International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 2022-01-18T09:15:07+00:00 International Journal of Plant & Soil Science Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Plant &amp; Soil Science (ISSN: 2320-7035)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJPSS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Plant &amp; Soil Science research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Effect of Seaweed Extracts on Growth, Yield Parameters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) 2021-12-11T05:24:54+00:00 Raja Sekhar Reddy Kurakula Prashant Kumar Rai <p>This field experiment entitled “Effect of seaweed extracts on growth, yield parameters in Chickpea (<em>Cicer arietinum. L</em>)” was conducted during rabi at Field Experimentation Centre of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology &amp; Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2019 &amp; 2020. The experiment was consisted of 2 varieties and 14 treatments comprising of seaweed extracts (i.e., Ascophyllum nodosum, red and brown algae) which was laid in RBD (Randomized Block Design) with kabuli &amp; desi chick pea, 14 treatments, 03 replications. The result shows that among all the treatments, the genotypes kabuli &amp; desi chickpea treated with 2.0% A.&nbsp; nodosum for 6 hours recorded the maximum value in growth parameters such as percent field germination after four (10.74 &amp; 10.74), seven (49.26 &amp; 47.41), and ten (77.41 &amp; 70.74) DAS, Days to 50% flowering (88.67 &amp; 86.00), days to maturity (154.00 &amp; 156.33), number of branches 25 (17.93 &amp; 16.60) and 50 DAS (36.70 &amp; 33.57) and height at 25 (4.47 &amp; 3.93) and 50 (7.27 &amp; 7.00) DAS.&nbsp; Similar results were also recorded in different yield parameters in both kabuli &amp; desi chickpea genotypes such as number of pods plant (61.52 &amp; 60.24), number of pods per plot (1025.67 &amp; 922.00), number of seeds per plant (102.5 &amp; 100.4), number of pods per plant (14.25 &amp; 1525), seed yield per plant (28.30 &amp; 25.35), seed yield per plot (358.44 &amp; 328.86), biological yield (3187.42 &amp; 3061.24), economical yield (1341.67 &amp; 1231.33), and harvest index showing most superior values when treated with treatment 2.0% Ascophyllum nodosum for 6 hours. Remaining treatments i.e, treatment with 0.5% Ascophyllum nodosum solution, 1.0% Ascophyllum nodosum solution, 0.5% red and brown algae solution, 1.0% red and brown algae solution, 2.0% red and brown algae solution for 6 hours recorded the second most effective treatments observed significantly superior than untreated checks.</p> 2021-12-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance of Heat Tolerant Maize Genotypes under Moisture Stress during Rainy Season in Karnataka 2021-12-11T05:27:41+00:00 B. N. Shwetha B. M. Chittapur P. H. Kuchanur B. G. Koppalkar A. S. Halepyati . Mahadevaswamy H. Veeresh Y. M. Ramesh <p>This research was formulated to study the response of heat tolerant genotypes to prolonged period of water stress prevalent under rainfed situation. The trial was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesugur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India, during rainy season (kharif) 2019. The present study comprised of three stress tolerant genotypes (RCRMH 2, RCRMH 3 and RCRMH 4) with four moisture stress stages (imposed between 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 DAS) which were sown during June, July and August<strong>, </strong>and the design employed was Randomized complete block design. The results revealed that superior performance of RCRMH 3 (5321 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) over other genotypes whether stressed or not, but all the genotypes were on par with each other in terms of physiological parameters <em>viz.,</em> proline accumulation, relative water content, canopy temperature, NDVI, relative chlorophyll content and ASI, and these parameters exhibited good correlation with yield and hence found ideal for stress studies. The present study indicated that these cultivars sustain maize production under moisture stress condition and therefore, are suitable to semiarid region characterized by inclement weather.</p> 2021-12-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Rock Phosphate Enriched Compost on Soil Nutrient Status after Harvest of Finger Millet-Cowpea Cropping Sequence in High Phosphorus Soils of Cauvery Command Area, Karnataka 2021-12-11T05:28:17+00:00 G. S. Jagadeesha H. C. Prakasha M. N. Shivakumara K. Govinda S. B. Yogananda <p>A field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, VC Farm, Mandya during <em>kharif</em> 2017, summer 2018, <em>kharif</em> 2018 and summer 2019 to study the effect of rock phosphate enriched compost on soil nutrient status after harvest of finger millet-cowpea cropping sequence. Prior to initiation of the field experiment, three different composts <em>viz</em>., urban solid waste compost (USWC), vermicompost and farm yard manure (FYM) were enriched with rock phosphate at 5 per cent. Field experiment consisting of eleven treatment combinations comprising recommended N and K, and P through varied levels of enriched composts. The experiment was laid out in RCBD design with three replications and the test crops were finger millet and cowpea. The initial P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> of the experimental site was very high (133.58 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The results revealed that application of recommended N and K + 75 per cent P supplied through enriched USWC (T<sub>5</sub>) had significantly higher organic carbon (0.56 and 0.58%) in pooled data of both finger millet and cowpea, respectively. Available N (241.94 and 224.86 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> (138.69 and 120.99 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and K<sub>2</sub>O (153.92 and 135.31 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded significantly higher in T<sub>5</sub> of finger millet and cowpea, respectively. Similarly, in pooled mean, exchangeable Ca [4.15 and 4.04 C mol (P<sup>+</sup>) kg<sup>-1</sup>] and Mg [2.16 and 2.05 C mol (P<sup>+</sup>) kg<sup>-1</sup>] were recorded significantly higher in treatment which received recommended N and K + 75 per cent P supplied through enriched vermicompost (T<sub>8</sub>) in both finger millet and cowpea, respectively. The decrease of available P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> was 20.98 per cent from initial (133.58 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) to final crop (summer 2019) (105.55 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>).</p> 2021-12-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Nutrient Concentration on Growth, Yield And Quality of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) in Hydroponic System 2021-12-11T05:31:00+00:00 Baiamonlangki Sutnga Vijay Bahadur Anita Kerketta <p>The present experiment entitled <strong>“</strong><strong>Influence of nutrient concentration on Growth, Yield and Quality of Spinach (<em>Spinacia oleracea</em> L.) in Hydroponic system”</strong> was carried out in Shade net, Research Field, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj during&nbsp; March- April,2020.. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized design (CRD), with eight treatments, replicated thrice with nutrient field technique hydroponics system and variety Mulayam of Spinach, the treatments were T<sub>1</sub> (NPK 6.25 ml/plant), T<sub>2</sub> (NPK 8.33 ml/plant), T<sub>3</sub> (NPK 10.41 ml/plant), T<sub>4</sub> (NPK 12.5 ml/plant), T<sub>5</sub> (NPK 14.58 ml/plant), T<sub>6</sub> (NPK 16.66 ml/plant), T<sub>7</sub> (NPK 18.75 ml/plant) and T<sub>0</sub> (NPK 0 ml/plant). From the present experimental findings, it is found that structure with treatment T<sub>4 </sub>was found best in terms of Growth and yield parameters of spinach in NFT hydroponic system followed by structure with T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>1 </sub>due to appropriate supply of plant nutrients and the water treated plants had the lowest values. Maximum gross return (1871.30Rs) and net return (746.30 Rs) and maximum benefit cost ratio (1.66) was also observed in treatment T<sub>4.</sub> As seen from the experiment, it was observed that the treatment T<sub>4 </sub>was ideal nutrient for Spinach good growth and yield. Therefore, an ideal nutrient concentration helps the plants in good growth and yield.</p> 2021-12-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Zeolite Application on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributes of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.) in Rainfed Condition 2021-12-11T05:31:53+00:00 M. N. Shivakumara R. Krishna Murthy G. S. Jagadeesha <p>A field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Gandhi Krishi vigyana Kendra, Bengaluru during <em>kharif</em>-2017 and 2018 to study the influence of zeolite application on growth and yield of finger millet crop. The pooled analysis showed significantly higher plant height recorded in the treatment which received zeolite 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> +125 per cent RDF (Recommended dose of fertilizer)&nbsp; which was at par with the treatment which received zeolite 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> +100 per cent RDF in 30, 60, 90 and at Harvest stage. The number of tillers per hill (3.44), total dry matter production (41.67 g hill<sup>-<strong>1</strong></sup>), number of fingers per ear head (5.95), straw yield (36.07 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) and grain yield (48.00 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded in the treatment received zeolite 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> +125 per cent RDF which was at par with the treatment which received zeolite 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> +100 per cent RDF in pooled analysis.</p> 2021-12-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anti-hyperglycemic Efficiency of the Aqueous Seed Extract of Mucuna pruriens in Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Wistar Rats 2021-12-16T06:30:43+00:00 Reuben-Kalu J. I. Renuka R. <p>This study was undertaken to evaluate the remedial effect of the aqueous seed extract of <em>Mucuna pruriens</em> (ASEMP) on the endocrine region of pancreas of nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetes in <em>Wistar</em> rats. The anti-hyperglycemic efficiency of two varieties of <em>Mucuna pruriens </em><em>var utilis</em>; IIHR Selection 3 and Arka Dhanvantari was investigated. Oral administration of ASEMP against the nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the <em>Wistar</em> rats showed anti-hyperglycemic effect on the blood glucose level (94 ± 0.2 mg/dl ASEMP 400 mg/kg) when compared with the control group (92 ± 0.2 mg/dl glibenclamide 5 mg/kg), (248 ± 0.3 mg/dl Diabetic control) and (90 ± 0.3 mg/dl Normal control). Significant reduction in creatinine level of the nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with ASEMP was also recorded. Histopathology examination of the endocrine region of pancreas of the rats revealed restoration of pancreatic islet cells in the diabetic-ASEMP treated rats as the beta cell mass increased and necrotic changes was reduced significantly in contrast with the diabetic control group which showed degenerated pancreatic islet cells. Therefore, this study supports and recommends the exploration of the aqueous seed extract of <em>M. pruriens</em> as a complementary medicine for the management of type-2 diabetes.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Plant Growth and Tuber Yield of Dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) cv. Kenya White 2021-12-16T05:12:37+00:00 T. Raghunandan J. P. Collis S. Saravanan K. S. Barman <p>The experiment was carried out at Experimental field, Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences [formerly known as Allahabad Agriculture Institute Deemed University, AAI-DU] during the Spring season 2014-2015. The experiment consists of Thirteen treatments <em>viz.,</em> (T<sub>0</sub>) Control-RDF (100:120:100 N P K&nbsp; kg ha<sup>-1</sup>,), (T<sub>1</sub>) 75% RDF + AZ@ 2.