International Journal of Plant & Soil Science <p><strong>International Journal of Plant &amp; Soil Science (ISSN: 2320-7035)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJPSS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Plant &amp; Soil Science research’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.<br><br>This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p>Every issue will consist of a minimum of 5 papers. Each issue will be running, and all officially accepted manuscripts will be immediately published online. The state-of-the-art running issue concept gives authors the benefit of 'Zero Waiting Time' for the officially accepted manuscripts to be published. This journal is an international journal and its scope is not confined by the boundary of any country or region.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 2320-7035 Tailoring Variability for Yield and Quality Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) <p>The present research was carried out at the Breeder Seed Production Unit, JNKVV, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh using twenty-one sets of bread wheat genotypes. These were sown and evaluated under the timely sown condition in a randomized complete block design with three replication during post-rainy season 2021- In the present investigation thirteen morphological and one biochemical trait were analyzed. The analysis of variance indicated the occurrence of significant variation among the genotypes for all the traits. The present results indicate that the estimates of PCV were in general slightly elevated than their corresponding GCV for most of the traits studies which indicated that the variability for these traits in the genotypes was not much affected by the environments for the expression of these traits. High heritability with high genetic advance was observed for flag leaf length, grains yield per plant, biological yield per plant, and tiller per plant, and high heritability (narrow sense) coupled with the moderate genetic advance in percent of mean was observed for flag leaf width, grains per spike, plant height, and spikelet per spike. It can be summarized that constructive variability in parents and progenies was developed through hybridization which can be appropriately utilized for the selection of suitable genotypes to obtain high protein and high yield potential in bread wheat.</p> Vikas Verma Rama Shankar Shukla Suneeta Pandey Vinay Prakash Bagde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 12 17 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331555 Effect of Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment of Selected Organics and Botanical on Growth, Seed Yield and Yield Attributting Tarits of Maize (Zea mays L.) Var. VNR-4226 <p>The field experiment was conducted during Kharif season in the year 2021- 2022 at post graduate Crop research farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, in order to study the different Pre-sowing seed treatments of selected Organics and Botanicals on growth, Seed yield and yield attributing traits of Maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) Var. VNR-4226 The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 13 treatments and 3 replications. In order to standardization method of seed treatment to specific maize crop and they were evaluated by screening a range of duration and concentration Viz T<sub>0</sub>- Control, T<sub>1</sub> - Panchagavya 5% (12Hrs), T<sub>2</sub> - Panchagavya 10% (12Hrs), T<sub>3</sub> - Panchagavya 15% (12Hrs), T<sub>4</sub> - Moringa Leaf Extract 5% (12Hrs), T<sub>5</sub> - Moringa Leaf Extract 10% (12Hrs), T<sub>6</sub> - Moringa Leaf Extract 15% (12Hrs), T<sub>7</sub> - Vermiwash 5% (12Hrs), T<sub>8</sub> - Vermiwash 10% (12Hrs), T<sub>9</sub> – vermiwash 15% (12Hrs), T<sub>10</sub> – Moringa leaf extract 5% (12Hrs), T<sub>11</sub> - Moringa leaf extract 10% (12Hrs), T<sub>12</sub> - Moringa leaf extract 15% (12Hrs). To find out effect of different seed treatment on growth, yield and seed quality parameters of maize showed that significant treatment for Rate of Field emergence, Plant height (30,60,90 DAS), Number of leaves (30,60,90), Days to 50% Tasselling, days to 50% Silking, days to 50% Maturity, Number of cobs in a plant, cob length, cob grith, Number of rows in a cob, Number of Kernels in a row, Total number of kernels in a cob, seed yield per plot, Biological yield, Stover yield, Harvesting Index and economics were significantly recorded highest in T<sub>12</sub> (Neem leaf extract 15% for 12 hours) followed by T<sub>2</sub>- Panchagravya (10%) whereas minimum was observed in T<sub>0</sub> (control).</p> Rishikar Reddy Yeruva Prashant Kumar Rai Sasya Nagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 1 11 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331554 Effect of Phosphorous Level and Phosphorous Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) on Yield Attributes and Yield of Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) <p>The present study was conducted at Research farm of R.A.K., college of Agriculture, Sehore, Madhya Pradesh during 2020-21. The experiment was laid out using Randomized Block Design with different levels of Phosphorus with or without PSB application (T<sub>1</sub>- 45 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha, T<sub>2</sub>- 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha, T<sub>3</sub>- 75 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha,T<sub>4</sub> -90 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha, T<sub>5 </sub>- 45 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha + PSB @ 5g/kg seed, T<sub>6 </sub>- 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha + PSB @ 5g/kg seed, T<sub>7 </sub>- 75 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha + PSB @ 5g/kg seed, T<sub>8 </sub>- 90 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha + PSB @ 5g/kg seed).Treatment T<sub>7</sub> found to be best for yield and yield attributes of berseem. Maximum no. of capsules/m<sup>2</sup> (466), no. of seeds/capsule (28.81), Test weight (2.01 g), Seed yield (0.46 g/plant, 0.478 kg/plot, 239 kg/ha), Green fodder yield (63.75 kg/plot, 31870 kg/ha) and HI (10.21).While minimum recorded with treatment T<sub>1</sub> (45kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ha without PSB application).