International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 2021-09-24T12:14:07+00:00 International Journal of Plant & Soil Science Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Plant &amp; Soil Science (ISSN: 2320-7035)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJPSS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Plant &amp; Soil Science research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Influence of New Generation PGRs on Yield Parameter and Economics of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Dashehari 2021-09-23T02:49:16+00:00 Manas Kumar Patel Chintamani Panda Susanta Senapati Pradyot Kumar Nayak <p>The present investigation entitled “Influence of new generation PGRs on yield of mango (<em>Mangifera indica L</em>.) cv. Dashehari” was conducted at Horticulture experiment Station, Baramunda, OUAT, Bhubaneswar during the year 2017-19. The objective of this experiment was to improve the fruit retention of mango, Yield and its economic in c.v. Dashehari by using brassinostroids and triacontanol. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replication and 12 treatments. Comprising spraying of brassinostroids (each 0.5 and 1.0 ppm), Triacontanol (@ each 300, 500 and 700 ppm) and control and its combination. The observations on different characters of fruit viz., fruit set per panicle at pea stage, fruit retention per panicle at marble stage, fruit drop %, fruit retention per panicle at harvest stage, fruit retention per&nbsp; shoot cluster, fruit retention per tree, number of days taken from spraying to ripening, yield per tree (kg), and its economics were recorded. Among these treatments 1 ppm brassinosteroid and 300ppm triacontanol sprayed at pea stage has increased in fruit retention per panicle at harvest stage (5.95), fruit retention per shoot cluster (30.04) and fruit retention per tree (174.84) along with early maturity (81.66 days) and yield (31.87 kg) found whereas 1 ppm brassinosteroid give maximum fruit set per panicle at pea stage (35.16) &amp; Fruit retention per panicle at marble stage (14.63) and minimum fruit drop percentage (49.25%) were found in 300 ppm triacontanol. Maximum gross return (Rs74,625/-) and B:C ratio (1: 2.94) also found in the treatment 1 ppm brassinosteroid and 300 ppm triacontanol.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Floral Preservatives and Growth Regulators on Post Harvest Life of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) cv. American Beauty 2021-09-24T10:35:04+00:00 Y. Angel A. Vignesh Kumar <p>A Postharvest experiment was conducted to maximize the vase life of gladiolus using different preservative solution in department of Horticulture, Kalasalingam School of Agriculture and Horticulture. In this experiment the treatment consisted of two preservative chemicals and two growth regulators viz., 8-Hydroxy quinoline sulphate @ 300 ppm Silver nitrate @ 50 ppm, Benzyl adenine @ 20,40,60 ppm and Gibberlic acid @ 10,25,40 ppm along with sucrose @ 4 per cent with distilled water as control. The results of this experiment revealed that the maximum water uptake, transpirational loss of water, water balance, fresh weight change, percentage of opened florets, floret diameter, longevity of floret, vase life was recorded in T<sub>2 </sub>(8-HQS @ 300 ppm + sucrose 4% + BA @ 40 ppm), when compared to control. Some parameters like optical density of vase solution, days taken for the basal floret to open in vase and the percentage of wilted florets were observed least in T<sub>2 </sub>(8-HQS @ 300 ppm + sucrose 4% + BA @ 40 ppm). T5 (8-HQS @ 300 ppm + Sucrose 4% + BA @ 40 ppm) solution was found best to extend the vase life of gladiolus.</p> 2021-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Growth and Yield of Sugarcane Seed Crop as Influenced by Fertilizer Rates and Timing in Anakapalle, Andhra Pradesh, India 2021-09-23T02:49:58+00:00 P. Vinayalakshmi M. Martin Luther M. Bharathalakshmi Ch. Sujani Rao V. Srinivasa Rao <p>A field experiment was conducted in sugarcane over 2019-20 and 2020-21 cropping seasons at the Regional Agricultural Research Station of Anakapalle (Andhra Pradesh) on sandy clay soils. The objective was to determine the effect of organic and mineral fertilizer rates and timing on growth and yield of a sugarcane seed crop. The experiment was laid out following split plot design with three main organic fertilizer treatments and six N-K fertilizer sub treatments, in three replications. Results showed a significant increase in stalk height, numbers of tillers ha<sup>-1</sup> and cane yield due to organic fertilizer, namely biofertilizer and trash mulching, in combination with 125% STBNK applied at 30 days interval + additional dose of 25% recommended K fertilizer applied one month prior to harvest.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Crop Geometry and Nitrogen Levels Influence on Growth, Yield and Economics of Compact Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Rainfed Vertisols 2021-09-24T01:54:43+00:00 B. B. Nayak S. Bharathi M. Sree Rekha K. Jayalalitha <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To study the effect of crop geometry and nitrogen levels on compact <strong><em>cotton genotype</em></strong> in rainfed&nbsp;<em>vertisols</em>&nbsp;condition.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with a factorial concept with 3 levels of crop geometry and four levels of nitrogen with 12 treatment combinations and replicated thrice.