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>,, (T<sub>2</sub>) 75% RDF + FYM @ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>, (T<sub>3</sub>) 75% RDF + VC@ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>, (T<sub>4</sub>) 75% RDF + AZ @ 2.5 kg/ha +FYM @ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>+VC @ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>, (T<sub>5</sub>) 50% RDF +AZ@ 2.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, (T<sub>6</sub>) 50% RDF + FYM@ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>, (T<sub>7</sub>) 50% RDF + VC@ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>, (T<sub>8</sub>) 50% RDF + &nbsp;AZ @ 2.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>+FYM @ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>+VC @ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>, (T<sub>9</sub>) 25% RDF + AZ@ 2.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, (T<sub>10</sub>) 25% RDF + FYM@ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>, (T<sub>11</sub>) 25% RDF + VC@ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>+, (T<sub>12</sub>) 25% RDF + &nbsp;AZ @ 2.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>+FYM @ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>+VC @ 10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>. The treatments were replicated thrice in a Randomized Complete Block Design. The results revealed that Plants treated with 75% RDF + AZ @ 2.5 kg/ha +FYM @ 10 t/ha +VC @ 10 t/ha (T<sub>4</sub>) significantly recorded maximum vegetative and Tuber yield attributes like plant height (91.87 cm), plant spread (92.38 cm), Number of Branches per plant (7.27), number of leaves per plant (26.53), number of tubers per plant (4.80), maximum tuber weight (958.53) and Maximum tuber yield per plant was recorded in T<sub>4</sub> (75% RDF + AZ @ 2.5 kg/ha +FYM @ 10 t/ha +VC @ 10 t/ha) (43.33g) followed by T<sub>3</sub> (75% RDF + VC @ 10 t/ha) (40.95g).</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Nutrient Management through Bio Organic Manures on Quality of Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) 2021-12-18T13:33:28+00:00 V. Vijay Prabha A.Vignesh Kumar Y. Angel S. Abinaya G. Pradeep Kumar <p>Acid lime (<em>Citrus aurantifolia </em>Swingle) is one of the commercial fruit crops which occupies important place in the fruit industry, but yield levels of citrus orchards are still very low. Alternate nutrient management system could help in achieving high yield and quality of acid lime. Thus, an investigation was undertaken on the “Effect of nutrient management through bio-organic manures on quality of acid lime (<em>Citrus aurantifolia </em>Swingle)” in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India during 2016 – 2018. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with twelve treatments, various organic manures, biofertilizers along with inorganic fertilizers including recommended dose of fertilization @ 100%, 75%, 50%, farm yard manure @ 100%, 50%, Vermicompost @ 100%, 50%, Biofertilizers ( 25g Azotobacter + 25g phosphate solubilising bacteria + 150g vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal) were applied. The quality characters of acid lime were studied at different stages. The observations recorded viz., plant height (m), canopy spread east-west (m), canopy spread north-south (m), canopy height (m), no. of leaves per canopy, leaf area (cm<sup>2</sup>). The results revealed that plants treated with of T<sub>8 </sub>-75% RDF + 50% FYM + 50% Vermicompost + Biofertilizers (25g Azotobacter + 25g PSB + 150g VAM) was observed maximum plant height (m), canopy spread east-west (m), canopy spread north-south (m), canopy height (m), no. of leaves per canopy, leaf area (cm<sup>2</sup>).</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genome Wide Association Studies to Dissect Genetic Factors Conferring Sheath Blight Resistance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 2021-12-18T13:43:04+00:00 Mahantesh . K. Ganesamurthy Sayan Das R. Saraswathi C. Gopalakrishnan R. Gnanam <p>Rice Sheath blight (ShB) is one of the most serious fungal diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Breeding for sheath blight resistance has been ineffective exercise so far, mainly because of lack of good number of reliable sources of resistance in rice germplasm. In this context our studies indicated that the lines Tetep, Jasmine 85 and MTU 9992 confer resistant to moderately resistant reaction against the pathogen. The current investigation was carried out to dissect the genetic factors governing resistance to sheath blight through genome wide association study (GWAS) from the mapping populations developed by design where in, each of the resistant parents were crossed to three to four highly susceptible parents to generate eleven populations (Jasmine 85XTN1, Jasmine 85XSwarnaSub1, Jasmine 85XII32B, Jasmine 85XIR54, TetepXTN1, TetepXSwarnaSub1, TetepXII32B, TetepXIR54, MTU 9992XTN1, MTU 9992XII32B and MTU 9992XIRBB4). A total of 1545 Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from eleven crosses were used for the study. During rainy 2020 the F7 RILs were screened for their reaction to Sheath blight in two hot spot locations. The genotyping was done with Illumina platform having 6564 SNP markers. Genome wide association study was done with two models Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and Mixed Linear Model (MLM). Results clearly indicate the superiority of MLM over GLM in correcting the population structure. With MLM model, in Jasmine 85 half-sib populations with 565 RILs analyzed, five QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci) were detected on Chr1, Chr3, Chr9, Chr10 and Chr11 with –log10 (P-Value) more than 3. In TETEP half-sib populations with 714 RILs examined, seven QTLs were observed on Chr1, Chr2, Chr5, Chr6, Chr7, Chr8, and Chr11 with –log10 (P-Value) more than 4. Whereas in MTU 9992 half-sib populations with 266 RILs studied, three novel QTLs were identified on Chr2, Chr6 and Chr11 with –log10 (P-Value) more than 3. Some of these QTLs were reported by researches earlier. In the current research, some novel QTLs were detected in Jasmine 85 (Chr10) and Tetep (Chr2, Chr5 and Chr6) apart from three new QTLs discovered in MTU 9992. The results facilitated to have better understanding of the genetic basis for sheath blight resistance in rice. Pyramiding all the QTL identified so far into a susceptible varieties is complicated affair as resistance is governed by not only several large effect QTLs but also medium to small effect QTLs as well, hence genomic selection approach could be rewarding for breeding for sheath blight resistance.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Variation in Calcium Content of Ginger Germplasm Inoculated with Bio-Agent, Trichoderma viride against Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita 2021-12-18T13:43:38+00:00 Manaswini Mahapatra Dhirendra Kumar Nayak Pranaya Pradhan Antaryami Mishra <p>The study was aimed to control nematodes in ginger crop in a sustainable way through inoculation of bio-agent, <em>Trichoderma viride</em>. The outcome of our research revealed that <em>Trichoderma viride </em>alone (T<sub>2</sub>) was the most effective treatment among all. This bio-agent has lowered the root-knot nematode populations by suppressing the disease intensity and responsible for enhancement of plant growth, increases the availability of nutrients to host plant. <em>Meloidogyne incognita</em> alone (T<sub>1</sub>) infected rhizomes resulted in highest reduction of calcium content amounting 2.26 and 2.43 mg/100g dry weight whereas maximum content was recorded in <em>Trichoderma viride </em>alone (T<sub>2</sub>) inoculated rhizomes as 2.84 and 3.08 mg 100g<sup>-1</sup> dry weight in suravi and suprabha over control (T<sub>7</sub>) respectively.<em> Trichoderma viride </em>inoculated 15 days prior to <em>Meloidogyne incognita</em> (TV→MI) was found to be most efficient one among all combined treatments. Susceptibility towards nematode induced more nutrient deposition in rhizomes of ginger crop due to poor translocation process through xylem.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring the Genetic Variability for Yield Attributing Traits among the Indigenous and Exotic Collection of Wheat in Cis-Himalayan Region of West Bengal, India 2021-12-20T08:26:02+00:00 Sahanob Nath Saikat Das Debojyoti Basak Sanghamitra Rout Satyajit Hembram Suvendu Kumar Roy Manoj Kanti Debnath Rupsanatan Mandal <p>A field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, during the 2018-19 rabi season to study the genetic components and genetic variability based on eleven number of quantitative traits in 254 bread wheat lines, which were collected from NBPGR, New Delhi. Analysis of variance for treatment showed high significance for all the traits except grain yield polt<sup>-1</sup>. Estimated GCV and PCV were high for awn length, peduncle length, plant height and AUDPC. Plant height (97.83), awn length (95.49), peduncle length (94.88), test weight (90.98), days to 50% flowering (87.66), number of grains spike<sup>-1</sup> (70.33) and spike length (62.3) showed high heritability along with a high degree of genetic advance. Finally, 254 wheat accessions were grouped into three clusters based on the dendrogram analysis using the ward method.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Selected Essential Oils and Botanicals on Alternaria Blight (Alternaria brassicae (Berk) Sacc) of Mustard (Brassica juncea (Linn) Czern and Coss 2021-12-20T08:48:09+00:00 Keerthana Muddappa Sunil Zacharia <p>Indian mustard (<em>Brassica juncea </em>(L.) Czern.coss) is also known as sarson, rai or raya, toria or is a herbaceous annual plant. Mustard is the second important oilseed crop in the world after sunflower, soybean and palm oil. Alternaria blight disease caused by <em>Alternaria brassicae</em> (Berk.) Sacc. It has been reported from all the continents of the world. Average yield losses occur due to various pest and diseases among which Alternaria blight is an important disease. Field experiment was conducted at the research plot of the Department of Plant Pathology, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh during the<em> rabi</em> season of 2020-2021 to test, Effect of selected essential oils and botanicals against Alternaria blight (<em>Alternaria brassicae </em>(Berk.) Sacc) of mustard (<em>Brassica</em> <em>juncea </em>(Linn.) Czern and Coss), by foliar spray of certain essential oil, plant extracts and fungicide. The treatments were Neem oil @2%, Eucalyptus oil @2%, Pongamia oil @2%, <em>Lawsonia inermis </em>extract @15%, <em>Chenopodium album </em>extract @15% Mancozeb (treated check) @ 0.2% and control (untreated check). The percent disease intensity on leaves at 45, 60 and 75 DAS, number of siliquae per plant, number of seeds per siliquae, length of siliquae (cm), test weight of seed (1000 number), biological yield (gm) and seed yield were recorded. Among the treatments, maximum number of number of siliquaes (243.13), maximum number of seeds per siliquae (12.27), length of siliquae (5.16 cm), minimum disease intensity (%) (29.01 %), maximum test weight (3.57 gm), maximum yield (9.43 qt) and biological yield (24.70 gm) were recorded in the treatment T<sub>2</sub> Eucalyptus oil @2% followed by T<sub>1 </sub>Neem oil @2%, T<sub>4</sub><em> Lawsonia inermis </em>&nbsp;extract @15%, T<sub>3 </sub>Pongamia oil @2%, T<sub>5 </sub><em>Chenopodium </em>extract @15%, when compared to treated check T<sub>6</sub> Mancozeb @ 0.2% and untreated check T<sub>0</sub>. Higher gross return value (Rs. 66295), net return value (Rs. 29295), and B: C ratio (1.7:1) was found in the treatment T<sub>2</sub> – Eucalyptus oil @2% as compared to T<sub>5</sub>–mancozeb and T<sub>0</sub>–control.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Using Zeolite and Vermicompost Amendments to Improve Water Productivity of Wheat Irrigated by Low-quality Water in the Northern Nile Delta 2021-12-23T07:15:49+00:00 T. H. H. Khalifa M. S. A. Ramadan Mona S. M. Eid <p><strong>Aims: </strong>In the long run, reusing low-quality water in Egypt's agricultural sector directly or after mixing with fresh water to compensate for water supply constraints can be hazardous to plants and soil. As a result, some appropriate management must be considered. For this reason, a field experiment was implemented in winter seasons 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 at Sakha Agric. Res. Station Farm, Kafr El-Sheikh Gov., Egypt. This study aims to assess the impacts of zeolite and vermicompost as well their combinations on alleviation of low-quality water impacts on physicochemical properties of clayey soil and wheat productivity.