Open Access Short communication

Effect of Lead on Marsilea minuta Linn. Under Hydroponic Conditions

M. S. Saranya, J. Shereena

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 140-149
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/16174

Soil heavy metal contamination is becoming a matter of great global concern. The extent of Lead (Pb) concentration which causes toxicity in lower vascular plants, pteridophytes, remains unclear. So the present study was carried out to investigate the extent of Pb accumulation with its impact on physiological and biochemical basis of heavy metal tolerance in Marsilea minuta Linn. Lead salt in lower concentrations (0 µM, 0.1 µM, 0.3 µM, 0.5 µM and 1.0 µM) was allowed to absorb by the plants for 12 days in hydroponic culture and a significant deterioration of the plant biomass was recorded. However, roots absorbed more metals than the leaves. Changes in leaf area, biomass allocation, chlorophyll content in leaf, total carbohydrate and protein content were monitored. Higher concentrations upto 1.0 µM reduced biomass and chlorophyll contents. A noticeable decrease in total protein content was noticed on early days of treatment followed by a sharp increase in 0.3 µM, 0.5 µM and 1.0 µM treatments. Total carbohydrate content were decreased, as compared to control condition, in 1.0 µM and increased in 0.5 µM treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Symbiotic Efficiency of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl and Acacia pycnantha Benth in Four Soil Types

Aboumerieme Imane, Ibijbijen Jamal, Nassiri Laila, Ismaili Mohammed

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 116-123
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/15760

The present study aims to evaluate the interaction between soil rhizobia and legume plant, by comparing two Acacia species (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl and Acacia pycnantha Benth) grown in four different Moroccan soils, by measuring plant dry matter yield, and nodule numbers and weights. Plants were harvested 9 month after seeding. We observed that Acacia cyanophylla Lindl nodulated in all the four soils. Plant nodule numbers and yield were significantly enhanced by native soil rhizobia. Acacia pycnantha Benth nodulated only in one type of soil. After nodulation and isolation of nodules, A. cyanophylla was nodulated by rhizobia strains. In this experiment, the statistical results revealed a significant correlation between the number of nodules per plant and plant height (r = .87, P <.05), these results show that adequate nodulation improves the establishment and the plant growth. We recommend using rhizobial biodiversity in arid and desert areas if the plants do not have the ability to establish a symbiosis with native rhizobia. Inoculation of Acacia seeds during the establishment in nurseries improves growth and N2 fixation. The symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria have been selected and conserved in Moroccan collection. These rhizobia may be used to inoculate wild, as well as, crop legumes, cultivated in reclaimed desert lands.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Performances of Rice Varieties at Different Transplanting Ages

Ranjan Dey, Mrityunjoy Biswas, M. N. Hossain Miah, Palash Mandal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 124-139
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/13371

A field experiment was carried out during the period from November 2012 to May 2013 in Agroecological Zone 20 (Eastern Surma-Kushiyara Floodplain) in Bangladesh to observe the varietal performances of high yielding and local varieties of Boro rice. Four varieties viz. BRRI dhan28, BRRI dhan 29, Khoiaboro and Begunbichi, and transplanting of three seedling ages viz. 15, 20 and 25-day-old were included as treatments in the experiment. The experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results revealed that BRRI dhan29 produced significantly highest grain yield (6.25 t ha-1) attributed by the higher number of effective tillers hill-1 (18.72), grains panicle-1 (121.09) and 1000-grain weight (22.38 g). BRRI dhan28 produced the second highest grain yield (5.37 t ha-1) while the local variety Begunbichi produced the lowest grain yield (2.26 t ha-1) in spite of its highest number of grains panicle-1 (163.92), because of its small sized grain (12.10 g 1000 grain-1). Total number of spikelets panicle-1, number of grains panicle-1, unfilled spikelets panicle-1, grain, straw and biological yield varied significantly but other characters like plant height, total number of tillers hill-1, number of effective tillers hill-1, number of non-effective tillers hill-1, length of panicle, 1000 grain weight and harvest index did not among different ages of seedlings. The highest grain yield of 4.49 t ha-1 was obtained from planting 25-day-old seedlings ascribed to higher number of grains panicle-1. Grain yield of 4.23 t ha-1 was obtained from planting 20-day-old seedlings which was statistically similar to that of planting 25 and 15-day-old seedlings. Interaction of variety and seedling age produced significant effect on days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, number of effective tillers hill-1, total number of spikelets panicle-1, number of grains panicle, number of unfilled spikelets panicle-1, 1000 grain weight, straw and biological yield. This indicates that all varieties require planting 25-day-old seedlings to obtain higher grain yield. Cost and return analysis showed that BRRI dhan29 gave maximum gross return, net return, and benefit cost ratio of US$ 1665.00 ha-1, US$ 699.28 ha-1 and 1.72, respectively with planting 25-day-old seedlings. In spite of lower yield of local variety Begunbichi, it gave higher net return and benefit cost ratio because of its higher selling price than BRRI dhan28 and local Khoiaboro varieties with the same 25-day-old seedlings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Stability of Newly Released Wheat Varieties in Multi-environments of Bangladesh