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> A field experiment was conducted on&nbsp;<em>vertisols</em>&nbsp;under rainfed conditions at Regional Agricultural Research Station Lam, Guntur during the year 2018 – 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The treatments consisted of three crop geometries S1 – 60 cm × 10 cm, S2- 75 cm × 10 cm, S3- 90 cm × 45 cm in combination with four nitrogen levels N1- 45kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, N2- 90kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, N3- 135 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, N4- 180 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Closer crop geometry of 60 cm × 10 cm recorded taller plants and maximum dry matter accumulation, functional leaves per square meter, leaf area index, maximum chlorophyll content, number of bolls per square meter and seed cotton yield per ha<sup>-1</sup>, net returns and returns per rupee. However, the number of sympodial branches per plant and sympodial length was highest with wider crop geometry of 90 cm × 45 cm. All the growth and yield parameters recorded were maximum with the application of 180Kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> than all the other levels of nitrogen tested.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Overall, the results showed that the Crop geometry of 60cm × 10 cm&nbsp; with application of 135 kg N ha<sup>-1&nbsp; </sup>was found to be optimum to realize of maximum seed cotton yield and net returns.</p> 2021-09-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of scattered Faidherbia albida and Cordia africana Tree on Soil Properties under their Canopies in Fedis District, Easte Hararghe Zone, Oromia 2021-09-24T02:13:36+00:00 Musa Abdella Lisanework Nigatu <p>The study was conducted to investigate the effect of scattered trees under their canopies on soil fertility status at Fedis district, East Hararghe Zone, oromia, Ethiopia. Accordingly, six isolated and nearly identical <em>Faidherbia albida </em>and <em>Cordia africana</em> trees were selected and the canopy coverage of each tree was divided into four radial transects. Soil samples from three horizontal distances levels: 2.5m, 5m and 25m with two soil depths levels (0–20cm and 20-40cm) were taken for analysis of soil physical and chemical properties and tree species with two levels with factorial arrangement in RCBD replicated six times were employed. The result revealed soil texture was not influenced significantly (P&gt;0.05) by tree species. Soil bulk density was significantly (p&lt;0.05) influenced by both tree species. Soil moisture was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher under canopy of trees than open field and in surface than in subsurface soils. Soil chemical properties;- electric conductivity, organic carbon, organic matter, soil carbon stock, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable cation (Mg, Ca, Na and K) for surface and subsurface soil layers of under <em>F.albida </em>and <em>C. africana </em>trees were&nbsp; significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in canopy than open field and in surface than subsurface. Soil pH was not significantly (p&gt;0.05) influenced by both tree species. It can be concluded that these tree species have the potential to improve soil fertility beneath its canopy. This may be important for the agricultural landscape health and demonstrated the scattered trees to retain on crop fields to improve soil fertility status under its canopy and on farm biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes conditions.</p> 2021-09-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Economic Performance and Consraints Faced by Tur Dal Processing Units- Bharuch District, Gujarat 2021-09-22T10:20:48+00:00 Deepa Hiremath Shreeshail Rudrapur L. R. Dubey Bhanupriya Choyal <p>The study of economic performance of Tur dal processing units in terms of cost is very essential for accelerating the growth of agriculture processing industries. The present study was undertaken to work out the unit fixed costs, variable costs, production costs and returns of processing of Tur dal and different constraints faced by Tur dal processors of Bharuch District of Gujarat. The primary data pertained to consecutive three years i.e., 2017-18, 2018-2019, and 2019-20 were collected from the sample of three Tur dal mills from Bharuch, Ankleshwar and Vaghra talukas of Bharuch district. The results indicated that the average capital investment for a dal mill per unit was Rs. 7, 10, 00,000. The average fixed cost and average variable cost per quintal was of INR 46.10 and 245.46 respectively. Hence, average processing cost per quintal was worked out to be Rs. 291.56. The gross return per quintal of processed tur dal was Rs. 5754.50. The average content of tur dal and by- products was in the proportion of 72 per cent and 28 per cent respectively, by weight. The recovery in one quintal of tur was 65 kg of tur dal, 7 kg of broken dal and 28 kg of chala/chuni/ dead seed. The net returns per quintal after processing was found to be Rs. 579.61. It was found that, inadequate supply of raw material for processing especially during off season was the major constraint faced by the dal mill owners followed by units not running on full capacity utilization during offseason and irregular electricity supply to run the unit, etc.