Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Abscisic Acid on Yield, Anthocyanins, Polyphenols and Procyanidins in Grape cv. Cabernet Franc (Vitis vinífera L.)

H. Ramírez, M. L. Mancera-Noyola, A. Zermeño-González, D. Jasso-Cantú, J. A. Villarreal-Quintanilla

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43001

Aims: In recent years the wine industry in Mexico has increased its production as a result of exports and recognition for its wine quality abroad. An actual problem related to lack of berry pigmentation at harvest time was found in the cultivar Cabernet Franc.  Its consequences involves in a delay on the biochemistry of maturity components and its impact in the wine elaboration. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in various stages of fruit maturity; however, little is known on its direct role in berry pigmentation and other fruit maturity components. On this basis and with the purpose to study the effect on yield, pigmentation and fruit quality, ABA was applied on the cv. Cabernet Franc.

Study Design: A completely randomized block design was used with four replicates per treatment. The data were analysed with the statistical program 'RStudio’ for Windows version 10. , The Tukey (P < 0.05) test was applied for the analysis of variance and comparison of means.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the vineyard San Lorenzo, Casa Madero in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico and Horticulture lab in Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, during the period of June - December 2017.

Methodology: When berries on rachis reached the veraison stage, a first spray of ABA was applied on the bunches using a 10 L back sprayer. The treatments were Control (H2O); 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L-1 of ABA. The second spray at same doses was applied 14 days after first application. 

Results: It was observed that ABA at any doses did not affect the weight, length, pH, soluble solids and acidity in fruits nor in yield. ABA at any concentration provoked a significant increment in the levels of anthocyanins, polyphenols and procyanidins in the harvested fruits. 

Conclusion: It can be concluded that ABA as a hormone treatment can be used at the veraison stage in Cabernet Franc  to improve the contents of anthocyanins, polyphenols and procyanidins in berries

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anaerobic Digestate Potential as Organic Fertilizer in Improving Wheat Production and Soil Properties

A. Muhmood, A. Majeed, A. Niaz, S. S. H. Shah, M. O. Shahid

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43255

Integrated use of synthetic and organic fertilizers is crucial to sustainable crop production and stabilization of depleting soil fertility. Keeping in view these certainties, a three-year field study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of anaerobic digestate alone or in integration with chemical fertilizer for improving wheat production and soil fertility. Six treatments viz; control (with no amendment), recommended dose (RD) of chemical fertilizers (CF), anaerobic digestate (AD) on the basis of RD of N, farm manure (FM) on the basis of RD of N, ½ N from CF and ½ N from AD, ½ N from CF and ½ N from FM were applied in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The obtained results revealed that the highest yield (grain and straw), N uptake, NUE, NAE, and NRE were acquired through the utilization of chemical fertilizers which was statistically at par with combined application of anaerobic digestate and chemical fertilizer in all years of study while the minimum was found in control. The integration of digestate not only increase yield but also found to be a monitory feasible strategy. Besides, it was inferred that about half of nitrogenous fertilizer (urea) can be spared with the appropriation of chemical fertilizers and digestate integration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytotoxicity Test to Check the Effectiveness of Mycoremediation to Support Seed Germination and Plant Growth in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

Kanika Sharma, Nirmal Sudhir Kumar Harsh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43564

In the present study, the effect of different treatments on the growth parameters of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal was evaluated. Soil samples were collected from the oil spill site by stratified random sampling method, i.e. near the well (NW), 20 metre distance, 40 metre distance, 60 metre distance and 80 metre distance from the oil spill well. Eight different treatments were applied to crude oil contaminated soil samples from five different distances. The treated soil samples were incubated for 14 days, and transferred to root trainers in a glass house and then the seeds of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal were sown. It was kept for four months under a glass house and net house conditions. Growth parameters like collar diameter, shoot height, root length, fresh weight, dry weight and percentage germination of plants were measured in each treatment. Two-way analysis of variance was carried out to study the effect of treatments, distances and their interaction on growth parameters of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Best values of the plant parameters (like collar diameter = 2.21 mm; shoot height = 3.200 cm; root length = 12.6 cm; fresh weight = 0.526 g; dry weight = 0.132 g) were obtained when the soil was sterilised and bioaugmented with yeast extract, molasses and Aspergillus terreus

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Phenotypic Diversity of Sweet Potato Landraces (Ipomoea batatas L.) Cultivated in Benin Using Morphological Descriptors

Arsène Mahoutondji Doussoh, Justine Sossou Dangou, Corneille Ahanhanzo, Serge Sètondji Houedjissin, Armel Kayodé Assogba

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43470

Aim: Ipomoea batatas is one of the tuberous roots produced in Benin for its nutritional and economic interests and whose diversity remains unknown. This research work aims to evaluate the phenotypic variability within sixty-four landraces collected in South and Central Benin.

Methodology: The trials were carried out using randomised complete block design with three replicates at the experimental site of Agricultural School of Akodeha at southern part, of Benin during two consecutive rainy seasons, September to November 2016 and May to July 2017. Nineteen (19) qualitative and six (6) quantitative traits selected from the descriptors of the International Potato Center were used. An ascending hierarchical classification based on the discriminant variables was carried out.

Results: The results obtained showed the existence of a morphological diversity within the collection studied for the principal color of the stem, the pubescence of the top of the stem, the general appearance of the leaf, the pigmentation of the abaxial vein of the stem, the leaf, the predominant color of the skin of the tubers, the secondary color of the flesh of the tubers and its distribution. The landraces were grouped into seven (7) classes with qualitative variables. Similarly, with the quantitative variables, 7 groups were obtained.

Conclusion: The information from this study provides a useful database for moving towards molecular genetic characterisation of sweet potato landraces in Benin and for their in vitro and ex situ conservation for breeding programs

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Mungbean Genotypes for Resistance against Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) during Kharif under Field Condition

Meghashree Meti, Mallikarjun Kenganal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/44005

Host resistance offers the cheapest way of disease management with no environmental concern of pesticide residues. This study was conducted during kharif to identify sources of resistant genotypes against Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) in mungbean. Here, pre-released mungbean genotypes/lines were screened against MYMV and results showed that the incidence of MYMV among the genotypes evaluated varied from 3.44 to 69.12 per cent. Highest incidence was recorded in KM-13-71 (69.12%) followed by GG-13-8 (66.66%), NM-94 (62 %) and T30 (97/1) (56.75%). Lowest incidence was recorded for Jabalapuri (3.44%) followed by GM-20 (7%), TRCRM-141 (7.87%) and 116/01 (8%). Among 40 genotypes, eight genotypes showed resistance (R) reaction against MYMV with minimum disease score of 1. Eight genotypes showed moderate resistance (MR) reaction with disease score of 2 and two genotypes showed moderately susceptible responses (MS) with a disease score of 3. Eight genotypes were found susceptible (S) with a disease score of 4, and eleven genotypes were found highly susceptible (HS) to MYMV with the disease score of 5. Among these 40 genotypes, none of the genotypes were found to be highly resistant (HR) against MYMV