31) and <em>GM Dari</em> (10.36, 15.98 and 9.65) when transplanted in May, June and July, respectively. Months of April, May, June, July and August were most conducive for normal nursery production followed by May to September transplanting to get economical yields. January sowing of selected genotypes in polyhouse along with added protection from polysheet resulted in vigorous and healthy seedlings. Their transplanting in the second fortnight of March resulted only in short vegetative phase of the crop followed by bolting and seed production. However, this approach came out as an opportunity to produce seed in 7 months (January to July) compared to 1 year normally taken in farmer adopted seed production method.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> NW-Saag-1, CITH-KC-16 and CITH-KC-18 lines yielded significantly higher than local landrace kales for offseason cultivation and seed-to-seed technique of seed production is an economic and short method of kale seed production in Kashmir valley.</p> 2022-06-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Micronutrients Application under Different Fertilizer Prescription Methods on Growth and Yield of BT Cotton 2022-06-30T05:02:06+00:00 G. S. Yogesh S. S. Prakash M. N. Thimmegowda <p>An experiment was conducted to study the effect of the application of micronutrients under different fertilizer prescription methods on growth and yield of Bt cotton at KVK farm, Chamarajanagara district, Southern Dry Zone of Karnataka (Zone 6). The experiment was laid out in randomised complete block design with thirteen treatments and three replications during <em>Kharif </em>2016 and <em>Kharif</em> 2017.&nbsp; The micronutrients were given as soil application and foliar spray under UAS (B) and SSNM dose of NPK fertilizers prescription.&nbsp; The soil was slightly alkaline in reaction (pH: 7.95), low in zinc (0.32 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) and boron (0.18 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>). The results indicated significantly higher plant height and more number of sympodial branches with UAS (B) Package, UAS (B) + Micronutrients, SSNM and SSNM + Micronutrients. However, significantly higher seed cotton yield (2329 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded with NPK as per SSNM + MNM foliar application at 80 and 100 DAS followed by NPK as per UAS (B) package + MNM foliar application at 80 and100 DAS (2215 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and NPK as per SSNM + MNM soil application (2012 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) treatments as compared to control. The supplementation of micronutrients with optimized major nutrient applications can bring about an overall augmentation in crop performance both in terms of growth and yield attributes, thereby resulting in a significant higher yield. Application of micronutrients through foliar spray has a significant and positive effect on the growth and yield in Bt cotton under black soils of Chamarajanagara district.</p> 2022-06-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies on Genetic Variability and Divergence in Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.). 2022-07-01T04:37:19+00:00 S. Naveen Kumar Reddy Shiv Prakash Shrivastav <p>The purpose of the research is to study Genetic Variability, Divergence and correlation studies on 20 genotypes of mustard The phenotypic coefficient of variation was greater than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. The high magnitude of both coefficients was recorded in case of number of primary number, secondary, number of siliquae per plant, seed yield per plant and harvesting index. High heritability with high genetic advance was recorded for number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, length of main raceme, number of siliquae in main raceme, number of siliqua per plant, number of seeds per siliquae, biological yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield per plant and harvesting index. In the present findings the significant phenotypic correlation of seed yield per plant were found positive for the characters Days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, length of main raceme, number of siliqua per plant, length of siliqua, number of seeds per siliqua, harvesting index and seed yield per plant showed positive significant correlation with seed yield per plant. The path coefficient analysis of different characters revealed that highest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant per plant was exerted by harvest index per plant followed by biological yield and negative direct effect on seed yield / plant was exhibited by number of siliqua per plant followed by length of siliqua, days to 50% flowering, number of secondary and number of primary branches. Diversity among clusters varied from 11.87 to 33.28.The highest intra-cluster distance was recorded in cluster II The genotypes falling in these clusters could be utilized for hybridization programme in Indian mustard.