</p> 2021-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Diversity for Yield and Its Component Traits in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) 2021-09-22T14:32:28+00:00 Sanganamoni Srinivas Lakmalla Vinay Gaibriyal M. Lal <p>The present experiment was carried out to study the 40 chickpea genotypes to evaluate the Genetic diversity among the chickpea genotypes for yield and yield contributing traits and to identify genetically divergent parents for future hybridization. The present experiment was carried out during rabi 2019-2020 in Randomized complete block design with three replications at Sam Higginbottom university of agriculture technology and sciences, Prayagraj, Allahabad, U.P. The data was analyzed for 13 quantitative traits to study genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, genetic advance as percent of the mean. The magnitude of genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic co-efficient recorded highest for a number of seeds for plant (33.31 and 34.24), high heritability associated with high genetic advance was recorded for a number of secondary branches for plant (97.11 and 59.98) suggesting that there was greater role of additive gene action in inheritance. The distribution of 40 genotypes into six clusters was by Tocher’s method at a random with the Maximum number of genotypes were grouped into cluster I which includes 29 genotypes. The highest intra-cluster distance was observed for cluster I (59.53) which comprised of 29 genotypes. The highest inter-cluster distance (407.97) was found between clusters II and VI. Genotypes (IPC-71, IPC 04-52, JG-31416, L-550, IPCK 09-165, ICC-244263, IPC 94-94 and IPC 06-11 to these clusters may be used as parents to create transgressive segregants. Cluster VI recorded maximum mean values for the number of primary branches per plant (3.67), number of secondary branches per plant (6.47), number of pods per plant (117.13), number of seeds per plant (155.53), and seed yield per plant (g) (25.94).</p> 2021-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pre-sowing Seed Treatment with Organic and Inorganic Treatments on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributes of Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) 2021-09-23T13:01:43+00:00 H. G. Harshitha Abhinav Dayal Prashanth Kumar Rai Neha Thomas <p>The field experiment entitled “Pre-sowing seed treatment with organic and inorganic treatments on growth, yield and yield attributes of desi chickpea (<em>Cicer arietinum L</em>.)” was conducted during rabi at Field Experimentation Centre of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology &amp; Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2020 - 2021. The experiment consisted of 13 treatments which was laid in Randomized Block Design (RBD). Results revealed that seeds treated with T<sub>9</sub> (vermiwash 6% solution) recorded maximum values in growth parameters <em>viz.,</em> germination percentage at 4,7,14 DAS with 10.833%, 44.17, 74.17%, plant height at 30, 60, 90 DAS with 16.60, 41.00, 53.80 cm Days to flowering (74.67 days), number of branches 6.93 branches per plant, number of pods per plant with 36.10 pods per plant, number of seeds 52.30 seeds per plant and pod weight per plant with 24.49 gm. Similar results were observed in yield parameters where highest seed yield per plant was observed in T<sub>9</sub> (vermiwash 6% solution) with 30.35 gm and seed yield per plot 171.7 gm.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Behavior of Dioscorea alata Slices Treated with Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Chromolaena odorata before Inoculation by Colletotrichum sp. in Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire 2021-09-24T12:14:07+00:00 Ahebe Marie Helene Koffi N’guettia Marie Yah Dago Faustin Soko Yao Odilon Koffi Dolou Charlotte Tonessia Taky Hortense Diallo Atta <p>Yam, <em>Dioscorea </em>spp. (L) is an important foodstuff that plays a key role in the agricultural system in Côte d'Ivoire. This plant is however subject to several diseases during its cultivation and conservation. The losses caused by rots of tubers in storage constitute a major risk for economic profitability and for the food safety of consumers. The development of an effective and environmental friendly control method has been initiated. The objective of this work is to improve the conservation of <em>Discorea alata</em> tubers through the use of aqueous extracts of <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> and <em>Chromolaena odorata</em>. To do this, three different doses (33 g/l; 39 g/l and 50 g/l) of aqueous extracts of <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> and <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> were applied to yam slices before inoculation with <em>Colletotrichum</em> sp. Results showed that applying different doses of aqueous plant extract to yam slices before inoculation of the fungal strain caused less rot. The aqueous extracts of the two plants showed antifungal activity against <em>Colletotrichum</em> sp. This antifungal activity was more effective with the 50 g/l dose of <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> compared to the extract of <em>Chromolaena odorata.</em></p> 2021-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Salicylic Acid Alleviates Postharvest Fruit Decay of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.-A Review 2021-09-23T02:29:29+00:00 Angrej Ali Amit Kumar Nazir Ahmad Ganai Khalid Rasool Dar Arif Hussain Wani i <p>Strawberry (<em>F</em><em>ragaria</em> x <em>ananassa </em>Duch.) fruits are highly perishable and fruit quality decrease rapidly after harvesting, thereby it has a limited scope of long duration storage. Among several synthetic chemicals suggested for minimizing postharvest losses of fruits, Salicylic acid (SA) is a natural phenolic compound widely distributed in plants and considered as a hormone because of its regulatory role in plants. Salicylic acid has received particular attention because of its role in the modulation of the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Current scientific knowledge on the salicylic acid application in postharvest management of strawberry fruits suggests that SA has a potential role in minimizing fruit decay and maintaining fruit quality. These predictors, however, need further work to validate reliability in postharvest management of strawberry fruits in a larger perspective.</p> 2021-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##