Open Access Original Research Article

Macro and Micro Nutrient Uptake Parameters and Use Efficiency in Cacao Genotypes as Influenced by Levels of Soil Applied K

Yan-Mei Li, Marshall Elson, Dapeng Zhang, Zhenli He, Richard C. Sicher, Virupax Baligar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 80-90
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/17368

Aims: To evaluate the effects of soil K levels (deficit to excess) on nutrient uptake parameters (concentration, uptake, influx, transport and use efficiency ratios) of macro and micro nutrients in different cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) genotypes.
Methodology: Seedlings of three cacao genotypes (Amelonado, EET-400 and ICS 95) were grown for 90 days in a plant growth chamber with three levels of K (52, 156, and 469 mg K plant-1) in the growth medium. The experiment was a split plot design with genotypes as the main plots and K levels as the subplots with three replications. Nutrient uptake parameters were investigated.
Results: Significant (P<0.01 and 0.05) K effects were observed on the nutrient uptake parameters of various macro and micro nutrients in cacao. Increasing K in the soil significantly increased K (P<0.01) and Zn (P<0.05) concentrations and significantly (P<0.01) reduced the P, Ca, Mg, and Mn concentrations in cacao plants. Overall uptake of P, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn decreased and uptake of N, K, Cu and Zn increased with increasing soil K levels. Increasing the K levels of the soil significantly at P<0.01 and P<0.05 increased the efficiency ratio (ER) for P, Ca, Mg, Mn and N respectively in cacao. Increasing K levels of the soil significantly (P<0.01 and 0.05) decreased ER for K and Zn respectively in cacao. For all of the soil K levels, Amelonado genotype was most efficient in utilization of absorbed Fe, Mn and Zn, whereas ICS 95 genotype was most efficient in utilization of absorbed N, P, Ca, Mg, B, and Cu.
Conclusion: At varying soil K levels, cacao genotypes used in this study showed significant differences in macro and micro nutrient uptake, nutrient influx and transport and nutrient use efficiency. Soil K levels have significant effects on nutrient uptake parameters of cacao.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit (Leucaena) Provenances to Aluminium in Potted Soil Experiment

O. Kodiago, A. O. Onkware, S. O. Gudu, V. A. Palapala, P. O. Kisinyo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 91-101
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14704

Aims: To determine the level of acid or aluminium tolerance provenances in Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) a favourite agroforestry tree in Kenya.
Study Design: The set up was a 2-factor (provenance-aluminium) experiment in a completely randomized design with three (3) replications and data were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance.
Place and Duration of Study: Potted acid soil experiments were carried out at the Maseno ICRAF/KEFRI centre and Chepkoilel campus farm, Moi University, between June 2009 and July 2010.
Methodology: Potted acid soil experiments were carried out at the Maseno ICRAF/KEFRI centre (pH 4.8) and Chepkoilel campus farm, Moi University (pH 5.0) to assess the effect of varying aluminium concentrations on growth of three local leucaena provenances: K156 (Gede), K136 (Kibwezi) and KIT2724 (Kitale). Aluminium was applied at 0, 100, 200 and 300 μM. The number of leaves per seedling, seedling height, root length, root collar diameter and dry weight were recorded at 60 and 120 days after planting.
Results: Generally Aluminium at 100 μM significantly (p≤0.05) enhanced growth of the seedlings at both sites. However, aluminium at ≥ 200 μM reduced seedling growth.
Conclusion: The Leucaena provenance K156 could be used in acid soils because it is tolerant. However, more local provenances should be screened for acid tolerance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Establishment of Organogenesis Protocol for Genetic Modification of ‘Yellow Pitaya’ Selenicereus megalanthus (Cactaceae)

Zuraida Ab. Rahman, Ayu Nazreena Othman, Zainudin Meon, Aziz Ahmad, Suri Roowi, Arif Zaidi Jusoh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 102-108
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/16725

There is a need to improve the existing germplasm of yellow pitaya (Selenicereus megalanthus), particularly for fruit quality and traits. The genetic transformation requires organogenesis and shoot regeneration protocols. Therefore, the in vitro culture of the plant was successfully established from mature seeds. Results showed that 90% of the seeds were germinated. The plantlets require MS basalt medium for growth. MS added with 2 mg/L BAP (6-benzyldadenine) was suitable for organogenesis and production of explant for other purposes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Texture Influence on Soil Phosphorus Content and Distribution in Semiarid Pampean Grasslands

Liliana Suñer, Juan Alberto Galantini

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 109-120
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/16939