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Early Maturing Sugarcane Clones for Yield, Quality and Its Contributing Traits in East Coast Zone of Tamil Nadu 2022-07-01T04:49:04+00:00 S. Ganapathy R. S. Purushothaman <p>The field experiments were conducted at Sugarcane Research Station (TNAU), Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu and consist of four trials <em>viz</em>., Initial Varietal Trial (IVT), Advanced Varietal Trial - I plant (AVT- I plant), AVT- II plant and AVT-Ratoon. Initial varietal trial consists of eight test clones and three standards; in AVT I plant consist of five test clones and three standards, in AVT II plant and Ratoon, four entries and three standards. Observations were recorded for germination per cent (%), number of tillers (x1000/ha), number of millable cane (x1000/ha), stalk length (cm), stalk diameter (cm), single cane weight(kg) cane yield (t/ha), sucrose(%), CCS(%) and CCS yield (t/ha). The results revealed that, in Initial Varietal Trail, the clone CoC 13337 recorded higher CCS yield (17.92t/ha) followed by the clone CoC 13336 (17.25 t/ha). The Cane yield was maximum in the clone CoC 13337 (139.81 t/ha) followed by the clone CoC 13336 (134.26 t/ha). The sucrose per cent was maximum in the clone CoC 13337 (17.61%) followed by the clone CoC 13336 (17.57%). In AVT- I plant, the clone CoA 12322 recorded the higher cane yield (126.70 t/ha) followed by the clone CoA 12321 (123.23 t/ha) and CoA12323 (122.13 t/ha). The CCS yield was maximum in the clone CoA 12322 (15.92 t/ha) followed by the clone CoOr 12346. The CCS % was maximum in CoOr 12346 (12.75) followed by the standard CoC 01061. The clone CoOr 12346 recorded higher sucrose (17.87%) followed by standard CoC 01061 (17.74%). In AVT–II plant, clone CoC 11336 registered the higher cane yield (139.25t/ha) followed by the CoC 10336 (123.34 t/ha). The CCS yield was maximum in CoC 11336 (17.83 t/ha) followed by CoC 10336 (15.39 t/ha). The sucrose content was maximum in the clone CoC 11336 (17.62%) followed by CoC 01061 (17.48%). In AVT ratoon crop, among the test clones, clone CoC 11336 registered the higher cane yield (134.43t/ha) followed by the clone CoC 10336. The CCS yield was maximum in CoC 11336 (17.27t/ha) followed by CoA 11323. Hence, these promising clones in different trial could be advanced for further breeding programme for release as new sugarcane variety.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Screening Root Traits of Rice Landraces Seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) Under Induced Drought Stress using Hydroponic System 2022-07-01T04:57:30+00:00 S. Jeeva Priya S. Vincent A. John Joel N. Sritharan <p>Drought is one of the most abiotic stress factor that limit the rice production worldwide. Drought stress induces the osmotic stress to plants. This study was conducted under hydroponics system with the three rice landraces 337 – IC116006, 101 – IC464685 and 224 – IC463809 along with drought tolerant check variety Anna (R) 4 under drought stress during seedling stage. The treatments were applied at 20 days old seedlings by imposing stress with PEG 6000 (-7 bar) along with control. The root traits <em>viz.,</em> root length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, root volume, root tissue density and lateral root numbers were measured ten days after stress. In this study, the landrace 337 – IC116006 was observed as a tolerant, 101- IC464685 was observed as a moderately tolerant whereas landrace 224- IC463809 was observed as a susceptible. The root traits are the indicators which could contribute for the vigour and growth of the rice landraces at their later stage. The positive adaptive drought tolerance of rice landraces during seedling stage can be utilized as a trait in the breeding programs development for the drought tolerant cultivar.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Growth and Instability in Area, Production and Productivity of Banana in Tamil Nadu 2022-07-02T05:13:32+00:00 R. Sathiya M. Naveenkumar S. Senthilnathan S. Grunathan M. Nirmala Devi V. Banumathy <p>The study shows that, analysis of trend, growth and stability of banana in decade’s periods of India and Tamil Nadu. Since, the study attempt to analyse and used the instability index Viz., Cuddy-Della Valle Index and Coppock Index. Whereas analyse trend and decomposition used the secondary data collected from various sources. The past decades area and production of banana was significant but the last 5 years it was decline due to the some socio economic factors (educational status, household size, fertilizer application and experience) of fruits growers and some of the climatic eradications. The area under banana in Tamil Nadu was decreased (The Compound Growth Rate was -4.06 per cent) but India was increased (one per cent) in the current year (2018-19), over the base year (2009-10). The growth rate for production and productivity were negative in Tamil Nadu and that were positive in India except productivity. The area and its interaction effect with area were found to be responsible for decrease in the production of banana in India. In Tamil Nadu area and yield were identified as major influencing factors for decrease in the production of banana. The change in production of banana is high compared to area and productivity. Hence the study recommends Government also used to formulate the policy to support fruit growers by announcing minimum support price and by providing cold storage facilities at minimum cost and subsidies for exporting fruits to other countries. It was indirectly support of the fruits growers to ensure the large scale production.