</p> Shubham Chouhan B. K. Sharma M. P. Nayak Praveen Kumar Ausari Pavan Kumar Para ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 18 23 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331557 Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Grain Yield Components in Maize (Zea mays L.) <p>In the present study, "Correlation and path coefficient analysis for grain yield components in maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.)," the aim was to estimate genetic variability, genetic advance, correlation, and direct and indirect effects of yield contributing traits on yield. According to the analysis of variance, all traits exist. Hence, the data on all the 16 traits which showed significant differences among the entries were subjected to further statistical analysis. GP-184 had the shortest grain yield per plant in comparison to other genotypes, whereas GP-87 had the highest grain yield. Grain yield per plant, ear height, plant height, and cob weight exhibited the highest genotypic coefficient of variation. Cob weight. Among the traits, grain yield per plant, ear height, plant height, cob weight, and cob length showed a higher phenotypic coefficient of variation. The traits ear height, grain yield per plant, plant height, number of cobs per plant, cob length, number of kernels per row, cob weight, number of kernels per row per cob, anthesis to silking interval, shank weight, and days to 50% silking exhibited the highest heritability. Plant height, grain yield per plant, ear height, and cob weight were traits that showed higher genetic advances. These traits included grain yield per plant, ear height, plant height, cob weight, cob length, number of cobs per plant, tassel length, number of kernels per row, number of kernel rows per cob, 100-kernel weight, anthesis to silking interval, cob girth, and shank weight that showed higher genetic advance as a percent mean. The correlation coefficient indicates there is a significant positive correlation between grain yield and cob weight, number of cobs per plant, number of kernels per row, number of kernel rows per cob, 100 kernel weight, cob length, cob girth, plant height, ear height, shank weight, and tassel length at the phenotypic level. Grain yield per plant significantly positive correlation with cob weight, number of cobs per plant, number of kernels per row, number of kernel row per cob, 100 kernel weight, cob length, cob girth, plant height, shank weight, ear height, tassel length at the genotypic level the phenotypic level, the traits cob weight, 100 kernel weight, and plant height had the greatest direct impact on grain yield per plant. The traits were cob weight, number of kernel row per cob, 100 kernel weight showed higher direct effect on grain yield per plant at genotypic level.</p> Sirigireddy Ganga Maheswar Reddy Gaibriyal M. Lal Thupakula Venkata Krishna Yeruva Venkata Subba Reddy Nalla Sandeep ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 24 36 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331558 Prinicipal Component Analysis and Traits Association in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) <p>The present investigation was carried out to assess the genetic variability parameters, correlation and path analysis in the 23 genotypes of Blackgram during <em>Zaid</em>-2021 at the research field, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj. LBG-645 is identified as high seed yielding per plant at Prayagraj agro-climatic condition. The analysis of variance for all the characters revealed that genotypes were highly significant except harvest index (%). Genotypes were highly significant at 5%, 1% level for all the characters, indicating presence of considerable amount of genetic variability in the parental material tested. The characters with high range estimates of GCV and PCV number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant. Heritability and genetic advance as % of mean values were high for number of pods per plant. The seed yield per plant exhibited positive significant and correlation with number of pods per plant at genotypic and phenotypic level. At genotypic and phenotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that number of pods per plant had greatest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant. Principal component (PC1) contributed maximum towards variability 22.808% was correlated with Seed Index followed by, plant height and number of seeds per pod. The second principal component (PC2) accounted 21.410% per cent of total variance and it reflected positive loading of days to 50% pod initiation, days to 50% flowering, and pod length whereas; the third principal component (PC3) accounted 15.642% per cent of total variance and positive loading of harvest Index followed by seed Index. Fourth principal component (PC4) contributed 11.325% of variability reflected loadings of days to maturity followed by seed yield per plant. The fifth principal component (PC5) contributed 9.489% variability of seed yield per plant, followed by days to 50% flowering.