Soil texture can modify the content and dynamic of soil phosphorus (P). The objective of this work was to study the P form contents associated to physical fractionation of SOM in soils with different texture. Soil samples (0-0.15 m) were obtained from 27 sites with different texture in a twenty five years old pasture located in the Experimental Station of Bordenave, Argentina (63°01’20”W; 37°51’55”S). Soil particle size fractions were obtained by wet sieving separating the fine (0-100 µm) and coarse (100-2000 µm) fractions. Soil organic matter was determined in each fraction, mineral associated (MOM) and particulate organic matter (POM), respectively. Extractable (Pe), organic (Po), inorganic (Pi) and total extractable (Pt) phosphorus was determined and occluded P (Pocl) was calculated as the difference [Pt - (Po+Pi)] in the whole soil and the particles fractions. In these soils, texture determines P reserves and the equilibrium of its different forms. Available P forms (estimated by Pe) was related to the inorganic form present the fine fraction of the soil. Phosphorus content in its different forms is closely associated with soil fractions. Soils with higher content of fine fraction present the coarse fraction enriched in Po. All the studied P forms were higher in fine textured soils than in coarse ones, however, P forms in particle size fractions showed different tendencies. In coarse textured soils, Po in MOM was lower than fine textured ones. However, P content in MOM was richer and in POM was poorer than in fine textured soils. The available P, estimated with Pe content, comes predominantly from the inorganic pool and it is associated to the fine fraction of the soil. Phosphorus content in its different forms is closely associated with soil size fractions. It was proposed a conceptual model in wich size fractionation of SOM and P forms determination can be represented to a better understanding of soil P equilibriums.


Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Hybrid Maize, (Zea mays L.) to Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers in Soils of South-West and North-Central Nigeria

Ademiluyi Benson Oluwafemi, Fabiyi Esther Funsho

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 121-127
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/16806

Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield performance of maize (Zea mays L.) at the experimental site of Plant science Department, Faculty of science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti (7°40′ N, 5°15′ E) and the Teaching and Research Farm of Landmark University, Omu-Aran Kwara state (8°25′ N, 4°40′ E) in 2012 and 2014 cropping seasons respectively. The treatments were NPK 20-10-10 (200 kgha-1) at two weeks after planting (2WAP), Foliar NPK (2.5 lha-1) at two weeks after planting (2WAP), NPK at 2WAP+foliar NPK at 6WAP, Poultry manure (8 tonha-1) at planting + foliar NPK at 6WAP, Poultry manure at planting, and the control. Poultry manure at planting + foliar NPK at 6WAP produced the highest maize performance in terms of height, stem girth, leaf area, kernel yield and weight per 100 kernels. This performance was not significantly different from those obtained in the NPK (200 kgha-1) at 2WAP + foliar at 6WAP. The findings from this work further corroborate the usefulness of poultry manure in organic crop production. The improved performance of maize observed in the poultry manure or NPK that received additional foliar NPK application in this work shows the relevance of supplementary foliar fertilizer in addition to poultry manure or NPK on maize performance. The comparable yield obtained in poultry manure with NPK fertilizer also suggested that maize can be organically fertilized to produce high yield in these locations without Chemical fertilizer which could be harmful to our soils and human.


Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Poultry Droppings on Soil Chemical Properties and Performance of Rice (Oriza sativa L.) in Sokoto, Sudan Savanna Zone of Nigeria

M. Audu, M. Haliru, A. M. Isah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 128-135
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/15912

Proper management of poultry manure could serve as a sustainable source of fertilizer for increased rice production in Sokoto State of Nigeria. As a result, an experiment was conducted in a screen house at the Botanical Garden, Department of Biological Science, Sokoto State Polytechnic, to determine the influence of poultry dropping on some chemical properties of soil and performance of rice (Oriza sativa L.). The treatments consisted of three levels of poultry dropping: 2, 5 and 10tha-1 and a control (without fertilizer). The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design (CRD) replicated three times. Plant parameters like plant height, number of tillers and number of leaves were taken fortnightly until harvest at 16th week after planting (WAP). Grain and stalk yield were taken at harvest. The nutrient composition of the soil samples and poultry droppings used was determined using standard laboratory procedures. The result revealed that application of poultry manure had significant (P<0.05) effect on soil organic carbon, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, K, Na), CEC and rice performance in which application of 10 tha-1recorded the highest rice stalk and grain yield. This research therefore, concluded that application of poultry dropping is an important means of improving soil fertility and that, application of 10 tha-1 can bring about high growth performance and yield of rice in the study area.