International Journal of Plant & Soil Science <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Plant &amp; Soil Science (ISSN: 2320-7035)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJPSS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Plant &amp; Soil Science research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 2320-7035 Characterization of Cultural and Morphological Variability in Rhizoctonia solani Isolates Associated with Root Rot of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.) <p><em>Rhizoctonia solani </em>(teleomorph: Thanatephorus spp.) is a plant pathogenic fungus which had a wide host range. It is best known to cause many diseases in plants such as collar rot, root rot, damping- off, sheath blight, stem canker, web blight and wire stem throughout the world. <em>In vitro</em> study of the various isolates of <em>R. solani</em> for morphological and cultural characters and results revealed that this experiment the various isolates of <em>R. solani</em> differed in colony characters and showed black brown colored cultures with 90.0 mm colony diameter on 7<sup>th</sup> day of incubation under uniform environmental condition. The highest growth reported was isolates CHIRs-5 and sclerotial formation was recorded in all the isolates of <em>R.</em> <em>solani</em>. Morphology of sclerotia varied from 1.9×1.5 mm of DCHIRs-1 and 1.8×1.5 mm of RUDPRs-2.</p> Babu Lal Fagodia B. L. Mali R. K. Fagodiya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 1 6 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530431 Physical Soil Quality of Semi - Arid Savanna as Influenced by Acacia senegalensis in Desert Research Experimental Plot Yobe State University Damaturu, Northern Nigeria <p>Soil is a living and dynamic natural reservoir and source of plant nutrients that play numerous key roles in terrestrial ecosystems. This study investigated the impact of three adjacent land use systems (<em>Acacia senegalensis</em> plantation (ACP), <em>pilostigma raticulatum</em> plantation (PRP) and Ground nut field (GNF) on selected soil physical quality indicators in a Northern Nigeria semi- arid Savanna. Minimum data set for assessing soil quality (Prime quality agricultural land) in this study include bulk density, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, carbon stock, available phosphorus and pH values obtained from DRMCC research field. Mean values of the data set were arranged and scored to obtain totals among the minimum data set (MDS). Soil quality is considered a key element for evaluating the sustainability of land management practices. Data generated were analyzed using ANOVA and significant means were determined using Duncan multiple range test (DMRT). ACP had significantly higher organic carbon content (9.37 gkg<sup>-1</sup>) and lower bulk density (2.16 gkg<sup>-1</sup>) than <em>pilostigma</em> and GNF respectively. The lower bulk density (<em>ρ</em>b) and high organic carbon in ACP might be due to high leaf shading by acacia while the lower bulk density in ground nut field aided by trampling induced compaction resulted in its high relative field capacity (RFC), permanent wilting point (PWP) and micro-p ore spaces (PMIC) tillage in ground nut field created loose soil in the plough layer (&lt;20 cm) which turn out to its low bulk density (<em>ρ</em>b). <em>Acacia</em> plantation contained highest total nitrogen value (1.23 gkg<sup>-1</sup>); perhaps resulting <em>Acacia </em>leaf litter is known to have a high decomposition rate. <em>Pilostigma </em>plantation contained (1.22 gkg<sup>-1</sup>) nitrogen, while the least nitrogen content was obtained under ground nut field. On scoring the land use types and depth against the minimum data set, the least total was that under <em>acacia</em> plantation, followed by pilostigma plantation then ground nut field. Therefore, soils under <em>acacia</em> plantation were ranked best quality (SQ1) for cultivation purposes at 0-10 cm, followed by <em>pilostigma</em> land use type that were ranked SQ2. Ground nut field soils were ranked least (SQ6) in quality for use in crop production at depth of 10-20 cm.</p> Hamza Haruna Galal H.G. Hussein Mohammed B ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 7 17 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530432 Genetic Diversity Studies in MAGIC Population of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Based on Mahalanobis D2 Distance <p>Soybean MAGIC lines are highly variable breeding material which utilizes both recent and historic genetic recombination events. Present investigation was carried out to assess the genetic diversity present among 95 soybean MAGIC lines along with six checks for 10 different quantitative traits. All the genotypes were grouped into 16 clusters by performing Tocher’s clustering method using Mahalanobis D<sup>2</sup> distance. Cluster I was the largest comprising of 30 genotypes followed by cluster II (23 genotypes), cluster X (15 genotypes) and cluster IX (9 