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; complete randomized block design with three replicates.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The application of 2.40 Mg Z ha<sup>-1</sup> was found to be the most effective on soil properties and plant growth. This treatment reduced soil EC, Na<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Cl<sup>-</sup>, SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>, and ESP values the most (52.90 percent, 83.21 percent, 30.43 percent, 6.04 percent, 91.82 percent, 19.83 percent, and 70.73 percent, respectively), while increasing the K<sup>+</sup> value by 32.47 percent. It also achieved the highest increases in plant height, 1000-grain weight, grain, and straw yields (35.92%, 9.60%, 42.77%, and 25.61%, respectively) when compared to untreated soil. With 2.40 Mg VC ha<sup>-1</sup>, the greatest changes in bulk density, total porosity, and CEC (-9.23, 9.30, and 10.54 percent, respectively) were obtained. The applications of 1.80 Mg Z with 0.6 Mg VC ha<sup>-1</sup> and 0.6 Mg Z ha<sup>-1</sup> with 1.80 Mg VC ha<sup>-1</sup>, on the other hand, resulted in the greatest increases in soil moisture content, drainable pores (DP), and water holding pores (WHP). Furthermore, 0.6 Mg Z combined with 1.80 Mg VC ha<sup>-1</sup> significantly increased the available N, P, and K in the soil. The addition of 2.4 tons Z/ha increased the WP and resulted in a high economically appealing wheat.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It could be concluded that the application of Z and VC is a new strategy for alleviating abiotic stress and improving wheat growth. Z application was more effective than VC on improving soil physicochemical properties and improving the water productivity and achieve high economical attractiveness wheat irrigated by low-quality water.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study of Parental Polymorphism and Allelic Variation for Grain Quality and Yield Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Using SSR Markers 2021-12-24T05:41:49+00:00 Sanket Rathi Sameer Upadhyay P. K. Singh Rajesh Kumar Pallavi . Prashant Bisen Bapsila Loitongbam Sanchika Snehi <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Identification of polymorphic markers is prerequisite for conducting any QTL mapping experiment because if the parents are polymorphic for the traits of interest, then further selection of plants in the progenies becomes easy. Hence, the objective of the present study was to identify polymorphic markers for grain quality and yield traits among the parental lines Improved Samba Mahsuri and Badshabhog.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>It was carried out at Molecular Breeding Lab, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, India, during 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Two parents Improved Samba Mahsuri and Badshabhog were used for the present study. The DNA extraction was done as per the CTAB method suggested by Murray and Thompson. Standard PCR protocol was followed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>For parental polymorphism survey, a total of 576 randomly selected SSR markers including 26 gene specific markers related to aroma, cooking and eating quality, grain dimension and yield related traits distributed across the 12 chromosomes of rice were used. Overall, 96 markers including 4 gene specific markers were found to be polymorphic between the two genotypes indicating a total polymorphism percentage of 16.67%. The highest polymorphism percentage was recorded on chromosome 6 (26.67%) followed by chromosome 4 (21.43%) and the lowest polymorphism percentage was observed on chromosome 10 (8.93%). The gene specific markers nksbad2, ARO7, BADEX7_5 and SSI were found to be polymorphic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the present study it may be concluded that the polymorphic markers identified will further be utilized in genotyping of F<sub>2:3</sub> population, linkage analysis and mapping QTL’s for grain quality and yield traits.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Abiotic Factors on Population of Aphid Complex and Its Coexisting Natural Enemies in Mustard Agroecosystem 2021-12-27T10:51:04+00:00 Somala Karthik U. Mukherjee <p>A field experiment was conducted to determine the population build-up of mustard aphid and their natural enemies in relation to abiotic factors at TCA, Dholi during the <em>Rabi </em>season of 2019-20 and 2020-21 respectively. The incidence of mustard aphid started in the 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> SMW of 2019 and 2020 respectively and reached maximum in 8<sup>th</sup> SMW in both the years. However, the predatory activity of coccinellids, syrphid larvae and spiders were started from 3<sup>rd</sup> SW with their peak activity at 3<sup>rd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> week of February in both the years. Mustard aphid population exhibited positive correlation with maximum temperature (0.347 &amp; 0.543), minimum temperature (0.317 &amp; 0.152) and negative correlation with relative humidity (-0.083 &amp; -0.479) during 2019-20 &amp; 2020-21 respectively. However, natural enemies <em>viz.,</em> coccinellids, syrphid larvae and spiders exhibited positive correlation with Tmax, Tmin, rainfall and negative correlation with RH in both the years.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Zinc Fortification on Quality, Yield and Economics of Sweetcorn 2021-12-24T05:53:05+00:00 Monika Peddapuli B. Venkateswarlu V. Sai Surya Gowthami <p>A field experiment was performed at Agricultural College, Bapatla, ANGRAU, Guntur during <em>kharif </em>season of 2020 to evaluate the efficacy of zinc nutrition on quality, yield and economics of sweetcorn. Experiment was carried out in Randomized Block Design and comprising of nine treatments with three replications. The results disclosed that application of recommended dose of fertilizers along with soil application of 10 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> Zn EDTA + two foliar sprays of nano zinc @ 250 ppm at 20 &amp; 40 DAS registered remarkably higher protein content (12.98%) and zinc content (34.59 ppm) in kernel which was considered to be superior over the remaining zinc management practices tried. Also, highest green cob (12,638 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), green fodder (19,674 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), stover yield (7,590 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and gross returns (₹ 1,93,360 ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded from the treatment with soil application of Zn EDTA @ 10 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>+ two foliar sprays of nano zinc @ 250 ppm at 20 &amp; 40 DAS along with RDF over control. However, highest net returns (₹ 1,38,664 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and benefit cost ratio (2.74) was recorded with RDF + ZnSO<sub>4 </sub>@ 25 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>(Soil) + Nano ZnO @ 250 ppm at 20 and 40 DAS (Foliar spray). The effectiveness of Zn EDTA compared to ZnSO<sub>4 </sub>is responsible for the higher quality parameters and yield of sweetcorn but due to its higher cost, Net returns and B;C ratio are maximum for the plots treated with ZnSO<sub>4</sub> making it more economically viable.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Estimating Genetic Parameters for DSSAT CROPGRO-Cotton Model Calibration and Validation 2021-12-24T05:53:38+00:00 G. Srinivasan S. Pazhanivelan S. Murali Krishnasamy N. S. Sudarmanian S. Rajeswari Balaji Kannan <p>DSSAT CROPGRO-Cotton Model (version 4.7.5) was generally used to forecast the effect of climate change on productivity. The objective of this study was to calibrate and validate this model in Tamil Nadu, India for simulation of development, growth and seed cotton yield of Suraj cotton cultivars under varied planting dates <em>viz</em>., 28<sup>th </sup>July, 11<sup>th </sup>August, 18<sup>th </sup>August, 25<sup>th</sup> August, 8<sup>th </sup>September and 15<sup>th </sup>September. The model was calibrated with data (phenology, biomass and yield components) collected during 2019. Calibration of CROPGRO-Cotton model with genetic coefficients of cultivar Suraj for seed cotton yield (kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Simulation of days to flowering, days from planting to first pod and physiological maturity, LAI and seed cotton yield with normalized RMSE (NRMSE) values of less than 10% across all the various planting dates densities were considered excellent. Finally, we discovered that planting at the right time can mitigate many of the negative effects of fluctuating weather on cotton productivity. As a result conclude that DSSAT model will be used to make decision on cotton planting in changing climates.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Approaches of Nutrient Application on Yield, Nutrient Uptake, Nutrient use Efficiency and Economics of Carrot 2021-12-27T04:31:05+00:00 N. Bhavya P. K. Basavaraja H. Mohamed Saqeebulla G. V. Gangamrutha <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>Kharif </em>2017 at Devanahalli village, Bengaluru rural district of Karnataka to evaluate the effect of different approaches of nutrient application on yield,&nbsp; nutrient uptake and use efficiency by carrot (<em>Daucus carota </em>L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design replicated thrice with eight treatments comprisingT<sub>1 </sub>(STCR target 20 tha<sup>-1&nbsp; </sup>through inorganics), T<sub>2 </sub>(STCR target 20 tha<sup>-1&nbsp; </sup>through integrated), T<sub>3 </sub>(STCR target 25 tha<sup>-1&nbsp; </sup>through inorganics), T<sub>4 </sub>(STCR target 25 tha<sup>-1&nbsp; </sup>through integrated), T<sub>5 </sub>(RDF (75: 63: 50) N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5, </sub>K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>+ FYM), T<sub>6 </sub>(LMH /STL + FYM), T<sub>7 </sub>(Farmers practice (92.6:159:0) N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>+ FYM), T<sub>8 </sub>(Absolute control).Results revealed that significantly higher root (27.51 t ha<sup>-1</sup>)&nbsp; and shoot (16.48 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) yield were recorded in STCR target of 25 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>through&nbsp; &nbsp;integrated approach. Similarly, higher total uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium&nbsp; (297.07 kg, 57.48 kg and 253.81 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively) by carrot and the higher apparent recovery &nbsp;&nbsp;efficiency (0.35, 0.08 and 0.58 kg kg<sup>-1</sup> of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>and K<sub>2</sub>O, respectively) and agronomic nutrient use efficiency (26.10, 12.37 and 48.25 kg kg<sup>-1</sup> of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>and K<sub>2</sub>O, respectively) were recorded in the same STCR target of 25 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>through integrated approach. However, the better profit was recorded (value cost ratio: 43.30) in STCR target of 25 t ha<sup>-1</sup> through inorganics. The STCR target of 25 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>through integrated approach had the most positive effect for the carrot cultivation.