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies on Organic Polymer Coated DAP Fertilizer on Phosphorus and Nitrate Releasing Pattern in Calcareous Soils 2022-07-02T05:14:27+00:00 N. S. Arunima R. Shanmugasundaram D. Selvi N. O. Gopal <p>An incubation experiment was carried out with DAP coated with chitosan and sodium alginate organic polymers. Treatments comprises of T1: Chitosan coated 75% DAP, T2: Chitosan coated 100% DAP, T3: Sodium alginate coated 75% DAP, T4: Sodium alginate coated 100% DAP, T5: 100% RDF (SSP), and T6: 100% RDF( DAP) which were replicated four times in completely randomized block design. Results revealed that 100% chitosan coated DAP (T2) was found to be superior than all the remaining treatments which was followed by 100% sodium alginate coated DAP (T4). Uncoated DAP and SSP high leachate P in the early stage of incubation study and there after P content was minimal in leachate. It was concluded that coated DAP had less release of P at the start of study and thereafter steady state because of the dissolution of P through the coated membrane. Similar trend was observed in nitrate releasing pattern.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Standardization of Amla Candy (Emblica officinalis L.) Cv. Kanchan 2022-07-02T05:15:12+00:00 Sacreacy Sohshangrit V. M. Prasad Cherish Sheeba Nura <p>An experiment was carried out at the Post Harvest Technology, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh) during the year 2021 - 2022. Amla is an indigenous fruit to the Indian subcontinent. It is a fruit that is now underutilized but has huge potential in the global market. It has got great potential in processed forms, such as candy. Attempts are being made to produce products that are not only nutritionally delicious but also acceptable among consumers. The medicinal, nutritional, and organoleptic quality of amla candy can be improved by the addition of different syrups in the amla candy like rose syrup, tulsi syrup, and ginger syrup. The experiment consisted of 6 different treatments comprising the different syrups (sugar syrup, rose syrup, tulsi syrup, ginger syrup) with the addition of the standard recommended dosage of citric acid and sodium benzoate. This investigation was laid out in a completely randomized design with three replications. After preparation, the amla candy samples were evaluated for Physico-chemical alterations, and sensory evaluation was done using a 9-point hedonic scale that was tested on a panel of 7 experts. These candies were stored for about 90 days at ambient temperature.&nbsp; From storage studies, it was revealed that total soluble solids and acidity increase gradually till the end of the experiment while pH and ascorbic acid are in decreasing order. On the basis of the organoleptic test concluded that the candy was prepared from cv. Kanchan and treatment with T<sub>2 </sub>(Amla + 68% Sugar syrup + 10% Spices) are found to be the best amla candy.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Drought Tolerant Rice Variety Swarna Shreya in North-eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha through Frontline Demonstration 2022-07-02T05:16:29+00:00 P. J. Mishra H. K. Sahoo L. M. Garnayak P. K. Roul U. S. Nagothu B. P. Patra A. Phonglosa P. K. Panda S. Mohanty <p>A continuous 3 year demonstration using drought tolerant rice variety Swarna Shreya was carried out in participatory mode in farmers’ field during Kharif season 2019, 2020 and 2021 at Lathipadsa village of Surada block of Ganjam district under north-eastern ghat zone of odisha. Major constraints of traditional rice cultivation are the low productivity in upland areas due to lack of knowledge and partial adoption of recommended package of practices by rice growing farmers. Also because of less water sometime farmers do not take any crop. Therefore, present demonstration programme has been undertaken to popularize/introduce stress tolerant rice var. Swarna Shreya in drought prone and upland areas of Ganjam district of Odisha. An average yield of 38.33 q ha<sup>-1</sup> was recorded under demonstration plots as compared to 32.17 q ha<sup>-1</sup> in farmers practice plots. The yield improvement due to the improved practices was 18.69 percent over farmers' practice. Average technology gap, extension gap, technology index was 6.67 q ha<sup>-1</sup>,6.17 q ha<sup>-1</sup>, 14.81 percent under three year frontline demonstration programme were recorded. The stress tolerant rice variety Swarna Shreya gave higher net return of Indian Rupee (INR) 33500, 40655 and INR 45350 ha<sup>-1</sup> as compared to farmers practices with INR 26100, 23520 and 24650 ha<sup>-</sup> <sup>1</sup> during Kharif season of 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. The benefit cost ratio (B:C ratio) of rice cultivation under improved practices were found to be 1.95, 2.13 and 2.08 as compared to 1.67, 1.60 and 1.58 under farmers practices.