genotypes). The maximum genetic distance (D<sup>2</sup>) was observed between cluster XI and XV (168.37) followed by cluster III and XV (164.3), cluster X and XV (149.64) as well as between cluster XII and cluster XVI (145.99). The cluster mean for most of the traits were high in cluster I and cluster XVI. Oil content contributed maximum (23.86%) towards total genetic diversity followed by number of pods plant<sup>-1</sup> (18.97%), seed yield plant<sup>-1</sup> (18.63%), 100 seed weight (11.05%) and number of branches plant<sup>-1</sup> (10.16%) traits. The soybean MAGIC lines belong to the cluster XI (6-120) and cluster XV (6-30, 6-31, 6-5) were found to be the most divergent hence can be utilised in the recombination breeding programs to exploit maximum heterosis.</p> Bidush Ranjan Swar V. Swarnalatha M. Rajendar Reddy S. Vanisree ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 18 25 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530433 Efficacy of Zn, Fe and Mg Nano Scale and Bulk Plant Nutrient Foliar Sprays in Biochemical Changes of Blackgram Genotypes under YMV Tolerance <p>Evidence-based synergistic effects of Nanoscale materials, which size typically falls below 100 nm, exhibit novel chemical, physical and biological properties which are different from their bulk counterparts. Here, we report for the first time comparision of nanoscale zinc oxide (n-ZnO), magnesium oxide (n-MgO), and iron oxide (n-FeO) with their respective bulk concentrations on biochemical variability of blackgram genotypes under yellow mosaic virus condition. Oxides of nano scale Zn, Mg and Fe materials were prepared by using a modified sol-gel method. Characterization was performed by using X- ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Analysis and High- Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Average sizes of ZnO, MgO and FeO (78.8, 60.8 and 12.4 nm respectively) and potentials (-36.7,-33.0 and -18.0 mV respectively). A field study was conducted during summer 2018 in split-plot design with two blackgram genotypes as main treatments (TBG-104 and LBG-623) and nine sub treatments (Control, ZnSO<sub>4</sub> @ 0.2 %, n-ZnO @ 200ppm, MgSO<sub>4</sub> @ 0.2 %, n- MgO @ 100ppm, FeSO<sub>4</sub> @ 0.2%, n- FeO @ 200ppm, ZnSO4 @ 0.2 % + MgSO4 @ 0.2 % + FeSO4 @ 0.2 %,&nbsp; n-ZnO @ 200ppm + n- MgO @ 100ppm + n- FeO @ 200ppm) as foliar sprays with three replications. YMV infection was observed at 25 DAS. The foliar treatmental sprays were imposed at 30 and 50 DAS.</p> <p>Results of the field study revealed that combined application of nanoscale treatmental spray ZnO @ 200 ppm + MgO @ 100 ppm + FeO @ 200 ppm resulted higher YMV tolerance interms of high chlorophyll content, total phenols, total proteins and lower total soluble sugars, followed by combined bulk treatmental spray ZnSO<sub>4</sub> @ 0.2% + MgSO<sub>4 </sub>@ 0.2% + FeSO<sub>4</sub> @ 0.2% and nano scale Magnesium Oxide @ 100 ppm. Here we concluded that either of these three foliar sprays can be recommended to blackgram crop prone to YMV condition to sustain plant growth and final yields. But, there should be study on the impact of different shape, size of nano particles on plant system and the promotery effects of nano scale Oxides of Zn, Mg and Fe particles at cellular level and transport mechanism in plant system needs to be understood.</p> B. Rajitha V. Rajarajeswari P. Sudhakar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 26 33 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530434 Performance Assessment of Drip System of Irrigation used for Cultivating Tomato in Premises of the Centre of Excellence Protected Cultivation, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India <p>A technical report was conducted for checking performance assessment of drip irrigation system which was used for cultivating tomato in premises of the Centre of Excellence Protected Cultivation, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). A uniformity coefficient was found for drip irrigation system which ranges from 73.2 % to 83.6%. The coefficient of variance varies between 0.0055 to 0.0068 for the measured discharges of four laterals laid in the field. It shows that there is the least variation between the obtained flow rates of different laterals under study. The application efficiency of four different lateral lines operating at a pressure of 1.25 kg/cm<sup>2 </sup>was calculated and it found to be more than 90.00 %, excluding lateral line (L2). Almost same amount of flow variation (8-9%) is found in lateral lines L1, L3 and L4, although Lateral line (L2) discharges 11.00 % more water among others. The maximum flow variation was found for the lateral line (L3) and the least flow variation was for the lateral line (L1). The distribution efficiency of all the laterals was found more than 97.45 %.</p> Vijay Sahu Jeet Raj Sanket Kolambe . Aman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 34 40 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530435