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Pre and Post Emergence Herbicides Application on Economics of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) 2021-12-27T04:43:18+00:00 S. Mehetre P. Pawar R. Pawar M. Gurav <p>An experiment was conducted during <em>kharif</em> 2020 at Post Graduate Research Farm, Agronomy Section, College of Agriculture, Dhule to study the effect of pre and post emergent herbicides application on economics of pearl millet production. Experiment consisted of nine treatments namely weedy check (T<sub>1</sub>), weed free (T<sub>2</sub>), atrazine @ 500 g/ha PoE (T<sub>3</sub>), 2,4-D (Dimethyl amine) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T<sub>4</sub>), 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T<sub>5</sub>), atrazine @ 500 g/ha PE <em>fb</em> 2,4-D (Dimethyl amine) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T<sub>6</sub>), atrazine @ 500 g/ha PE <em>fb</em> 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T<sub>7</sub>), pendimethalin 750 g/ha PE <em>fb</em> 2,4-D (Dimethyl amine) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T<sub>8</sub>), pendimethalin 750 g/ha PE <em>fb</em> 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T<sub>9</sub>) laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Among the herbicidal treatments, grain yield (kg/ha) and straw yield (kg/ha) was observed better with application of pendimethalin @ 750 g/ha PE <em>fb</em> 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T<sub>9</sub>). Among the chemical weed management treatments, application of pendimethalin @ 750 g/ha PE <em>fb</em> 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T<sub>9</sub>) observed higher gross and net monetary returns (₹/ha). However, the gross and net monetary returns (₹/ha) were maximum under weed free treatment but lower B:C ratio as compared to sequential application of pendimethalin @ 750 g/ha PE fb 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T<sub>9</sub>) and pendimethalin @ 750 g/ha PE <em>fb</em> 2,4-D (Dimethyl amine) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T<sub>8</sub>) due to higher cost for labour weeding.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biochemical Analysis Based on Zinc Uptake of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties Infected by Meloidogyne incognita 2021-12-27T04:53:52+00:00 Pranaya Pradhan Dhirendra Kumar Nayak Manaswini Mahapatra <p>The significant constraints in Chickpea (<em>Cicer arietinum </em>L.) production hampers a bit more than 14% global yield loss due to plant-parasitic nematodes. Root-knot nematode (<em>Meloidogyne </em>sp.) is an endoparasite and a significant species affecting the chickpea plant. So, the chemical basis of management is more cost-effective, and pest resurgence building is enhanced in the pathogen. So, ecological-based nematode management is requisite, which also is got hampered due to breeding for resistance against such plant-parasitic nematodes. This was the primary reason to conduct this experiment to enhance resistance in the chickpea plants based on Zinc uptake by using bioagent, <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens </em>alone or in combination. where Different treatments including nematode, bacterium, and chemicals were used sustaining the enhancement of disease resistance in chickpea cultivars, RSG 974, GG 5, GNG 2144. Zinc content of chickpea variety GNG 2144 was found the highest in treatment, when only bacterium (<em>P. fluorescens</em>) was inoculated, i.e., 3.14 mg/100g of root followed by GG 5, i.e., 2.79 mg/100g of root and RSG 974 was, i.e., 2.35 mg/100g of root respectively in a descending order. Application of <em>P. fluorescence</em> combined or alone gradually increased the Zn concentration in roots of chickpea plants compared to healthy check followed by chemical treated plants.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Automated Drip Irrigation System on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) 2021-12-29T04:26:40+00:00 R. Suvitha A. Velayutham V. Geethalakshmi S. Panneerselvam P. Jeyakumar K. Nagarajan <p>Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of different automated drip irrigation on tomato crop under sandy clay loam soil in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University during <em>kharif</em> 2019 and <em>kharif</em> 2020. Five treatments comprising 4 different automated drip irrigation systems are time based drip irrigation, volume based drip irrigation, soil moisture sensor based irrigation, switching tensiometer based irrigation and one is conventional method of irrigation were tested. The results revealed that tensiometer based drip irrigation recorded higher fruit yield of 95.11 and 96.21 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and water use efficiency of 21.10 and 25.42 t ha-mm<sup>-1</sup> resulting in increment over conventional method of irrigation. However, the above treatment was followed by soil moisture sensor based drip irrigation in tomato. Tensiometer based drip irrigation helps to save the water up to 54.91 and 60.55 % compared to conventional method of irrigation during <em>kharif</em> 2019 and 2020.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Site Specific Nutrient Management Options for Achieving Higher Yields in Cotton and Chickpea under Rainfed Condition 2021-12-29T04:27:07+00:00 S. Balaji Nayak D. Balaguravaiah K. V. Ramana T. Giridharakrishna P. Munirathnam B. Ravindra Reddy <p>A study was undertaken to delineation of spatial variability of soil fertility status in order to prepare soil available nutrient maps for improved productivity in different crops grown in the study area of Kurnool revenue division in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh state using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Knowledge of spatial-variability is critical for site specific nutrient management in soil fertility to obtain higher yields. Soil sample (350) were collected from surface from 350 selected sites for preparing precise digital maps using point, line and polygon tools of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with ArcGIS software 10.3 was used for database creation and for creating the union of various thematic maps. The spatial variability maps were generated and delineated into different zones for N, P and K. Soil available Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium spatial variability values generated from the thematic maps of Kurnool division were used to establish fertilizer recommendations for cotton in kharif and Chickpea in rabi during&nbsp; 2018-19 seasons. The recommended doses of Nitrogen (RDN) that worked for cotton were 401 to 450, 351 to 400, &gt; 450 and &lt; 350 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> for the areas with Nitrogen availability of 140 to 210, 210 to 280, &lt;140 and &gt; 280 kg/ha, respectively. The Phosphorous fertilizer recommendation for soils with available P of &lt; 30 kg/ha and &gt; 30 kg/ha was figured out as &gt; 250 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>and &lt; 250 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. For soil available Potassium recorded 230 to 560, &lt; 230 and &gt; 560 kg/ha, the K recommendation was figured out as 301 to 400, &gt; 401 and &lt; 300 kg/ha, respectively. Recommended doses of Nitrogen (RDN) was worked out for chickpea were 51 to 75, &gt; 76 and &lt; 50 kg/ha for the areas with available N ranges of 184 to 280, &lt; 184 and &gt; 280 kg/ha, respectively. The Phosphatic fertilizer recommendation for soils of available P of &lt; 23.5 and 23.5 to 40 kg/ha was figured out as &gt; 200 kg/ha and 171 to 200 kg/ha, respectively. For the soil available potassium recorded 253 to 412, 413 to 570, &lt; 253 and &gt; 570 kg/ha, the K recommendation was figured out as 66 to 100, 31 to 65, &gt; 100 and &lt; 30 kg/ha, respectively.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Trait Based Adaptation and Yield Stability Parameters in Little Millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth. ex. Roem. and Schultz.) 2021-12-29T04:30:30+00:00 V. Manimozhi Selvi A. Nirmalakumari <p>Twelve accessions of littlemillet genotypes which included 10 germplasm accessions and two released check varieties were studied over five environments of rainy seasons of 2013 for their grain yield and stability. The results have shown that genotypes TNPsu 141 and TNPsu 28 had possessed around unit regression coefficient (b = 1.24 to 0.82), thus displaying average stability and are adaptable to all the above five different agro-ecological zones.&nbsp; Also, these genotypes had non- significant S2di values enabling it to predict the stability. Genotypes TNPsu 17, PM 29, TNPsu 18, and IPmr 886 manifested significantly higher single plant grain yield than the standard check varieties along with regression coefficient values of greater than one expressing above-average stability. These can be performed better in a favourable environment. However, they were classified as unstable due to their significant S2 di values revealing that the performance of the genotypes was unpredictable for the given environment. These genotypes were performed better under optimum conditions. Out of 12 genotypes MS 1826 and MS 4684 had an average response and appeared unpredictable stability. However, among the genotypes studied, TNPsu 141 possessed low yield and perform better in sub -optimum environments which are inferred by less than unit regression.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Growth Regulators and Organics on Growth and Yield of Spiny Brinjal Variety VRM (Br) -1 2021-12-29T04:31:04+00:00 S. Nanthakumar C. Pravin Kumar P. Thilagam <p>Two field experiments were carried out at Horticultural College, Kalavai to study the effect of growth regulators and organics on growth and yield of spiny brinjal (<em>Solanum melongena</em>) var.VRM-1. Growth regulators <em>viz</em>., Salicylic acid @ 200 ppm, Brassinosteriods&nbsp; @ 0.1 ppm, Triacontanol @ 5 ppm and NAA @ 40 ppm and organics <em>viz</em>., Seaweed extract @ 1.0%, Humic acid @ 1.0%, Panchagavya @ 5.0% and Vermiwash @ 5.0% were tested and applied as foliar spray in spiny brinjal var VRM-1. Among the treatments tested, Panchagavya treatment recorded maximum value with regard to plant height (85.45 cm), leaf area (131.59 cm),&nbsp; leaf area index (3.66), branches per plant (21.3 Nos) , flowers per plant (55.5 Nos), fruits per plant (20.9 Nos), fruit length (5.8 cm), fruit circumference (14.7 cm)&nbsp; and individual fruit weight (82.1 g). Brassinosteroids treatment found to be effective in increasing root length (22.75 cm).</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Long Term Fertilization and Manures on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Udorthentic Chromusterts 2021-12-29T04:50:56+00:00 V. Venkatesh N. Chandra Sekaran V. Sanjivkumar S. Meena K. T. Parthiban <p>To study the effect of different nutrient management practices on different soil physical and chemical properties in the permanent manurial experiment field of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, which was established during 1982 at Agriculture Research Station, Kovilpatti. Soil physical and chemical properties are mainly affected by the continuous application of fertilizers or manures from years together. To study the above mentioned properties of soil the soil samples were collected from the permanent manurial experiment of kovilpatti where the Randomized Block Design (RBD) was followed with nine different treatments <em>viz.,</em> T<sub>1</sub>- Control; T<sub>2</sub>- 100 % RDF (40:20:40 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup>); T<sub>3</sub>- 50% RDF (20:10:20 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup>); T<sub>4</sub>- 50% N (Crop residues); T<sub>5</sub>- 50 % N (FYM); T<sub>6</sub>- 50 % Inorganic N+ 50% organic N (crop residues) + P (50%) + K (50%) ; T<sub>7</sub>- 50 % Inorganic N+ 50% organic N (FYM) + P (50%) + K (50%); T<sub>8</sub>- 100 % RDF + 25 kg ZnSO4 ha<sup>-1</sup>; T<sub>9</sub>- FYM - 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. The effect of these treatments along with the depth (0-15 cm; 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm) was compared. The treatment receiving organics <em>viz.,</em> T<sub>9</sub>- FYM - 12.5 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>was observed to be the best in all the physical and chemical properties which was then followed by INM <em>viz.,</em>&nbsp; T<sub>7</sub>- 50 % Inorganic N+ 50% organic N (FYM) + P (50%) + K (50%) and T<sub>6</sub>- 50 % Inorganic N+ 50% organic N (crop residues) + P (50%) + K (50%).