</p> Bheeram Vinod Kumar Gaibriyal M. Lal Yeruva Venkata Subba Reddy E. Shashi Kumar Golla Bhupal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 37 48 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331559 Estimation of Variability and Genetic Divergence in Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] for Yield Characters <p>The present investigation consists of 20 genotypes of Greengram including one check, which were grown in the Field Experimentation Centre of the Department of Genetics and Plant breeding, SHUATS, Prayagraj during <em>Kharif </em>2021 following RBD with three replications. The data were recorded on 13 characters to study the amount of genetic variability, Genetic Advance, Genetic advance as percent mean in the greengram genotypes. Based on the mean performance genotype MODAL-L532 followed TOR-2 and SANGU-1972 were identified as best genotypes for seed yield per plant. High significant variation was obtained for all characters studies. High heritability estimates were observed for Number of primary branches, Seed yield, harvest index followed by number of pods per plant, number of secondary branches, biological yield, number of seeds per plant, number of seeds per pod,100 seed weight, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, days to 50% pod setting, and plant height. High values for heritability indicates that it may be due to higher contribution of genotypic components. High genetic advance as percent of mean was recorded high for seed yield, harvest index, biological yield, number of pods per plant, number of primary branches, number of seeds per plant, number of secondary branches, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight, plant height, days to 50% flowering, days to 50% pod setting, days to maturity. Metroglyph analysis shows, analysis of variance indicated that significant variations among the 20 lines for thirteen characters. The scatter diagram revealed that three complexes couldbe distinguished on the basis of morphological variation. Maximum number of genotypes falls in cluster I (10) and II (9) followed by cluster III (1). The germplasm lines, OLTS-B2, MODAL-L532, S/9-1179, SLTS-B2, recorded high index score and fell into different clusters can be crossed to have maximum variability of good combination of characters. Thus, the use of these genotypes in future breeding programme is suggested.</p> Shika Udayasri G. R. Lavanya Gabriyal M. Lal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 49 56 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331560 Response of Growth and Production of Red and Green Okra Plants to Effect of Organic Fertilization <p>The effect of nitrogen on growth, and development of plants, metabolism, dry matter production has been well investigated. Extensive research has been conducted on organic fertilizers especially, i.e. the compost. This study investigated the effect of compost on okra pods yield, nitrogen agronomic use efficiency, supplied of nitrogen recovery efficiency and supplied nitrogen physiological efficiency in okra (<em>Abelmoschus esculentus</em> L. Moench). A completely randomized experimental design of 2x4 factorial patterns with three replications was used in this study. Factor (I) was the okra species (Green okra - Red okra) and factor (II) was the doses of compost (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha<sup>−1</sup>). Kind of okra has different effects on the parameters observed. Results showed that green okra and red okra showed increased yield due to the increase in the nitrogen dose through compost. Agronomic use efficiency of green okra and red okra increased with increasing doses of compost. The nitrogen recovery efficiency of green okra and red okra also, increased with increasing doses of compost. Nitrogen physiological efficiency of green okra and red okra increased with increasing compost doses. An increase in compost doses resulted in increased nitrogen uptake, pods yield, Agronomic efficiency, nitrogen recovery efficiency and nitrogen physiological efficiency of both green and red okra. Increased compost doses resulted in decreased nitrogen use efficiency in green okra. Green okra is more efficient in using organic nitrogen from compost.</p> Endang Dwi Purbajanti Eny Fuskhah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 57 63 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331561 Physico-Chemical Properties of Juice in Different Wine Varieties of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) <p>Physico-Chemical properties of juice in thirteen wine grape varieties (eight coloured and five white) were evaluated&nbsp; to assess the feasibility of growing wine grape varieties under Southern Telangana conditions. Observations recorded on physico-chemical properties of juice revealed that juice recovery was maximum in Chenin Blanc (78.38%) among the white varieties and in Pusa Navrang (77.75%) from the coloured ones. Total Soluble Solids (TSS) of juice in different varieties ranged from 15.43<sup>o</sup>B to 21.95<sup>o</sup>B .Maximum TSS was recorded in Cv. Shiraz followed by Cabernet Sauvignon while minimum content of was observed in Italia. The titrable acidity of juice ranged from minimum of 0.51% in Ruby Red to maximum of 0.92% in Chenin Blanc and all the varieties were found to be within the standard range as reported by Karibasappa and Adsule, 2008 <em>i.e.