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Screening for Export Potential Potato Varieties in Bangladesh 2022-07-02T05:17:15+00:00 Md Mazadul Islam Md Nasir Uddin Sauda Naznin Md. Nurul Amin Md. Raziul Hassan Mondol Afroz Naznin Md. Zannatul Ferdous Md. Salim Md. Rezaul Karim Bimal Chandra Kundu <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The main aim of this study was to find out the suitable variety having the export potentiality.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with the two replications in each location.</p> <p><strong>Place of the Study:</strong> The study was conducted in ten different agroecological environments across the country, namely Bogura, Jashore, Munshiganj, Gazipur, Patuakhali, Faridpur, Debiganj, Madaripur, Thakurgaon and Rangpur district of Bangladesh during November 2020 to March 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Sixty-two released potato varieties and exotic materials were used as planting materials for the experiment. Whole seed tubers of 28–40 mm were planted in the last week of November with a spacing of 60 cm between the rows and 20 cm between the plants. The crops were harvested at full maturity during March. Tuber yield was determined by adding the weights of marketable and unmarketable tubers from the net plot area and converting them to tons per hectare. After that, the tubers were graded in different grades and the dry matter of the potato was analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Considering the results, the location Rangpur, Thakurgaon, Debiganj and Bogura are the most suitable place for export variety cultivation in Bangladesh. The potato variety and genotypes 13.7, BARI Alu-12, BARI Alu-61, BARI Alu-68, BARI Alu-73 and Innovator were found promising for export for their yield, tuber size and dry matter content.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The variety having good yield, bigger size and high dry matter could be selected for export from Bangladesh and the better-performed regions can be utilized for export quality potato production in Bangladesh.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Growth Retardant and Defoliant on Morpho-physiological Traits and Yield Improvement in Cotton 2022-07-01T07:33:33+00:00 K. Dharani V. Ravichandran S. Anandakumar N. Sritharan N. Sakthivel <p>In cotton, mechanized harvesting has gained popularity in recent years due to labor-intensive process and shortage of labor. Moreover, mechanized harvesting of cotton depends on plant morphological characters like plant height, internodal&nbsp;length&nbsp;and synchronized boll maturity and opening&nbsp;etc. Mechanized harvesting enhancing the harvesting efficiency of cotton which is achieved by the use of some chemicals to attain good lint yield and fibre quality. With this background, the field experiment was conducted to study the impact of growth retardant and defoliant on morpho-physiological traits and yield improvement in cotton (CO 17) during 2021-2022 by following randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. The current study revealed that spraying of 0.015% mepiquat chloride (MC) at square formation and boll development stage significantly reduced the leaf area, plant height, total dry weight and boll number when compared to control. However, chlorophyll content and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were recorded higher in 0.015% mepiquat chloride (MC) applied treatments than control. Moreover, spraying of mepiquat chloride (0.015%) at square formation and boll development stage followed by spraying of 0.9% sodium chlorate (SC) at 60% boll bursting stage significantly increased the seed cotton yield compared to other treatments and recorded maximum seed cotton yield of 25.22% compared to control. Results clearly indicate that application of MC followed by SC could be a better practice for canopy management in cotton, resulting in improved efficiency of mechanical harvesting and good lint yield and fibre quality.</p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Integrated Effect of Organic and Inorganic Manuring on Crop Yield and Soil Nutrient Balance in the On-going Century-old Permanent Manurial Experiment 2022-07-01T11:58:54+00:00 M. S. Sabeena G. Sridevi D. Jayanthi D. Balachandar Ga. Dheebakaran <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The present study reports the results of continuous application of different rates of N, P and K and organic manure to a Maize-Sunflower cropping system on the changes in soil available nutrients status after harvest of 172<sup>th</sup> crop of maize.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> We studied the long-term effect of organic and inorganic manuring on crop yield and soil nutrient management under Maize–Sunflower cropping system in 112 years old Permanent Manurial Experiment Field. Significant build-up in soil fertility in terms of alkaline KMnO<sub>4</sub>-N, Olsen-P, NH<sub>4</sub>OAc-K, K<sub>2</sub>Cr<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub>–C and CaCl<sub>2</sub>-S as well as DTPA-Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn were assessed under eight treatments consist of Unfertilized Control, NP, NP, NPK (Chemical Fertilizer Alone), FYM (N Equivalent Basis), FYM (Every Year), Poultry Manure and NPK+FYM.