</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrients on Root Architecture, Soil Microbial Biomass and Yield on Low Land Rice Ecosystem 2021-12-29T04:57:03+00:00 V. R. Senthamizhkumaran P. Santhy D. Selvi T. Kalaiselvi K. G. Sabarinathan <p>To study the impact of vermicompost, arbuscular mycorrhizae and FYM application on the rice ecosystem at low land, a field experiment was conducted with rice CO(R) 51 at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in Coimbatore during the winter of 2020. The experiment was framed in Randomized Block Design comprising of 8 treatments viz., Recommended Dose of Fertilizer Soil Test Crop Response approach (T<sub>1</sub>), RDF 75 % + Farm Yard Manure @ 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (T<sub>2</sub>), T<sub>2 </sub>+ Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T<sub>3</sub>), RDF 75 % + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (T<sub>4</sub>), T<sub>4</sub> + Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T<sub>5</sub>), FYM @ 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T<sub>6</sub>), Vermicompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>+ Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T<sub>7</sub>) and Absolute control (T<sub>8</sub>) and replicated thrice. The maximum microbial population were registered in the plots that received integrated nutrient application of RDF 75 % STCR approach + Vermicompost 5 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>+ seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi. Rice root architecture has changed significantly as a result of mycorrhizal&nbsp;inoculation. Mycorrhizal rice plants have more root volume, length, and spread than plants without mycorrhizae. Nutrient retention and availability influenced the presence&nbsp;of microbial-mediated metabolic activities and nutrient transformations during crop growth. Bacteria, fungus, and actinomycetes became less abundant as the crop reached harvest. The population density of mycorrhizospheres that utilize both organic and inorganic fertilizers is higher. The treatments that received Vermicompost or FYM with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Nitrogen, Phosphorous &amp; Potassium fertilizers obtained the highest yields of rice grain and straw (6740 and 7840 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) respectively, and it was clear that the combination of Vermicompost or FYM, VAM and along with NPK fertilizers produced significantly higher yields than their individual applications and absolute control.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) Fertilization for Improving the Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Biochemical Constituents in Capsicum Hybrids 2022-01-04T04:22:07+00:00 Prakash Ranjan Behera T. Chitdeshwari P. Malarvizhi U. Sivakumar P. Irene Vethamoni <p>Micronutrients, particularly Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn), play a vital role in the growth and development of plants due to their catalytic effect on many metabolic processes. However, the biochemical responses to the applied micronutrients vary with cultivars and their species. A screening experiment was conducted during 2020 to know the antioxidants enzyme activities and biochemical constituents in response to iron and zinc fertilization by six capsicum hybrids grown in grow bags under shade net conditions. The experiment consists of three treatments <em>viz.,</em> Control (No Fe &amp; Zn), 50 kg FeSO<sub>4 </sub>and 37.5 kg ZnSO<sub>4 </sub>ha<sup>-1</sup> as a basal soil application with six capsicum hybrids <em>viz., </em>Indra, Priyanka, Inspiration, Massilia, Bachata, and Local green. Leaf samples of the capsicum hybrids were collected at Fruiting stage and analysed for antioxidant enzyme activities. The fruit samples were used for quantifying the biochemical constituents. The results revealed that, application of ferrous sulphate (FeSO<sub>4</sub>) and zinc sulphate (ZnSO<sub>4</sub>) to capsicum hybrids increased the biochemical constituents in fruits and the antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves. Out of the six hybrids tested, Indra possessed higher ascorbic acid content (9.20 mg 100 g<sup>-1</sup> fresh weight), acidity (6.0), and total soluble solids (6.1<sup>0 </sup>Brix) in the fruits, which was followed by Inspiration and Bachata. The superoxide dismutase (6.70 unit’s mg<sup>-1 </sup>protein) and peroxidase (6.90 unit’s g<sup>-1</sup> fresh weight) activities were also higher with the same genotypes. The biochemical constituents and antioxidant &nbsp;enzyme&nbsp; response to Zn addition was better than Fe.&nbsp; There was 13.2, 10.9 and 9.5 per cent increase in titratable acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid content in the fruits of Indra due to ZnSO<sub>4</sub> application.The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering revealed that Indra is highly responsive to Zn and Fe fertilization, while the local green showed very less response. The rest of the genotypes such as Inspiration, Bachata, Massilia, and Priyanka, are medium responsive for Zn and Fe fertilization.</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Optimization of Boron and Zinc on the Growth and Yield Parameters of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Nalanda District 2022-01-04T06:11:13+00:00 U. N. Umesh Kumari Vibha Rani Jyoti Sinha <p>The field experiment was carried out to overcome the poor growth and yield of tomato due to imbalance use of fertilizer and micronutrient deficiency. The objective to conduct this experiment was soil application of micronutrients alongwith nitrogen, phosphorus and potash for growth and yield enhancement. The maximum 90.39 cm plant height,the heighest 14.38 number of branches,the maximum 29.50 number of fruits per plant, heighest fruir weight per plant 2.46 kg per plant with yield of 518.25 quintal per heactare in case of technology option three application of 120.80.80 kg N:P:K ha<sup>-1</sup> alongwith 10kg zinc and 1 kg boron per hectare as basal dose in comparision to other treatments. The lowest 80.45 cm plant height, least number of branches per plant 8.13,lesser number of fruit per plant 24.13, least fruit weight 2.18 kgper plant with minimum yield of 450.50 quintal per hectare was recorded in control.</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation on Yield and Yield Attributes of Winter Marigold Crop (Tagetes erecta L.) 2022-01-04T04:53:33+00:00 Jeet Raj Jitendra Sinha <p>Agriculture has been indispensable for the subsistence of the people of India in general and farmers in particular. It has naturally been the cornerstone of the Indian economy since time immemorial and agriculture has played a major role in the country's economy since its inception. The research work was done to study the effect of irrigation levels on the yield and growth of winter marigolds. Marigold (<em>Tagetes erecta L</em>.) had been taken twice the winter season of 2019-20 and 2020-21. The average flower yield (t/ha) was recorded under the treatment I<sub>1</sub> (12.03 t/ha) was found maximum and it was followed by I<sub>2 </sub>(10.51 t/ha), I<sub>3</sub> (9.73 t/ha). The consumptive water use (CWU) was found maximum (26.62 cm) in 100% of ET<sub>c</sub> and the lowest CWU was found (21.03 cm) in 80% of ET<sub>c</sub> through a drip system of irrigation in the cropping year 2020-21. Similarly, in 2019-20 CWU was found maximum (18.02 cm) in 100% of ET<sub>c</sub>, while the lowest CWU was found (14.42 cm) in 80% of ET<sub>c</sub>. The water use efficiency was found highest in I<sub>3</sub> (0.77 t/ha/cm) and minimum WUE was found in I<sub>2 </sub>(0.525 t/ha/cm) in the cropping year 2019-20. For 2020-21, a maximum WUE was recorded in I<sub>2</sub> (0.497 t/ha/cm) and the minimum WUE in I<sub>3 </sub>(0.335 t/ha/cm).</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Foliar Application of Nano Nitrogen, Zinc and Copper on Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Rice 2022-01-05T04:56:43+00:00 P. Chandana K. R. Latha C. R. Chinnamuthu P. Malarvizhi A. Lakshmanan <p>A field experiment was conducted during spring 2020-21 at Wetland farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the effect of foliar Nanonutrients (N, Zn and Cu) application on the yield and nutrient uptake by rice at harvest. Twelve treatments with three replications were laid out in randomized complete block design. The results revealed that application of 100% NPK + Nano N at active tillering (T<sub>3</sub>) and 75% N + 100% PK + Nano N at active tillering (T<sub>4</sub>) increased the grain yield (5112 and 5063 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and N uptake (106.48 and 89.51 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) of rice, respectively and was on par with 100% NPK + Nano Zn at active tillering and panicle emergence (T<sub>10</sub>). However, significantly higher Zn and Cu uptake were recorded in 100% NPK + Nano Zn at active tillering and panicle emergence (T<sub>10</sub>, 457.61 g ha<sup>-1</sup>) and 100% NPK + Nano Cu at active tillering and panicle emergence (T<sub>12</sub>, 92.36 g ha<sup>-1</sup>), respectively which was followed by 100% NPK + Nano N at active tillering (T<sub>3</sub>, 372.45 and 81.51 g ha<sup>-1</sup>) and 75% N + 100% PK + Nano N at active tillering (T<sub>4</sub>, 355.41 and 84.13 g ha<sup>-1</sup>). Thus, it can be concluded that application of foliar Nano N at active tillering along with soil application of either 100% NPK or 75% N + 100% PK can provide better results in terms of grain yield and nutrient uptake.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relationship between Yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] 2022-01-05T04:57:20+00:00 P. Vinoth B. Selvi N. Senthil K. Iyanar S. Jeyarani V. Santhiya <p>Knowledge about the association between grain yield and yield contributing traits is important for sorghum development programs. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine correlations and path-coefficients between grain yield per plant and yield contributing traits. The experiment was conducted during Kharif 2019 in the Department of millets, TNAU, Coimbatore, India by using nine parents and twenty hybrids to study the genotypic correlations on the basis of seventeen traits.&nbsp; Analysis of variance evinced significant variation for all the traits under study. In correlation studies, the grain yield was positively associated with plant height (0.603), leaf length (0.613), leaf area index (0.501), flag leaf length (0.529), panicle length (0.608), panicle weight (0.930) and hundred seed weight (0.643). In path analysis, the traits leaf length, flag leaf length, panicle length, panicle weight and hundred seed weight exposed highly direct and indirect effects. Selection for a trait is effective when both the correlation and direct effect are higher and positive as this indicates its true association. Hence this investigation revealed flag leaf length, panicle length, panicle weight and hundred seed weight exhibited positive association and direct effect on grain yield, which indicates that the selection towards these characters will improve the yield.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## GIS-based Fertility Assessment and Mapping for Agricultural Research Station, Tandur, Telangana, India 2022-01-13T08:04:33+00:00 Kasthuri Rajamani C. Sudhakar N. Hari M. Venkata Ramana <p>This study was conducted to determine the soil fertility status of the Agricultural Research Station, Tandur of Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU), Vikarabad District, Telangana. To identify the soil sampling points, GPS device was used and collected total of 60 soil samples on grid-based method at a depth of 0–15 cm. The collected samples were analyzed for pH, EC, OC, N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, K<sub>2</sub>O, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn status by following standard methods in the laboratory of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Palem, PJTSAU, Nagarkurnool District of Telangana, and Arc-GIS software was used further to prepare soil fertility maps. Around 37.5% of samples fall in neutral pH, whereas 62.5% samples were found as moderately alkaline reactions and entire farm soils were non-saline. Among the analyzed soil samples, 37.29% samples were in low organic carbon content, and rest of the samples <em>i.e.,</em>62.71% have medium organic carbon content and total samples were low in available N content (&lt; 280 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The analyzed farm samples were medium to high in available phosphorus and potassium (28.67 &amp; 71.33 % of P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>and 16.96 &amp; 83.04 % of K<sub>2</sub>O respectively) content. In contrast, the micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe &amp; Mn) exceeded their sufficiency level and suggested for amelioration measures to enhance research efficacy in the farm and to build future research strategies based on the determined soil fertility status.