</em> (dry table wines require high acidity of 0.6 to 0.9%, while sweet dessert wines require 0.5 to 0.6% acidity). pH of the juice ranged from 2.96 (Italia) to 3.53 (Athens) which indicated that as per the pH norms, all the varieties screened are suitable for making wines except Italia. Highest total and reducing sugar content of juice was observed in Shiraz (19.28% and 15.38%) followed by Chenin Blanc (19.07% and 15.21%) and on the other hand, minimum total sugar content (13.14%) was recorded by Cv. Italia and reducing sugar content in Pusa Navrang (7.84%). The results signifies the potential `for cultivation of wine grape varieties under Southern Zone of Telangana.</p> Veena Joshi S. Amarender Reddy B. Srinivas Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 64 75 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331562 Screening of China Aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.)] Genotypes and F1 Hybrids against Alternaria Leaf Spot Disease <p>Leaf spot disease caused by <em>Alternaria alternata</em> (Fr.) Keissler is a threat of China aster cultivation and is capable of causing yield losses in all production regions. The experiment was undertaken to screen genotypes and F<sub>1</sub> hybrids which would be helpful in developing Alternaria leaf spot resistance varieties in later years. AAC-1 was found to be resistant against <em>Alternaria</em> leaf spot in both field and control conditions. In natural disease pressure, Arka Kamini, Arka Shashank and Arka Poornima recorded to be moderately susceptible, susceptible and highly susceptible to <em>Alternaria</em> leaf spot, respectively. However, in artificially inoculated condition, Arka Kamini showed susceptible reaction. Among F<sub>1 </sub>hybrids, AAC-1 x Arka Kamini and Arka Kamini x AAC-1 showed moderately resistant reaction; AAC-1 x Arka Poornima, AAC-1 x Arka Shashank, Arka Poornima x AAC-1, Arka Shashank x AAC-1 showed moderately susceptible disease reaction for <em>Alternaria</em> leaf spot.</p> Takhellambam Henny Chanu Mukund Shiragur Sandhyarani Nishani V. Kantharaju Rudragouda T. Patil G. K. Seetharamu Deelipkumar A. Masuthi B. C. Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-19 2022-09-19 76 81 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331563 Characterization of High Oleic Gene Pool and Validation of the Identified Genomic Regions Controlling Oleic Acid Content in Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) <p>The increase of oleic acid content has become one of the major goals of plant breeders to improve sunflower oil quality, as high content of oleic acid increases the oil’s stability to oxidative degradation at high temperatures and as well has been suggested to reduce cholesterol in blood plasma thereby reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. In this study 120 inbred lines of high oleic gene pool were characterized for yield, its attributing traits, oleic content and then validated with two known microsatellite molecular markers linked to oleic acid content. High phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation as well high heritability and high genetic advance as percent of mean was recorded for oleic acid content. This indicated the presence of the additive type of gene action controlling the trait. Further, the two molecular markers under the study exhibited differentiating bands between all the high and low oleic inbred lines. Hence the validated markers from this study, linked to the high oleic acid trait could be further used in marker-assisted selection and would greatly contribute to develop stable high oleic acid breeding lines.</p> M. S. Umar Farooq M. S. Uma S. D. Nehru C. P. Manjula ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-19 2022-09-19 82 88 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331564 Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Mechanical Properties in the Radial Positions of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Timber <p>This study evaluated the variation of the physical and mechanical properties within coconut timber's radial position (dermal, sub-dermal, core). Properties were studied on the 55-year-old coconut palm from KAU coconut farm Vellanikkara, in Thrissur, district Kerala. The density of coconut timber at the radial positions was 862.3 kg m<sup>-3</sup>, 670.8 kg m<sup>-3</sup> and 287.9 kg m<sup>-3</sup>, respectively, for the dermal, sub-dermal, and core positions. The average moisture content of coconut timber in the dermal, sub-dermal, and core positions was 15.7 %, 16.6 %, and 17.5 %, respectively. Compressive strength parallel to the grain at the three radial positions such as dermal, sub-dermal, and core is 32764.77 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>, 25591 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>, 7532.35 kg cm<sup>-2,</sup> respectively, and the compressive strength perpendicular to the grain was found as 46712.42 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>, 39233.3 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>, 22353.04 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>. Hardness measured at the side and ends of the dermal position is 1207.612 kg and 767.65 kg, respectively. In the sub-dermal position, 1035.7 kg and 750.88 kg, respectively. The core position is 252.34 kg and 359.31 kg, respectively.