</p> <p><strong>ResultS and Discussion:</strong> Recorded data from 2008 shows that continuous application as 100%NPK+FYM @12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> achieved highest grain yield (hybrid maize CO 6), soil organic carbon, available nitrogen, available potassium, available sulphur and micronutrients content. Highest P recorded in poultry manure on nitrogen equivalent basis than INM irrespective of the crops. Inorganic fertilizer application alone resulted in a pH of &gt;8.0, whereas fertilizer and manure application as well as manure application alone resulted in a pH of &lt; 8.0 in soil. The increase in available S in INM, NPK alone might be due to single super phosphate (SSP) and FYM which contained about 12 and 0.74 % of S, respectively. Thus, considering soil-quality conservation and crop yield, 112 years of study indicated that combined application of NPK and organic manure is a better nutrient-management option in this irrigated maize sunflower cropping system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These results conclude that for better crop yield and soil quality, integrated usage of organic and inorganic nutrient should be advocated in the Maize-Sunflower cropping system under Alfisol.</p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evolution of Liquid Multinutrient Fertilizer for Hybrid Cotton 2022-07-02T09:35:30+00:00 Divya K. R. K. Kaleeswari D. Jeyanthi D. Amirtham K. Sankaranarayanan <p>A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of drip fertigation and foliar nutrition of liquid multi nutrient on growth, yield and quality parameters of hybrid cotton. Liquid fertilizer was formulated using micronutrient (Zn, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, Cu), Mg and S to meet the nutrient requirement of hybrid cotton. Field experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications and seven treatments. Drip fertigation was applied with 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) through water soluble fertilizer and Liquid Multinutrient (LMN). Treatment that received 100% RDF + LMN fertigation and foliar nutrition of LMN recorded the highest growth parameters (plant height, Leaf Area Index and dry matter production), yield parameters like number of sympodial branches/plant, number of bolls/plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield and quality parameters like staple length and ginning out turn per cent and in addition to that foliar nutrition of LMN containing Mg alleviated the Mg deficiency to the tune of 52% which in turn increases the above parameters. Fertigation and foliar nutrition of LMN enhanced the nutrient uptake of hybrid cotton that would economize the cost of fertilizer input.</p> 2022-07-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment of Selected Botanical Extracts and Biofertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Mustard (Brassica juncea.L) 2022-07-02T10:33:55+00:00 Busireddy Sai Harsha Vardhan Reddy Bineeta Michael Bara Prashant Kumar Rai Vaidurya Pratap Sahi Samir Ebson Topno Biswarup Mehera <p>The present investigation was carried out for “Pre-sowing seed treatments of selected botanicals extract and biofertilizers on growth, yield and yield attributing traits of Mustard (<em>Brassica juncea </em>L.)”. For this pur- pose, 13 priming treatments including control on Mustard seeds variety were used to study under filed condi- tions during rabi, 2021-22. Field experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications respectively during <em>Rabi </em>2021-22. Analysis for the data in field experiment revealed significance mean sum of squares due to seed priming treatments for all the characters under study. In order to standardize method of seed priming specific to mustard crop and they were evaluated by screeming a range of duration and concentration <em>Viz </em>T0- Control, T<sub>1</sub> Neem Leaf Extract 5% (6Hrs), T<sub>2</sub> Neem Leaf Extract 10%(6Hrs), T<sub>3</sub> Moringa Leaf Extract 5% (6Hrs), T<sub>4</sub> Moringa Leaf Extract(10%Hrs), T<sub>5</sub> <em>Trichoderma viridae </em>0.1%(6Hrs), T<sub>6</sub> <em>Trichoderma viridae </em>0.3%(6Hrs), T<sub>7</sub> Azosprillum 0.1%(6Hrs), T<sub>8</sub> Azosprillum 0.3%(6Hrs), T<sub>9</sub> Neem Leaf Extract + Moringa Leaf Extract(5% +3%) 6hrs, T<sub>10</sub> Trichoderma viridae + Azosprillum (0.1%+0.1%), T<sub>10</sub> Trichoderma viridae + Azosprillum (0.1%+0.1%), T<sub>11</sub> Neem Leaf Extract + Trichoderma viridae (3% +0.1%), T<sub>12</sub> Moringa Leaf Extract + Azosprillum(3% +0.1%)To find out Influence of different seed treatment on growth, yield and seed quality parameters of mustard showed that significant treatment Field emergence (%), Plant height (30,60,90 DAS), Days to 50% flowering, Number of branches per plant, Number of silique per plant, Number of seeds per silique, Seed yield per plant (g),Seed yield per plot (g),Biological yield (g),Harvest index. The study helps to improve the quality to improve of seed with help of seed different Leaf extracts and Biofertilizers priming treatment which are cost effective and economic, non- toxic, ecofriendly sources. Pre- sowing treatment with It is concluded from the present study that the seeds of Mustard (Variety - sonalika) were treated with T<sub>9</sub> Neem Leaf Extract + Moringa Leaf Extract(5% +3%) 6hrs enhanced the Field emergence percentage, Plant height (cm), Number of branches per plant, Number of silique per plant, Number of seeds per silique, Seed yield per plant, Seed yield per plot, Biological yield, Harvest index followed by T<sub>12</sub> Moringa Leaf Extract + Azosprillum(3% +0.1%) and T4 Moringa Leaf Extract(10%Hrs) as compared to control ( untreated ) seeds.