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Biodegradable Polymer Coated Urea on Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization of Maize (Zea mays L) 2022-01-13T08:04:02+00:00 B. Balaganesh P. Malarvizhi N. Chandra Sekaran P. Jeyakumar K. R. Latha A. Lakshmanan <p>Controlled release nitrogen fertilizers could be an excellent management approach for improving nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of coated urea fertilizers to increase nitrogen uptake and utilization of maize. The nitrogen use efficiency of maize from various biodegradable polymer-coated urea fertilizers, such as palm stearin coated urea (PSCU), pine oleoresin coated urea (POCU), and humic acid coated urea (HACU), was determined in a pot culture experiment conducted at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during 2021. The coating materials have been coated on urea with different coating thicknesses, viz., PSCU - 5, 10, 15%, POCU – 2, 4, 6%, and HACU - 5, 10, 15%. Among all the treatments, T<sub>11</sub>: HACU 15% produced highest grain yield (72.0g plant<sup>-1</sup>) followed by T<sub>7</sub>: POCU 4% (69.7 g plant<sup>-1</sup>) and T<sub>4</sub>: PSCU 10% (69.0g plant<sup>-1</sup>). In terms of dry matter production, T<sub>10</sub>: PSCU 10% produced maximum dry matter (186.5g plant<sup>-1</sup>), followed by T<sub>11</sub>: HACU 15% (186.2 g plant<sup>-1</sup>), and T<sub>7</sub>: POCU 4% (185.3g plant<sup>-1</sup>). The nitrogen uptake by the maize plant was higher in T<sub>7</sub>: POCU 4 % (1.62g plant<sup>-1</sup>), followed by T<sub>11</sub>: HACU 15% (1.59 g plant<sup>-1</sup>) and T<sub>4</sub>: PSCU 10% (1.59g plant<sup>-1</sup>). Irrespective of treatments, the highest nitrogen utilization by the maize crop was found in T<sub>7</sub>: POCU 4% (73.9%) followed by T<sub>4</sub>: PSCU 10% (71.1%) and T<sub>11</sub>: HACU 15% (70.9%) treatments. When compared to uncoated urea fertilizer, all coated urea fertilizers outperformed uncoated urea fertilizer in terms of grain yield, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake. To improve the nitrogen use efficiency, coated urea fertilizers prove to be a promising alternative to uncoated urea fertilizers.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Influence of Basalt Powder on the Physicochemical Properties of Impoverished Oxisoils from Ngaoundéré (Adamawa - Cameroon) 2022-01-06T04:38:42+00:00 Dalil Adoulko Simon Djakba Basga Rigobert Tchameni Jean Pierre Nguetnkam <p>The present study aims at assessing the fertilizing potential of basalts on impoverished oxisoils from Ngaoundéré (Adamawa, Cameroon). This specifically involves the application of finely ground basalts on impoverished oxisoils and monitoring changes in physicochemical properties during six months. An experimental design which consisted in a randomized complete block design is constituted of three series of four treatments each one: the control (ST), the control soil mixed with 100 g of finely ground basalt (T0 + BA_10), the control soil mixed with 200 g of finely ground basalt (T0 + BA_20), the control soil mixed with 300 g of finely ground basalt (T0 + BA_30). Each treatment was replicated ten times in every serie. The control treatment is only soils of Ng, collected at the top soil and without any basalt application. They are clayey, acid and display an average CEC. The basalt is rich in silica (47.52%), Calcium (8.22%), Magnesium (4.03%), sodium (4.01%), potassium (2.42%) and displays average content in alumina (16.54%) and iron (11.1%). The experiment was carried out in pots, and the incubated soil samples were analyzed after 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. The analyzes mainly focused on the physicochemical parameters (Grain size analysis, pH, Cation exchange capacity (CEC), the sum of exchangeable bases (SBE) and the saturation rate (V). Obtained results indicated that the application of basalt greatly improved the chemical properties of oxisoils from Ngaoundéré: the pH changes from acidic (5.5) to weakly acidic (6.5); the saturation rate, as well as the sum of exchangeable bases and the cation exchange capacity increased. Physicochemical properties of the soil are closely accompanied by an increase in fertility. It appears that 10 and 20% treatments are the most efficient treatments. Thus, the basalts from Manwi can be recommended as petrofertilizer to improve the chemical properties of impoverished soils and especially for plants requiring alkalis and alkaline earth.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Halo Tolerance of Biocontrol Agents against Root Rot of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek var. radiata) Caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid in Salt Affected Soils 2022-01-10T04:32:10+00:00 P. T. Sharavanan V. K. Satya M. Rajesh <p>Root rot of mung bean [<em>Vigna radiata</em> (L.) Wilczek var. <em>radiata</em>] is major disease and claims huge yield loss if they occur in the field. The pathogen is basically soil borne and survivability may vary depends on soil condition. The fungicide chemicals are available to manage the disease; however, the biocontrol agents are nowadays available for the disease management and the microbial activity of the biocontrol agents is influenced by existing soil condition including soil pH. Hence, a study was conducted to find out the halo tolerance capacity of the biocontrol agents against root rot disease in salt affected soils under <em>in vitro, in vivo</em> and field condition. The root rot pathogen <em>Macrophomina phaseolina</em> was isolated from infected root. Efficacy of biocontrol agents against growth of <em>M. phaseolina</em> was assessed <em>in vitro.</em> The results revealed that TNAU strain of <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> reduced the mycelial growth of the <em>M. phaseolina</em> significantly when media supplemented with NaCl at 5% (1.4 cm), 7.5% (1.5 cm), 10% (1.6cm) and 12.5% (1.6 cm) and without NaCl (1.2 cm) and similar trend of reduction also expressed by BCA1 strain of <em>B. subtilis</em>, <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em> and <em>Trichoderma viride </em>under <em>in vitro</em>. The performance of the biocontrol agents against the pathogen is slightly reduced when media supplemented with NaCl. The reduction of mycelia weight of <em>M.phaeolina</em> was more in media added with TNAU strain of <em>B.subtilis</em> and the performance of TNAU strain of <em>B.subtilis</em> on reduction of mycelial weight of <em>M.phaseolina</em> is reduced when the broth added with NaCl at 5% (3.15g), 7.5% (3.25g), 10% (3.32g) and 12.5%(3.65g) level and which is followed by <em>P. fluorescens,</em> BCA 1 strain of <em>B. subtilis</em> and <em>Trichoderma viride.</em> Under pot culture conditions, the effect of talc formulated biocontrol agents and challenge inoculation with pathogen was assessed against root rot incidence. It was found that the soil application of TNAU strain of <em>B.subtilis</em> performed better in reducing the root rot incidence at pH of 7.0 (2.37%), 7.5 (4.50%), 8.0 (5.53%) and 8.7 (6.57%) and followed by BCA 1 of <em>B.subtilis</em> in all pH level. Among the biocontrol agents, TNAU strain of <em>B.subtilis</em> applied as seed as well as soil application expressed more population in the rhizosphere in all pH level. The biocontrol agents applied as soil application had more populations of the agents in the soil when compared to seed treatment. The halo tolerance performance of the biocontrol agents was also assessed under field condition in pH of 7.5 and 8.7 during 2019-20 and 2020-21. It was found that the minimum root rot incidence and maximum yield was observed from soil application of TNAU strain of <em>B subtilis </em>at 2.5 kg/ha but the effect is on par with soil application of BCA1 strain of <em>B.subtilis</em> at 2.5 kg/ha.</p> 2021-12-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of Organic Manure and Azotobacter on Quality and Leaf Nutrient Status of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) Cv. Winter Dawn 2022-01-10T04:32:45+00:00 G. Chandramohan Reddy R. K. Goyal A. K. Godara <p>The field experiment was conducted during two subsequent years, <em>i.e., </em>2017-18 and 2018-19 at the Department of Horticulture, Hisar with aim to study the effect of organic manures and <em>Azotobacter</em> on quality and leaf nutrient status of strawberry cv. Winter Dawn under hi-tech greenhouse conditions of Haryana. In this experiment, organic manures in combination with biofertilizers comprised of nine treatments, <em>viz</em>., T<sub>1</sub>: Sand: FYM (3:1), T<sub>2</sub>: Sand: FYM (2:1), T<sub>3</sub>: Sand: Vermicompost (3:1), T<sub>4</sub>: Sand: Vermicompost (2:1), T<sub>5</sub>: Sand: FYM (3:1) + <em>Azotobacter</em>, T<sub>6</sub>: Sand: FYM (2:1) + <em>Azotobacter</em>, T<sub>7</sub>: Sand: Vermicompost (3:1) + <em>Azotobacter</em>. T<sub>8</sub>: Sand: Vermicompost (2:1) + <em>Azotobacter</em> and T<sub>9</sub>: Control (Sand); were tested as potting media in complete randomized block design. Maximum TSS, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin content and minimum acidity content and leaf with maximum N, P and K content were observed under sand: vermicompost (2:1) + <em>Azotobacter </em>in comparison to the other treatments. The results of this experiment revealed that, the combination of sand: vermicompost (2:1) with Azotobacter showed significant influence on leaf nutrient content of strawberry and produced better results with respect to quality of strawberry fruits.</p> 2021-12-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Stability of TGMS Hybrids in Dry Direct Seeded Rice 2022-01-10T04:33:26+00:00 N. S. Rudresh P. Jayamani E. Vijayakumar S. Manonmani Mahantesh Gangashetti P. Jeyakumar K. R. Latha <p>Rice is a water-loving crop and traditionally sown in the nursery and then transplanted to the puddled and waterlogged main field. Owing to climate change, water scarcity and labour shortage problems, rice is now cultivated in the dry direct seeded method. Owing to potential of hybrid rice in increasing both rice production and productivity, many countries are focusing on exploiting the benefits of this technology. To break the yield plateau in rice cultivation, Thermosensitive Genetic Male Sterile (TGMS) hybrids were found to be very effective. In the present study, 41 TGMS hybrids and 9 checks were evaluated for their stability and adaptability by dry direct seeded method in four locations <em>viz.,</em> E<sub>1 </sub>- Allahabad, E<sub>2 </sub>- Lucknow, E<sub>3 </sub>- Dhamtari and E<sub>4 </sub>- Raipur. The TGMS hybrid G44 was predicted as an ideal hybrid by the GGE stability model that possessed high grain yield and stable performance over environments. It was followed by hybrids <em>viz.,</em> G10, G14, G34, G11, G20 and G47 that had a stable performance with high yield. Hence, these TGMS hybrids were identified as high and stable yielders across environments and suitable for dry direct seeded rice ecosystems. Among the environments, E<sub>1</sub> (Allahabad) and E<sub>4</sub> (Raipur) were considered favourable environments as they possessed the highest discriminating power. The hybrids identified in the study can be utilized for breaking the yield barriers in rice and can be recommended for dry direct seeding in marginal and rainfed areas.</p> 2021-12-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Existence of Vivipary in Mango (Mangifera indica cv. ‘Amrapali’) – A Report 2022-01-10T05:00:38+00:00 Shashi K. Sharma <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The Amrapalii cultivar of mango is known for its dwarf stature, high productivity and ability to capture the market late when mango from other regions of the country gets over.<strong>&nbsp; </strong>Vivipary is of unusual occurrence in mango. The aim of the study is to report the occurrence of vivipary in mango especially in cultivar Amrapali under the sub-Himalayan subtropics of India.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Incidental occurrence of vivipary in mango has been reported from the Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh during the growing season of the year 2021. Upon observance of abnormal protuberances from the fruit surface, the harvesting was commenced at the weekly intervals and the per cent proportion of viviparous fruits was ascertained by cutting the fruits longitudinally and confirming the viviparous germination of the seeds. Weather data of the fruit development state were analysed for the accumulation of heat units and rainfall distribution. Efforts have been made for ascertaining the reason behind the viviparous seed development.