Md. Ashraful Alam, Zahidul Islam Sarker, Md. Farhad, Md. Abdul Hakim, Naresh Chandra Dev Barma, Md. Israil Hossain, Md. Mokhlesur Rahman, Rabiul Islam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 150-161
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14824

Varietal adaptability to environmental fluctuations is important for the stabilization of crop production on both region and season. In this context, one thousand six trials with four wheat varieties viz., BARI Gom 25, BARI Gom 26, BARI Gom 27 and BARI Gom 28 were conducted in forty districts of 8 agricultural regions in Bangladesh during 2013-14. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the mean yield performance and yield stability of the newly released varieties in different regions of the country in different environmental status. Yield of 4 varieties significantly varied among the locations. The highest mean yield was obtained from Rangpur region (4275.15 kg ha-1) followed by Jessore region (4266 kg ha-1). Yield of these two regions were statistically similar but significantly higher than other regions. In AMMI analysis, AMMI-1 biplot showed that Rangpur and Rajshahi were favorable environments; Sylhet and Comilla were unfavorable environments. Considering varieties, BARI Gom 26 and BARI Gom 25 were more stable and can be recommended for all environmental condition of Bangladesh. On the other hand, BARI Gom 27 was the most sensitive to changing  environments. In AMMI-2 biplot, Comilla, Sylhet and Dhaka were the most discriminating environments for all tested varieties, while BARI Gom 26 and BARI Gom 25 were  more stable varieties. The most suitable varieties for Rangpur, Rajshahi and Mymensingh was  BARI Gom 26; BARI Gom 25 for Sylhet; BARI Gom 27 for Comilla, Jessore and Barishal while  BARI Gom 28 was suitable for Dhaka. Among the varieties, BARI Gom 26 and BARI Gom 25 had higher mean grain yield values coupled with small positive IPCA 1 scores and hence these are recommended for all the locations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Residual Fertilizer Value of OBD-plus Compost for Maize (Zea mays) Production

O. E. AyanfeOluwa, O. O. AdeOluwa, V. O.Aduramigba-Modupe

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 162-167
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/15742

Ability of a fertilizer to contribute to crop performance beyond a cropping season is a positive consideration in soil fertility management. Thus, the residual fertilizer effects of OBD-plus (new commercial compost from market organic wastes and animal manure with composting accelerated with a specific microorganism) were investigated, using maize (Zea mays) as the test crop.

The field experiment replicated three times was conducted at the experimental site of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria. Experimental design was randomized complete block design with 5, 10 and 15 t/ha OBD-plus compost, mineral fertilizer (300 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15) and Control (no soil additive) as treatments. The different levels of compost were applied two weeks before planting while the mineral fertilizer was applied 2 weeks after planting. The treatment means were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared using standard error of means (SEM).

The results of this investigation on grain yield revealed that residual fertilizer effects of fertilizer treatments were in order of 10 t/ha OBD (35.02 kg/ha) >5 t/ha OBD (20.62 kg/ha)> NPK 15-15-15 (25.24 kg/ha)>Control (14.40 kg / ha).>15 t / ha OBD (11.20 kg/ha).Thus the result of this finding suggests that OBD-Plus at the rate of 10 t/ha could support maize production beyond a cropping season (i.e have residual effects) and this could save maize farmers’ money.

Open Access Original Research Article

Weed Population in Sweet Pepper Farms as Influenced by Land Preparation and Weeding Regime

M. D. Belel, M. S. Saidu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 168-182
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2015/14843

A field experiment was conducted during the 2008 and 2009 rainy seasons to determine the effects of land preparation and weeding regime on the type of weed population in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) farms. The experiments were laid out in a split plot design with land preparation methods (No tillage, plowed, plowed and harrowed, and Raised beds) assigned to the main plot and weeding regime (No weeding, weeded at 2 Weeks After Transplanting, weeded at 2 and 4 Weeks After Transplanting, and weeded at 2, 4 and 6 Weeks After Transplanting) were assigned to the subplots. Data were collected on days to weed emergence, weed count, weed weight and weed height. These were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) from, which means showing significant F- test were separated using Least Significance Difference (LSD). Dominant weeds specie was determined using the Relative Frequency (RF), Relative Density (RD) and the Sum Dominance Ratio (SDR) of the flora population. The results attained from the research showa significant (P<0.05) effect of weed weight in 2009. These understandings of weed in sweet pepper fields will help ameliorate dangers of weed damage in any production cycle through a carefully configured control measure. It was noticed that weeds such as Euphorbia hirta, Ipomeoa eriocarpa R., Paspalum conjugatum and Gomphrena celosioides Linn were found to grow throughout the production period while Kyllingia squamulata, Cyperus rotundus and Acanthospermum hispidum had higher occurrences with the sweet pepper in the study area.