</p> K. Fairoosa Suma Nair ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-19 2022-09-19 89 95 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331565 Genetic Variability and Scope of Response to Selection in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) <p>The present investigation was carried out in randomized block design with three replications during <em>Rabi</em> season of 2020-21 to judge the extent of genetic variability and scope of selection among thirty-two genotypes including two checks of tomato Narendra Tomato-4 (NDT-4) &amp; Narendra Tomato -7(NDT-7) for fourteen characters. In present study the analysis variance showed that all the treatments were significantly different for all the characters. Which, indicates wide range of genetic variability among the available genotypes. On the basis of mean performance, five genotypes namely NDT-28, NDT-29, NDT-30, NDT-32 and NDT-P were promising ones. High genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficient of variations were recorded for plant height, number of primary branches, polar diameter of fruit, equatorial diameter of fruit, locules per fruit, average fruit weight, marketable fruit yield per plant and total fruit yield per plant. Moderate genotypic coefficients of variation and phenotypic coefficients of variation were estimated for ascorbic acid content, number of fruits per plant and pericarp thickness. In contrast, low environment coefficient of variation was found for all the characters. High heritability (broad sense) coupled with high genetic advance in per cent of mean was observed for plant height, equatorial diameter of fruit, locules per fruit, pericarp thickness, average fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, marketable fruit yield per plant and total fruit yield per plant. Thus, ample variability is there and selection will be effective among the available germplasm of tomato.</p> Lokesh Yadav G. C. Yadav Shalu Yadav Lav Kumar Sandeep Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-19 2022-09-19 96 101 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331566 Molecular Characterization of Early Maturing Sugarcane Clones Using Microsatellite Markers <p>Sugarcane is an important cash crop of the entire world including India. It alone contributes to 75% of the worldwide sugar trade. Molecular markers are powerful tools and provide the basis for the estimation of genetic variability to start reasonable breeding program. Microsatellite markers have unique ability to determine the extent of genetic divergence among sugarcane genotypes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence of 12 early maturing sugarcane clones using 11 SSR markers. A total 55 alleles were found during the amplification of the primers out of which 21 alleles were found unique and 34 alleles were shared. The number of shared alleles per locus ranged from two out of five alleles in the case of primer NKS 1 and nine out of ten alleles in NKS 34. Similarly no. of unique alleles per locus ranged from one out of ten alleles in NKS 34, three out of six alleles in NKS 57. The primer pairs NKS 1 and NKS 8 generated considerably greater percentage of unique alleles. The PIC values revealing allelic diversity and frequency among the genotypes varied from 0.034 in case of NKS 48 to 0.778 in case of NKS 9 with an average of 0.549. Pair-wise combinations of CoSe15451 and CoSe15452 showed the highest similarity with the value of similarity coefficient (0.890). The lowest value of similarity coefficient was found to be 0.490 in the pair CoBln15501 and CoSe01421. The dendogram based on SSR marker analysis grouped the 12 sugarcane clones into four clusters which shows the CoSe15451 and CoSe15452 clones had maximum similarity and CoBln15501 and CoSe15452 clones had maximum diversity between each other.</p> Rajvinder Singh D. N. Kamat Pooja Kumari Sandeep Kumar Suman Digvijay Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-20 2022-09-20 102 110 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331568 Effect of Micronutrients (Boron & Zinc) on Growth, Flowering and Quality of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Under Naturally Ventilated Polyhouse Conditions of Prayagraj, India <p>The present investigation was done to study the effect of micronutrients (Boron &amp; Zinc) on growth, flowering and quality of carnation (<em>Dianthus caryophyllus </em>L.) under naturally ventilated polyhouse conditions of Prayagraj. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with fifteen treatments replicated thrice. Foliar application with three levels of boron (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15%), three levels of zinc (0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6%) and treatment combinations of both boron and zinc along with control were applied. Among all the treatments, T<sub>2</sub> (B @ 0.1%) recorded significantly taller plants (84.71 cm), more number of leaves (165.47), more number of shoots (7.53), more number of internodes (17.27), higher internodal length (5.21 cm), longer bud (3.63 cm), more bud diameter (2.33 cm), higher flower stalk girth (4.86 mm) and more vase life (11.2 days). However, treatment T<sub>6</sub> (Zn @ 0.6 %) exhibited early days for bud initiation (124.27 days), bud opening (14.47 days), 50 percent flowering (138.73 days), more number of cut flower stalks per plant (7.13) and more number of flowers per meter square (178.33) while treatment T<sub>5</sub> (Zn @ 0.4 %) exhibited longer flower stalk (66.23 cm) and treatment T<sub>10</sub> (B @ 0.1 % + Zn @ 0.2 %) produced good flower diameter (6.62 cm).