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion:</strong> The proportion of viviparous seeds increased with the progression of time and by the mid of September, more than 12% of seeds were found viviparous. The weather data show that there was an early accumulation of heat units. Also, the rainfall during the period of fruit development was high particularly at the time when fruits were advancing toward maturity.</p> <p>It has been observed that the seed maturity has preceded the fruit pulp maturity and ripening may be due to the early accumulation of heat units and high rainfall. This coincidence might have resulted in precocious germination of seed inside the fruit, leading to vivipary.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The development of vivipary in Amrapali mango has been found to be associated with the early accumulation of heat units and high rainfall. Under the current changing climatic scenario, a need has been projected for strategic research for curtailing vivipary incidences and saving economic losses to the growers of late mango varieties in the sub-Himalayan subtropics.&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Geospatial Distribution of Iron in Major Sugarcane Growing Soils of Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu, India 2022-01-11T04:29:03+00:00 K. Chandrasekar J. Prabhaharan P. P. Mahendran P. Saravana Pandiyan A. Gurusamy R. P. Gnanamalar P. Kannan <p>The present study was undertaken to assess the available DTPA iron status in the major sugarcane growing soils of Southern Sivangai district, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 500 geo referenced surface (0-30 cm) were collected from five blocks <em>viz.,</em> Kalaiyarkovil, Padamathur, Sivagangai, Thiruppachetty and Thiruppuvanam and analyzed for basic soil properties and available DTPA iron. Simple correlation was worked out to ascertain the degree of relationship between soil properties and available DTPA iron content of soil study area. The available DTPA iron in the entire sugarcane growing soils ranged from 2.95 to 5.79 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, 2.11 to 4.31 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, 3.49 to 5.59 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, 1.99 to 5.66 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> and 3.94 to 6.39 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> in soil samples of Kalaiyarkovil, Padamathur, Sivagangai, Thiruppachetty and Thiruppuvanam respectively. In the soil samples from Kalaiyarkovil, Padamathur, Sivagangai, Thiruppachetty, and Thiruppuvanam, the results revealed that 52, 59, 55, 53, and 51 % of the soils were deficient in available iron and 33, 29, 35, 30 and 32 % of the soils were moderate in available iron, and 15, 12, 10,5 and 17 % of the soils were sufficient in available iron. As per the nutrient index study, the soils of study area recorded very low to low fertility rating for available iron and the mean nutrient index value (NIV) ranged from 1.42 to 1.64 in the soil of the study area. SOC and CEC were found to have a beneficial impact on iron availability, whereas EC and CaCO<sub>3</sub> levels had a negative impact on DTPA iron availability.</p> 2021-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Sowing Methods and Sowing Time on Growth, Growth Attributes and Yield of Black Gram Vigna mungo L. under Rice Oryza sativa L. Fallow Black Gram Cropping System 2022-01-17T06:27:33+00:00 Paulraj Suryakala A. Veeramani Durai Singh T. Sivakumar M. Rajeswari P. Prema <p><strong>Aim</strong><strong>:</strong> Blackgram is one of the most important pulse crops raised in several types of soil under well drained conditions. Currently, it is cultivated as monocrop , intercrop as well as rice fallow crop in southern India. When the rice fallow pulse systems are described as, the pulse crop is seeded before or after rice harvest without ploughing, the remaining soil moisture may be better used through conservation agriculture measures. It's also known as a relay crop, a no-till crop, or a residual crop.In general, the production and productivity of black gram is declining because of poor management practices . Thus, this study was undertaken rice establishment methods as a strategy to determine the availability of residual moisture on the establishment of rice fallow black gram system during the early growth stages.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong>&nbsp;A field investigation was carried out at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University9<sup>o</sup>54’ N Latitude, 78<sup>o</sup>54’ E Longitude with an&nbsp; altitude of 147 m above MSL), Tamil Nadu, India from September 2019 to April 2020</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>To see how different seeding methods and time influence the rice fallow black gram, the factors include rice planting methods as the main plot, methods of sowing black gram on rice fallow black gram as&nbsp; sub plot, and time of sowing black gram on rice fallow black gram given out in sub-sub plot treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;The treatments had the best growth qualities, growth analysis, and yield. It could be because the above-mentioned combinations had higher residual moisture content, which resulted in a higher germination percentage, better crop stand, and higher growth and yield of rice fallow black gram.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The best management strategy is to sowing black gram in rice fallow situations with a rice fallow pulse planter at 10 days before rice harvest, under the direct seeded of rice establishment technique with drum seeder.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Fertilization Based on Chicken Manures and Mycorrhiza on Vegetative Parameters and Phenological Stages of Sorghum bicolor in Yagoua, Far-North Cameroon 2022-01-17T07:40:03+00:00 Bertrand Wang-Bara Philémon Kaouvon Jacques Djida Housseini Sounou Paul Alioum Dieudonné Danra Djackba <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Study aims to evaluate the effect of chicken manure and mycorrhiza levels as fertilizers on vegetative growth and on phenological stages of Sorghum in Far North Cameroon.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted in the Valorization Station of Agricultural Research (PSAR) of Yagoua.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For this study, variety S-35 of Sorghum have used. Three levels of fertilization were used to evaluate germination rates, vegetative growth and phenology of this variety. The levels of fertilizers applied were 20 g of mycorrhiza, 50 g of organic manure and 20+50g of effect combined mycorrhiza+organic manure in comparison to the check (0g). The experimental design was the randomized block design with 3 replications. After evaluation of germination rates in the farm, we had evaluated the height, diameters and precocity of plants.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Uses of different levels of fertilization on germination rates were important for all the levels of fertilizers compared to the control (27. 5 %). It’s varying from 52.5 % for the chicken manure, followed by the effect of combined treatments (45 %) and bio-fertilizers with 67 %. Compared to the check, the use of chicken manure as fertilization was most significant (P&lt;0.05) on the height of plants during the vegetative growth. The diameters of plants according to the different treatments were most significant (P&lt;0.05) respectively by the supplies of chicken manure, the effect of both treatments (mycorrhiza+chicken manure) and mycorrhiza treatment. Theses different levels fertilization was influenced the phenological stages of plants especially first flowering of plants days after sowing. Flowering of plants at 50 % was most favorable for the treatments based on the uses chicken manure and the combined effect of treatments (mycorrhiza+chicken manure).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Uses of chicken manure and mycorrhiza as fertilizers on Sorghum were significant to the vegetative growth and flowering stages of plants. Levels of chicken manure had positive effect on plant height. Plants diameters were most positively affected by organic manure, mycorrhiza and the effect of both treatments during growing of plants.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Different Herbicide Based Weed Management Practices on Growth and Yield of Flue Cured Tobacco in Northern Light Soils of Andhra Pradesh, India 2022-01-17T07:37:24+00:00 M. N. V. A. Uma Mahesh K. Srinivasan C. R. Chinnamuthu S. Shanmugasundaram C. N. Chandrasekhar P. Srinivas <p>Flue cured tobacco requires clean and weed free environment and thereby reduce the competition for nutrients and moisture for achieving quick early season growth. Deploying effective weed management practices play a key role in achieving better yields and quality. Field experiments were conducted at Peddpauram village of West Godavari district (Andhra Pradesh) during (<em>Rabi</em>) seasons of 2018-19 and 2019-20, to study the effect of different herbicide based weed management practices on growth and yield of flue cured Tobacco crop. The experiment was performed as Randomized Block Design with 11 weed management practices replicated thrice. The results recorded on growth parameters, in both the years revealed that six inter cultivations with two manual removal of weeds significantly impacted plant height (113.5 cm and 114.4 cm) and leaf area index (2.63 and 2.83) at 90 DAT over Imazethapyr applied at 0.05 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup>. Number of leaves plant<sup>-1</sup> were higher with six inter cultivation and two manual removal of weeds (21.5 and 20.6) over Imazethapyr 0.05 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup>. Inter cultivations and manual weeding resulted in significantly enhancing yield attributes such as leaf thickness (0.143 mm and 0.143 mm for cutters and 0.183 mm and 0.173 for leaf) and lower leaf count (Number of leaves kg<sup>-1</sup>) (137 and 129) over weedy check. Application of Sulfentrazone 0.03 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> was comparable with inter cultivation and manual weeding. Sulfentrazone 0.3 kg a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> contributed for significantly higher yield (2302 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 2424 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) over weedy check and comparable with six inter cultivations and two manual weeding operations. The application of pre emergence herbicides like Pendimethalin, Alachlor and Oxyflurfen resulted achieving higher yield levels over the application of post emergence herbicides such as Quiazalofop-p-ethyl, Fenoxaprop ethyl, Carfentrazone ethyl and Imazethapyr during both years of experimentation.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Screening of Lentil Genotypes against Highly Aggressive Strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis 2022-01-17T07:24:16+00:00 Naila Tarannum Anil Kumar Ravi Ranjan Kumar Anand Kumar J. N. Srivastva Nitish De <p>Lentil is one of the most nutritious pulse crops known as masur and grown as a rainfed crop throughout the world in winter season. It is rich in protein, starch, micronutrients and dietary fiber. In the global scenario, India ranked first in the area and second in the production with Bihar being one the major lentil growing state. The majority of the lentil crop is grown in Tal area of the state. As it is cultivated as a rainfed crop, it gets severely affected by several biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the biotic stresses, Fusaium wilt, caused by <em>Fusarium oxysporum </em>f. sp<em>. lentis (Fol)</em> is one of the major fungal diseases and remarkably causing severe crop damage from vegetative to reproductive stage producing significant yield reduction. <em>Fol</em> isolate exhibit great variability and aggressiveness based on agro- climatic conditions. AGLF-11 isolate of <em>Fol</em> collected from Tal area of Bihar was found to be highly aggressive based on previous studies. For this, 50 diverse genotypes were screened against this isolate under greenhouse condition, out of which 14 genotypes showed high susceptibility, 29 genotypes showed moderate susceptibility, 5 genotypes exhibited moderately resistance and only 2 genotypes (L 7920 and DPL 58) exhibited resistance reaction.