</p> 2022-07-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Sowing Environment on Growth Parameters, Yield and Yield Components of Chickpea (Cicer aretinum L.) Varities 2022-07-02T10:44:01+00:00 Mandeep Kumar Naushad Khan Ravindra Sachan Abhishek Tiwari <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>Rabi </em>season of 2019-20 in sandy loam&nbsp; &nbsp; soil of C.S.A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Nawabganj, Kanpur (U.P.).The experiment consisted nine treatments combinations comprised of three sowing date/ sowing temperature <em>viz., </em>sowing on November 10 with temperature 22<sup>0</sup>C, November 20 with temperature 17<sup>0</sup>C and November 30 with temperature 16<sup>0</sup>C and three variety viz, KWR-108, KPG-59 and KGD-1168. Results revealed that sowing temperature 22<sup>0</sup>C which occurred on November 10 in combination with variety KGD-1168 produced significantly higher growth parameters such as plant population, plant height, number of branches per plant, dry matter accumulation and crop growth rate. It is also evident from data that variety KDG-1168 sown on November 10 has been associated with highest no. of pods plant<sup>-1</sup>, no. of seeds plant<sup>-1</sup>, no. of seeds pod<sup>-1</sup>, test weight, seed yield plant<sup>-1</sup>, seed yield (q ha<sup>-1</sup>) because fulfilment of optimum thermal requirement for various plant processes. High temperature during-reproductive stage adversely affected the number of pods plant,<sup>-1</sup> number of seed pod<sup>-1</sup> in late sowing (November 30) which ultimately resulted in the lowest seed yield. It can be elaborated from the results that variety KGD-1168 produces higher yield and benefit in the central plain zone of Uttar Pradesh.</p> 2022-07-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Yield and Quality of Okra cv. Kashi Kranti 2022-07-02T12:10:16+00:00 Sangeeta Shree Reena Kumari Vijay Kumar Singh Sunil Kumar <p>The present work was conducted to evaluate the response of okra cv. Kashi Kranti to plant growth regulators and micronutrients at the vegetable seed production area, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India during Kharif season. The experiment was laid out in RBD (Factorial) and replicated thrice. The experiment was framed with two levels of PGRs, GA<sub>3</sub> (100 ppm,150 ppm) and NAA(100 ppm and 150 ppm), sprayed twice, first at twenty days after sowing and second at forty days after sowing. The maximum number of leaves (18.13), number of branches (3.48), plant height (104.17 cm), number of fruit per plant (23.39), fruit fresh weight (17.95g) and fruit yield (130.88q/ha), 1000 seed weight (78.49g) chlorophyll-a (1.84), chlorophyll-b( 0.81), zinc content (30.81 ppm), boron (22.55 ppm), copper (18.24 ppm) and germination (85.48%) was observed on application of GA3-100ppm, which was found to be significantly superior in most of the cases. Maximum net return highest benefit cost ratio (2.67) was also obtained on application of GA<sub>3</sub>100 ppm.</p> 2022-07-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Newer Insecticide Molecules for the Management of Emerging Pests of Rice in the Cauvery Delta Zone of Tamil Nadu, India 2022-07-02T12:50:54+00:00 P. Anandhi V. Ambethgar S. Elamathi <p>Seven treatments including 5 insecticides, Azadirachtin and untreated control were evaluated in field conditions against emerging pests of Rice <em>viz</em>., Rice hispa, <em>Dicladispa armigera</em>, (Oliver), (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera), Whorl maggot, <em>Hydrellia sasakii</em> Yuasa and Isitani (Diptera: Ephydridae) and Rice black bug,<em> Scotinophara lurida (</em>Burmeister<em>),</em>(Pentatomidae: Hemiptera) during 2019 and 2020 at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai. All the tested newer insecticide molecules were effective against the above-mentioned emerging pests of Rice. Two sprays of Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 150ml/ha at 35 and 75 days after transplanting (DAT) has reduced the highest reduction of hispa, whorl maggot and black bug (91.80, 92.25, 84.51 percent reduction over control) followed by Clothianidin 50 WDG @ 40g/ha (88.46, 89.60 and 83.39 percent reduction over control). Higher yield was recorded from Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC (6075 kg/ha) treated plots followed by Clothianidin 50 WDG @ 40g/ha (5950 kg/ha). Cost-benefit analysis showed that Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 150ml/ha spray was the most viable treatment by recording the highest cost-benefit ratio of 1: 3.17. Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 150ml/ha recorded more number of spiders and coccinellids (1.51 and 1.75 no./plant) followed by Carbosulfan 25% EC @ 1000ml/ ha (1.40 and 1.75 no./plant) which was on par with control (2.98 and 2.88 no./plant).</p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biostimulants: Concept, Types and Way to Enhance Soil Health 2022-06-08T05:01:16+00:00 Neeraj Papnai Dilip Kumar Chaurasiya Sangita Sahni <p>Soil has immense capacity to function as a vital living ecosystem that not only support plants and animals but also acknowledges survival of people, as a result there has been renewed interest in soil health but due to the environmental repercussions of poor management, such as soil erosion and nutrient contamination, the health of soil is deteriorating with an increasing rate. Application of biostimulants can prove to be a prominent tool for enhancing soil health. Biostimulants are compounds, microorganisms or other materials that are capable of stimulating nutrition processes in plants or in their growth environments. Regardless of their nutritional content they increase the plant's nutrient use efficiency, partial factor productivity, tolerance to abiotic stress and quality of the crop. Many types of biostimulants have been differentiated by their administration technique either soil or foliar, or may be plant or animal derivatives, or by the distinctive procedure involved for their derivation that may be hydrolysis, fermentation or acid/alkali extraction. Stimulants of biological origin that are soil applied can promote the establishment, proliferation of beneficial soil organisms that furnish substrates for plant growth. Biostimulants enhance soil health (physical, chemical, biological properties) by targeting certain major prospects such as enhanced buffering capacity of soil, enhanced stability of aggregates and specific surface area. The use of environmentally friendly natural preparations is especially significant in light of the ongoing processes of soil degradation and air pollution. Enzymes, Protein hydrolysates, and Sea Weed Extracts, Humic substances, Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Phosphorus Solubilising Bacteria, Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria briefly comes under the umbrella of biostimulants. These biostimulants can be extracted from various methods such as alkali hydrolysis, partial hydrolysis, pressurised liquid extraction,etc. Even while a biostimulants may not have a short-term effect, it has the potential to improve soil health with progression, ensuing higher yields in the succeeding years.</p> 2022-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Breeding in Ornamental Crops for Abiotic Stress Tolerance 2022-06-16T09:30:28+00:00 Heera Lal Atal Daripalli Srilakshmi Kunal Debbarma Lopamudra Jena Meikam Ichancha <p>Abiotic stresses are major concerns in agriculture sector affecting large parts of India. It is caused by Drought, salinity and temperature (high/low) representing a major constraint over crop growth rate and productivity. In ornamental crops meagre efforts have been done towards this way. Now a day’s ornamental crops are the prospective way to earn higher income as compared to the other crops and have a significant role in national GDP. How can we grow Ornamental crops in stressed condition is one of the major challenge. To get tolerance power against abiotic stress various ways have been developed but among all methods very few have been proved worthy in case of ornamental crops. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization is the basic way found hopeful strategy to improve tolerance against drought in some crops through domesticating abiotic stress-tolerant gens from their wild species into cultivated. Combination of both tissue culture and induces mutation approach (<em>In vitro</em> mutagenesis) is the one more important way for bringing stress tolerance and improvement in yield and quality of Ornamental crop plants. Genetic engineering is the modern tool which is used for breeding programme. The introduction of innovative characteristics such as new colours, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in ornamental crops are usually difficult through predictable breeding, but by the use of genetic transformation we can get is easily.</p> 2022-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Basic Concepts of High throughput Metabolomics in Plants 2022-06-24T05:22:18+00:00 Neha Chakrawarti Rajshree Verma Thirangtha Brahma Apurba Das Prety R. Narzary Sanjib Sharma Soumitro Goswami Manuranjan Gogoi Roshmi Dutta <p>Each cell contains many different metabolites and chemical molecules which are generated during cellular process. All the metabolites present in a cell at a particular time is called metabolome. The study of all the metabolites and their modification in a particular condition is called metabolomics. Metabolome is closely linked with genotype, physiology and environment. So,in a nutshell, metabolomics is the study of substrates and products of metabolism which are influenced by the genetic and environmental factors. In plants, metabolomics has now been frequently developed and studied in biotic and abiotic stress resistance. High throughput metabolomics includes time efficient and effective metabolite profiling techniques. These techniques are chromatography based and chromatography free methods. Chromatographic methods are NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS . Chromatographv free techniques include DI-MS,FI-MS,MALDI and Ambient MS . This paper will give an idea about how metabolomics work in elucidating plants phenotype, how sample is prepared for metabolite profiling, different techniques of metabolite profiling and various metabolomic databases.