&nbsp; Poor flowers were generated by plants that were not given micronutrients. So, T<sub>2</sub> (B @ 0.1 %) and T<sub>6</sub> (Zn @ 0.6 %) can be applied topically to improve the quality of flowers. Hence, applications of micronutrient are proven to be crucial for improving the vegetative growth, flowering, quality and yield parameters of carnation grown under naturally ventilated polyhouse conditions of Prayagraj.</p> Saphinee Careen Kurbah Urfi Fatmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-20 2022-09-20 111 118 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331569 Effect of Nitrogen, Zinc and Iron on Growth and Yield of Baby-corn (Zea mays L.) Prayagraj Condition <p>A field experiment was conducted at the Crop Research Farm (CRF), Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj (UP) during the year 2021 zaid season. To find out suitable Nitrogen, zinc and iron levels for profitable baby corn yield. The experiment comprised of 9 treatments with different combinations of nitrogen, zinc and iron replicated thrice in a Randomized Block Design. The main objective of the experiment was to evaluate the Effect of Nitrogen, Zinc and Iron on growth and yield of baby-corn (<em>Zea mays </em>L.). The nitrogen levels include [70, 80 and 90 kg/ha] where-as levels of zinc (0.5%) and iron (0.2%) From the present investigation The results showed that viz: Plant height (169.75 cm),Number of leaves per plant (13.80) plant dry weight (113.09 g/plant) were recorded significantly higher in 90kg/ha Nitrogen along with 0.5% Zinc and 0.2% Iron. Number of cobs per plant (1.69), cob length (18.50 cm), cob girth (8.10cm), cob weight with husk (48.85g), cob weight with out husk (13.80 g), cob yield with husk (11.75 t/ha), cob yield without husk (4.35 t/ha), green fodder (33.58t/ha) and the profitable production of baby corn can be secured by 90kg/ha Nitrogen + [0.5% Zinc + 0.2% Iron].</p> Dalu Kiran Kumar Joy Dawson Chakali Ramesh Dalu Sreekanth R. Ranganad Reddy Gurrappa Dudekula ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 119 124 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331571 Performance Evaluation and Identification of New Quality Protein Maize Inbred Lines <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> Maize plays a critical role in meeting high food demand. It is a globally widely adopted and cultivated crop. Hybrid and open-pollinated varieties development from fixed inbred lines is one of the strategies for the improvement of maize production. Compared with the world average, the national average maize yield is low in Ethiopia. According to this development and selection of promising germplasm has indispensable value for developing high-yielding maize varieties. The study consists of 21Quality Protein Maize (QPM) lines, two QPM testers lines, and one Conventional Maize (CM) line check (FS67). They were evaluated in RCBD with two replications at Ambo and Arsi-Negele. The objective was to identify new lines with good performance compared with released QPM checks and CM lines.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There is a significant difference between the lines for 28 traits in Ambo and 24 traits at Arsi-Negele. In combined mean performance analysis, the highest yielding line (L8) exceeded the mean of all line checks, mean QPM checks, CM line check (FS67), and best QPM line check (CML144) by 34.89%, 54.80%, 7.30%, and 25.31%, respectively for GY. The value of EPP ranged from 0.91 (L14) to 1.85 (L3) with an overall mean of 1.19). The highest yielding line (L8) had the 2nd highest EPP (1.63). Mean EPP of the top five QPM lines was less by 5.45%, 4.96%, 22.41%, and 6.41% compared with the mean of all checks, mean of QPM line checks, best QPM check, and CM line check, respectively. The high yielder line (L8) had a higher mean value than the mean of lines checks (CML144, CML159, and FS67), mean of QPM lines checks, best QPM check (CML144), and FS67 by 25.71%, 26.36%, 3.16%, and 24.43%, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In general, the study confirmed the existence of promising new QPM parental lines. These promising lines can be used as source material in the breeding program for further improvement.</p> Goshime Muluneh Mekasha Solomon Admassu Seyoum Demewoz Negera Woreti Beakal Tadesse Girma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 125 140 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331572 Screening of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes for High Temperature Stress under Temperature Induction Response <p>Plants are exposed to multifarious external environmental conditions that affect plant growth, development and productivity. Heat stress is one of the abiotic stress that occurs due to high ambient temperature. Also, it is a serious threat to crop production worldwide. Rice is a major food crop cultivated all over the globe. In the present study, temperature induction response (TIR) was carried out for screening the rice genotypes. Initially, three rice genotypes namely Swarnamukhi, Kasalth and N22 (tolerant check) were used to standardize the optimum induction temperature and lethal temperature. Optimum induction temperature was 46-54<sup>o</sup> C and the lethal temperature 56<sup>o</sup>C were standardized for rice. At this temperature, a total of 58 diverse genotypes were screened for high-temperature stress tolerance. Among the genotypes tried, sivapu chithiraikar (94.33%), kavya (93.67%), kasalath(94.23), samleshwari (93.56), poongar (87.34), vedhividangan (75.10), Naveen (89.56), surakuruvai (84.90), swarnamukhi (92.10), vellaikatrai (80.50) and kavuni (92.60) expressed higher seedling survival percentage of tolerance (93.5%) to high temperature and remaining were identified as temperature susceptible as compared to control (100% survival). There was a considerable variation among the genotypes screened for acquired thermotolerance. Results suggested that TIR is a simple and powerful technique and can be used to screen a large population at the seedling stage to identify thermotolerant lines.