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diversity Analysis in Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Accessions of Lower Pulney Hills of Tamil Nadu, India 2022-01-18T04:38:48+00:00 V. Gopi M. Ananthan M. S. Aneesa Rani M. Kumar P. Jeyakumar V. Krishnamoorthy <p>Avocado (<em>Persea americana</em> Mill.) is one of the world's most important subtropical fruit crops. So far, it’s collection, systematic evaluation and utilization studies are limited and this would be perhaps the first systematic study to quantify the variability available. This investigation of genetic diversity would be a first in Tamil Nadu. Morphological diversity in qualitative and quantitative traits of avocado genotypes investigated in this study using the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute descriptors to evaluate twenty accessions. The traits evaluated were related to leaf, flowering, fruit, seed, and yield traits. The 20 genotypes were classified into ten groups using Mahalanobis statistics. PA-56 and PA-68, which differ in terms of characteristics and distance, might provide transgressive segregants upon curing to resistance desirable traits. Principal component analysis was done to assess the qualitative and quantitative characters combination. The total variability defined by the five PCs was 84.14 percent, whereas the variability of the 13 primary components was 99.99 percent. The genotypes that could be chosen based on PC values in each constituent graph that were positive and &gt; 1.0 in each PC and a combination away that would unravel many genetic patterns.&nbsp; Findings of this research will aid in germplasm management, conservation, and breeding strategies.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Isolation and Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Calcareous Soil 2022-01-18T07:01:55+00:00 S. D. Gaikwad P. A. Bhosale P. V. Ukey K. B. landage <p>The present investigation was conducted with aim to isolate and characterize phosphate solubilizing bacteria from calcareous soil. Four efficient PSB isolates were obtained from fourteen soil samples collected from different locations. Based on morphological and biochemical characterization, highly phosphate solubilizing isolates were identified as <em>Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> respectively. The amount of Pi released from TCP by the isolates at 10 DAI ranged from 23.2 to 30.5 % and zone of solubilization recorded between 6 -13 mm. Among them PSB isolate 1 (<em>Pseudomonas fluorescence)</em> recorded highest Pi released from TCP broth <em>i:e</em> (30.5 %) and zone of solubilization recorded (13 mm) than the other isolates tested.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Standard Heterosis for Grain Yield and its Attributing Traits in Early Maturing Maize Hybrids 2022-01-18T07:16:32+00:00 Viqar-Un-Nisa . Z. A. Dar S. Naseer M. H. Khan A. A. Lone M. A. Wani M. A. Rather A. M. I. Qureshi Wajhat-Un-Nisa . Bilal Ahmad Lone Aflaq Hamid Gowher Ali Asma Fayaz S. Kumar <p>The present study was conducted at the research farm of Dryland Agriculture Research Station, SKUAST-Kashmir during the kharif of 2019. Range of heterosis was calculated over standard check. The most desirable cross combinations <em>viz</em>., KDM-440 x KDM-914A (-5.879), KDM-440 x V-335 (-4.468), KDM-930 x V-351(-4.165), KDM-927A x V-335 (-3.986), CML-470 x KDM-914A (-3.808) for days to maturity, KDM-347 x V-351 (4.967) CML-470 x KDM-914A (4.610), CML-474 × V-351(-4.396), KDM-927 A x V-351 (-3.110), KDM-930 x V 335 (2.896) for number of kernel rows per cob, KDM-347 x V-351(-7.544), KDM-440 x V-351 (6.438), KDM-916A x KDM-914 A(6.117), CML-470 × V-351(5.992), CML-474 x V-335 (5.274) for number of kernels per row, KDM-340 x V-351 (3.966), KDM340 x KDM-914A (3.150), KDM-930 x V-351(3.165), KDM-440 x KDM-914 (3.556), KDM-347 x V-351(3.324) for 100-grain weight, KDM-347 x V351 (34.197), KDM-440 x V335 (28.933), CML470 x KDM-914A (29.380), KDM-895 x KDM914A (25.383), KDM927A x KDM-914A (19.549) for grain yield per plant were observed in the present study. The range of heterosis&nbsp; over&nbsp; standard check for days to maturity from -3.796 (CML-425 × KDM-914A) to (2.414) CML-474 × KDM-914A. The extent of heterosis for number of kernel rows per ear over standard check ranged from CML-470 x V-335(28.576) to KDM-916A × V -335(-2.143), for quantity of kernels per row maximum well known heterosis ranged from CML-470 × V-351 (19.079) to KDM-347 × V-351 (-15.132), for 100- grain weight, heterosis ranged from 22.3% for CML-470 x KDM-914 A&nbsp; to -3.5% for KDM-916A × V-335. For grain yield per plant, heterosis ranged from 61.9% for CML-470 x K DM-914 A to 9.3% for KDM916A x V-335. Standard&nbsp; heterosis for crosses CML -470 × KDM-914 A, CML-474 × V-351, KDM-440 × V-335 should be tested for multilocation to make valid conclusion related to their use in commercial maize cultivation.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Productivity of Aerobic Rice under Different Lateral Arrangement and Nutrient Management 2022-01-18T07:27:19+00:00 Sanjay Kumar Sanjay K. Dwivedi Sarjeet Singh Gharsiram . Pradeep Kumar <p>An experiment to assess the “Productivity and economic feasibility of lateral arrangement and nutrient management in aerobic rice” was conducted at the Instructional-cum-Research Farm, I.G.K.V, Raipur, (C.G.) during <em>kharif </em>season of 2018. The soil of experimental field was clayey (<em>Vertisols</em>) in texture. The trial was laid out in strip plot design <em>viz., </em>horizontal strips consist of 3 lateral arrangements and vertical strips consist of 4 nutrient management with 12 treatment combinations. The treatments consisted of 3 lateral arrangements <em>viz.,</em> M<sub>1</sub>- lateral at 25 cm (1 LPH/0.3 metre spacing), M<sub>2</sub>- lateral at 50 cm (2 LPH/0.3 metre spacing) and M<sub>3</sub>- conventional practice and 4 nutrient management of N<sub>1</sub>- 50 % RDF, N<sub>2</sub> - 100 % RDF, N<sub>3</sub> - 150 % RDF and N<sub>4</sub> - STCR- based fertilizer recommendation. Aerobic rice variety Indira aerobic -1 was used for trial. The sowing was done on 20<sup>th</sup> June, 2018 at 20 cm of spacing and harvesting of crop was done on 7<sup>th </sup>October, 2018.</p> <p>The results of trial revealed that the growth parameters like plant height (cm), number of leaves hill<sup>-1</sup>, dry matter accumulation hill<sup>-1</sup> (g), number of tillers (m<sup>-2</sup>) and grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>) were significantly higher under lateral arrangement at 25 cm (M<sub>1</sub>). However, lowest value of all these parameters were obtained in conventional practice (M<sub>3</sub>). Similarly, all these characters were also higher among nutrient management with application of STCR based fertilizer (N<sub>4</sub>). Remarkably, lowest values were obtained with application of 50 % RDF (N<sub>1</sub>).</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assess the Financial Viability of Sapota Orchard in South Gujarat Region 2022-01-18T08:55:52+00:00 Tushar Pakwar Ashok Kumar Koshariya Kedar Vijaykumar Swami Alpesh K. Leua <p>Agriculture sector “continues to be the mainstay of our economy as it occupies the central place in rural life. The contribution of agriculture towards national income was about 22.1 percent in 2003-04 besides 64 per cent of population still depending on it. Financial analysis revealed that of 12 per cent discount rate, the sapota enterprises has maximum NPV (Rs. 324309.00 and Rs. 340183.78), BCR (6.18 per cent and 6.49 percent), PBP (6.4 and 6.1 years) and IRR (34 per cent and 37 percent) in Valsad and Navsari district respectively. As sapota is a market oriented crop, on an average about 99 percent of production was marketed, while negligible portion was utilized for other purposes. Majority of farmers about 65 percent of sapota was disposed to co -operative society. The producer to co-operative society to wholesaler - cum-commission agent to retailer to consumer was the major marketing channel as more than 65 per cent of sapota moved through this route. ”The total marketing cost incurred by sapota growers amounted to Rs. 93.25 per quintal in which transportation cost ranked first Rs. 20.00, followed by, Loading and Unloading Charges cost Rs. 5.00, commission charge Rs. 58.25 Weighing Cost Rs. 2.50”. The total expenses incurred by co -operative society, post harvest contractor, wholesaler -cum-commission agent and retailer were Rs. 121.00, Rs. 174.95, Rs. 133.90 and Rs. 130.35 per quintal of sapota, respectively. The producer's share in consumer's rupee was 21.72 percent in sapota. Price spread 78. 23 percent in” sapota.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Variability, Character Association and Path Analysis for Yield and its Related Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes 2022-01-18T09:15:07+00:00 S. K. Singh Pooja Singh Amrutlal Ratilal Khaire Mounika Korada D. K. Singh Prasanta Kumar Majhi S. Jayasudha <p>Assessment of variability and trait associations in a crop helps to enhance selection efficiency. With this objective, a study was conducted to estimate the genetic variability, character association and path coefficient analysis for grain yield and its component traits in 80 rice genotypes during <em>Kharif</em>-2020. Eighty genotypes including eight checks were evaluated in alpha lattice design with three replications. For all of the traits studied, the results revealed significant variance in all genotypes.PCV was found to be slightly more than the corresponding GCV for all the characters, indicating the role of environment in the expression of these traits. However, high GCV and high PCV were observed for number of effective tillers, grain yield per plot, number of filled grains per panicle, number of unfilled grains per panicle, biomass yield, harvest index, grain yield per plant and grain yield per hectare. Furthermore, all of the variables investigated had strong heritability and high genetic progress as a percentage of mean, with the exception of days to 50% blooming, days to maturity, and kernel breadth. Days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, spikelet fertility percentage, number of filled grains per panicle, harvest index and kernel length showed a significant and positive association with grain yield per plot. Highest direct contribution to grain yield per plot was manifested by kernel length, harvest index and spikelet fertility percent. Days to first flowering, days to maturity, number of effective tillers, number of unfilled grains per panicle, test weight, biomass yield were also found to exert a positive effect on yield, thus can be considered as desirable traits for selection in high yielding genotypes.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Alternative Thermal Processing Technique for Liquid Foods-membrane Processing 2021-12-16T05:10:19+00:00 S. Shahir <p>Liquid foods are sensitive to temperature and concentration by conventional methods results in product deterioration. Alternative processes, such as freeze concentration, have the drawback with respect to the maximum achievable concentration (only up to 40 to 45°Brix). In recent years membrane processes such as Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis are gaining importance for the concentration of liquid foods. Since heat is not involved in this process, it is also called Alternate thermal processing technique. This process can be employed as a pre-concentration step to reduce water load on subsequent processing steps and can be easily scaled up. Liquid foods such as fruit juices are of high nutritive value as they are naturally enriched with minerals, vitamins and other beneficial components required for human health. When extracted from their sources fruit juices have low solid content, color strength and high-water load. Recent advances and developments in this membrane processing used for the concentration of liquid foods are discussed here.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##