</p> 2022-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Integrated Nutrient Management: A Long-term Approach towards Sustainability 2022-06-27T04:27:52+00:00 Tamanna Sharma Vivak M. Arya Vikas Sharma Jyoti Sharma Tajalee Gulshan Anurag Bera Yahiya Akram Laskar <p>Increased global food demand, as well as the need for an environmentally acceptable approach for a sustainable soil-plant-microbe-environmental system, necessitate special attention when it comes to agricultural productivity. Chemical fertilization is one approach to increase crop productivity as happened during the Green revolution. Food grain output in India increased from 115.6 million tonnes in 1960-61 to over 281.37 million tonnes in 2018-19 as a result of chemical fertilization. Similarly, yearly fertilizer use jumped from 0.07 million tonnes in 1951-52 to over 25.95 million tonnes in 2016-17.But due to injudicious use of chemical fertilizers soil, plant, human and animal health are at stake. Also, increased soil compaction and widespread multinutrient deficits have emerged as important restrictions limiting crop productivity and farm income. Because a major rise in fertilizer consumption is unlikely in the near future for economic and environmental reasons, there is a need to improve nutrient use efficiency through integrated and balanced fertilizer. On the other hand, organic manures, are unable to fulfill all of a crop's nutritional needs. Integrated nutrient management (INM) was created as a result of the aforesaid factors being taken into account. In this paper,role of INM in overcoming these difficulties is discussed, as it has been offered as a promising solution for tackling these issues. Plant performance and resource efficiency can be improved in a variety of ways with INM while also allowing for environmental and resource protection quality. With the use of advanced INM procedures, chemical fertilizer inputs are reduced, resulting in fewer human and environmental costs without any negative impact on crop production.Long-term research in various soil-crop situations have demonstrated the advantages of integrated nutrient management (INM), which includes the utilisation of organic and biological resources as well as fertilizers. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the effect of various INM components on Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil, nutrient use efficiency, crop productivity and the role of these components in improving soil health. The majority of INM research has been done using dominant crop rotations of main field crops cultivated in the subtropical North Western states of India and most of the experiments revealed that INM leads to long term sustainable production along with providing nutritional security and also reduces pollution and enhances soil health by improving various physical, chemical and biological properties of soil.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Synthetic Insecticides against Pod Borer [Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)] on Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] 2022-06-30T04:31:14+00:00 K. N. Sahithi Sharma Anoorag R. Tayde <p>The present investigation was conducted at Central Research Field, Department of Entomology, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during the <em>Kharif </em>season of 2021. The field was laid in randomized block design (RBD) with six treatments&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC 0.5ml/L, Spinosad 45SC 1ml/L, Emamectin benzoate 5%SG 0.04G/Kg, Neem oil 5% 50ml/L, karanj oil 5% 50ml/L, NSKE 5% 50ml/L and control viz., The larval population per plant was taken before spraying and 3,7 and 14 days after each spray all the insecticides tested significantly reduced the pest infestation compared to control. The results of the efficacy showed that the minimum larval population was recorded in the treatment Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC (2.26%, 1.80%). The next effective treatments were Spinosad 45SC (2.80%, 2.23%), Emamectin benzoate 5%SG (3.23%, 2.80%), Neem oil 5% (3.63%, 3.30%), karanj oil 5% (4.20%, 3.60%.), NSKE 5% (4.56%, 4.10%.), which was found to be least effective among all treatments. The best and most economical treatment Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC (1:2.82) followed by Spinosad 45 SC (1:2.44), Emamectin benzoate 5% SG (1:2.10), Neem oil 5% (1:1.92), karanj oil 5% (1:1.68), NSKE (1:1.49) as compared to the control plot (1:1.01).</p> 2022-06-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##