</p> G. K. Nandhitha K. Vanitha C. N. Chandrasekhar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 141 147 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331573 Profile Distribution of Available Plant Nutrients in Western Hilly Tracts of Cuttack District, Odisha <p><strong>Aims: </strong>An investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of available plant nutrients and the relationships between soil properties and available nutrient status in soil profiles in the Western Hilly Tracts of the Cuttack District, Odisha.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The research area, i.e. the Narasinghpur block, is located in the western part of the Cuttack district in Odisha and is characterized by lateritic uplands and mountainous terrain. Three soil profiles were exposed <em>i.e.</em> upland, medium land and low land before the rainy season (February, 2020).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For experiments, five layers demarcated at 20cm intervals up to a depth of 100cm were sampled, processed, and stored. Several parameters, including particle size, pH, EC, OC, and available Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn were analysed and interpreted using standard protocols.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Sand content decreased with pedon depth, whereas clay content showed the opposite trend. With increasing soil depth in all pedons, soil pH increased while EC and soil organic carbon content declined. The available Ca, Mg, and S in surface soils varied from 4.11 to 6.56 [cmol (p<sup>+</sup>)/kg], 2.15 to 3.54 [cmol (p<sup>+</sup>)/kg] and 9.85 to 12.06 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The corresponding subsurface ranges for these nutrients were 4.31 to 8.52 [cmol (p<sup>+)</sup>/kg], 2.41 to 4.52 [cmol (p<sup>+</sup>)/kg], and 6.95 to 11.41 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The available Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B range in surface soils were 127.85-278.81, 68.48-144.98, 0.64-0.9, 0.54-0.63 and 0.37-0.47 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The subsurface ranges for these nutrients were 102.32–234.46, 53.21–118.28, 0.28–0.89, 0.17–0.50, and 0.29–0.91 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. The status of micronutrients in the present study region was as follows: Fe &gt; Mn &gt; Cu &gt; Zn &gt; B. With increasing soil depth, available Ca and Mg increased, but available S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and B declined. Positive correlations between available Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn with the soil organic carbon content of the soil and negative correlations with the soil pH were observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Plant nutrients in the research area varied with topography, although the differences between upland, medium land and lowland wasn't substantial. However, accelerated decomposition of soil organic matter and agricultural residues likely led to highermicronutrient concentrations at the soil's surface than subsurface.</p> Shraddha Mohanty R. K. Nayak Bandita Jena Kshitipati Padhan Sanjib Kumar Sahoo R. K. Patra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 148 155 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331574 Effect of Seed Priming on Germination, Plant Growth and Flowering of Cockscomb (Celosia spp.) Under Prayagraj Agro Climatic Conditions <p>The present experiment was carried out during August, 2021 to January, 2022 in Research Field, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD), with nine treatments, replicated thrice, with an aim to identify the most suitable variety under the agro climatic conditions of Prayagraj. From the present experimental findings, It is concluded from the present investigations that nine treatments under study showed significant variation in all the parameters observed. To study on effect of seed priming on germination, plant growth and flowering of cockscomb (<em>Celosia spp</em>.). The experiment consisted with two varieties i.e <em>Celosia cristata</em> L. and <em>Celosia argentea</em> var. <em>spicata</em>. seeds were primed with CaCl₂ and salicylic acid. <em>Celosia cristata</em> L. Seeds were primed with CaCl₂ (0.56% and (2%), Salicylic Acid (0.02% and 0.04%). <em>Celosia argentea</em> var. <em>spicata</em> seed were primed with CaCl₂ (4% and 6%), Salicylic Acid (0.06% and 0.08%) the best performance in terms of Days to first seedling emergence (8.33), Days to 50% emergence (11.33), Mean emergence time (11.20), Emergence percentage (92), Emergence index (2), Vigor index (901.33), plant height (68.55 cm), number of leaves (47.44), days taken to flower bud formation (21.88), days taken to flowering (31.88), number of flowers per plant (25.44) and benefit cost ratio (7.58) gave best result in T₅ Salicylic acid 0.004% as compared to other treatments in terms of seedling, growth and floral parameters.</p> Ch. Priyanka Vijay Bahadur V. M. Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-23 2022-09-23 156 163 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331575 Influence of Rubber Effluent and NPK Fertilizer on the Performance and Fruit Quality of Snake Tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina L. Haines) in a Three and Four Years Old (An Existing) Rubber Plantation <p>Small holder rubber farmer that account for over 75% of rubber production in Nigeria has withdrawn from production as a result of income gap created by the long gestation period of rubber amidst other agronomic challenges, hence the need to create an agronomic system that will incorporate other compactable short duration to generate additional and early source of income and take care of other agronomic challenges. An experiment was conducted in 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons to evaluate the influence of rubber effluent and NPK fertilizer on the performance and fruit quality of snake tomato in a three and four year old (an existing) rubber plantation. The treatments include sole rubber, sole snake tomato and their intercrop combinations with rubber effluent and NPK laid out in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. Data were collected on vine length, vine girth, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit yield and its components, nutrient content and uptake. Growth parameters measured increased with increase in rubber effluent application however NPK fertilized plants were superior to rubber effluent treated plant at increased dosage as there was no marked difference between plants treated with effluent at 70kgN<sup>-1</sup> rubber effluent and NPK treated plants, it was also observed that the fourth year plant were higher than the third year. Nutrient content was observed to increase with fertilizer application as non fertilized had the lowest nutrient content, the least uptake was observed in the non fertilized plants.</p> A. M. D. Uwumarongie O. A. Emuedo E. O. Uzunuigbe F. U. Ohikhena A. N. Chukwuka U. Ugiagbe-Ekue J. I. Omoruyi J. A. Omorogbe S. O. Aghedo S. O. Musa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 164 176 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331576 Genetic Variability and Inter-relationship among Grain Yield and It’s Components in Maize (Zea mays L.) <p>The present investigation was carried out to estimate genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis for fifteen yield attributing traits of twenty maize genotypes in the <em>kharif</em> -2021 season at Field Experimentation Center, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Uttar Pradesh in Randomized block design replicated thrice. Among 20 genotypes, VL-19403(66.8g) and VL-19465(65.5g) genotypes were found to be superior for grain yield per plant over the check (Shaktiman-5). High GCV and PCV were observed for grain yield per plant, number of grains per row, number of grain rows per cob, harvest index, cob weight, ear height and biological yield per plant. Maximum heritability conjoined with higher genetic advance for the traits grain yield per plant, plant height, ear height, harvest index, biological yield and cob weight. Grain yield per plant was significantly strong association with harvest index, number of grains per row, cob weight, cob girth, cob length, ear height at both levels. The trait days to 50% tasselling had high direct positive effect on grain yield per plant at genotypic level and biological yield per plant had high direct positive effect on grain yield per plant at phenotypic level.</p> Boddu Archana G. M. Lal G. R. Lavanya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 177 184 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331577 Effect of Plant Growth Retardants (Paclobutrazol, Alar, Maleic Hydrazide) on Growth, Flowering and Yield on African Marigold (Tagetes erecta) cv. Pusa Basanti under Open Field Conditions of Prayagraj <p>The present experiment was carried out during March, 2022 to June, 2022 in Research Field, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The research was conducted with an aim to identify the most suitable growth retardants and its appropriate dose under the agro climatic conditions of Prayagraj was carried out in Randomized Block Design (RBD), with three replications. Ten treatments were considered viz., Control (T<sub>0</sub>), Paclobutrazol (PBZ) at 100 ppm (T<sub>1</sub>), 150 ppm (T<sub>2</sub>), 200 ppm (T<sub>3</sub>); Maleic Hydrazide (MH) at 1000 ppm (T<sub>4</sub>), 1500 ppm (T<sub>5</sub>), 2000 ppm (T<sub>6</sub>); Alar at 1000 ppm (T<sub>7</sub>), 1500 ppm (T<sub>8</sub>), 2000 ppm (T<sub>9</sub>). From the experimental findings, it was observed that treatment PBZ at 100 ppm performed significantly better in most of the parameter like plant height (33.82 cm), plant spread (44.03 cm), number of primary branch (4.11), early bud initiation (33.6 days) and early flowering (50.6 days). The treatment MH at 1000 ppm performed significant for more fresh weight (4.28 g), flower diameter (4.07 cm), as well as shelf life (7.64 days). It also reported higher flower yield per plant (254.97 g), gross return (717093 Rs/ha), net return (426514 Rs/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (2.47). Through the study it can be conclude that PBZ at 100 ppm was better in vegetative parameter as well as early initiation and MH at 1000 ppm was good in producing higher yield when compared to other treatments.Include the recommendation based on results of the study.</p> Mansi Arya Urfi Fatmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 185 193 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2331578