Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Tissue Calcium Concentration of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit as Influenced by Calcium Source and Time of Application

N. M. Bitange, G. N. Chemining’wa, J. Ambuko, W. O. Owino

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i430112

The effect of varied calcium sources, applied at different times and rates, on the yield and calcium concentration of mango fruit were investigated. “Van Dyke” mango cultivar tree of 10 years old was sprayed with calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, easy gro and water (control).  The calcium sources were sprayed at the rates of 1%, 1.5% , 2% or 0% (control)  during  three different stages of fruit development i.e. fruit set, 30 days after fruit set and 30 days to physiological maturity. The experiment was carried out during 2017 and 2018 seasons at Karurumo, Embu County, Kenya. This orchard has been found to have low calcium levels. These experiments were laid in a completely randomized block designs with a split, split plot arrangement replicated three times. The results indicated that spraying with calcium significantly affected the weight, breadth, number and the total weight of fruits/tree. The concentration of calcium in the fruit flesh was also significantly increased by the application of calcium and a direct relationship between calcium concentration and yield attributes was reported. Calcium chloride (2.0%) sprayed at fruit set was the most effective in enhancing the fruit weight, breadth, number of fruits and the total weight of fruits. Application of calcium at fruit set was found to be the most effective in enhancing the yield. Further investigations need to be done to determine the effect of these calcium sources on the quality of fruits and the optimal rate as there was an increase in the yield with an increase in the rates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transfer and Accumulation of Some Heavy Metals in Native Vegetation Plants

Mashael M. Alsihany, Adel M. Ghoneim, Najat A. Bukhari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i430113

Phytoremediation procedure can be defined as the use of selected plants in order to eliminate some heavy metals from the soil, or wastewater in a cost-effective method. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr in soils and vegetation plants grown in Wadi Hanifa, Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Five sites have been chosen for collected plant samples (shoot and root) for one year, and five plant species have been chosen which distributed in the study area including Ziziphus spina-christi, Prosopis juliflora, Rhazya stricta, Ochradenus baccatus and Conocarpus erectus. Determination of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr has been done with ICP. Accumulation coefficient (AC), and translocation factor (TF) have been calculated to evaluate the ability of selected plants to extract the heavy metals from soil. The results indicated that Ziziphus spina-christi and Conocarpus erectus showed the high ability to accumulate the Pb and Zn in its root and shoot compared with other plants. The trend of heavy metal translocation factors for different plants was in the order of Cd > Cr > Pb > Cu > Zn. The accumulation coefficient (AC) of the Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr in the roots/soil of Ziziphus spina-christi, Prosopis juliflora, Rhazya stricta, Ochradenus baccatus and Conocarpus erectus were varied from 0.80 to 3.60. The order of AC in the shoot as follows: Pb > Cu > Zn > Cr > Cd, while in roots of as follows: Cd > Cr > Pb > Cr > Zn.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Artificial Detasseling and Defoliation on Maize Seed Production

Marcio Paulo Czepak, Marcio Kliemann, Omar Schmildt, Rubens Neres Araujo, Vinicius de Souza Oliveira, Lucas Moreira Borges Junior, Ana Gabriela Berger Zanala, Ana Gabriela Berger Zanala, Karina Tiemi Hassuda dos Santos, Jéssica Sayuri Hassuda Santos, Gleyce Pereira Santos, Edilson Romais Schmildt

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i430114

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of artificial detasseling and defoliation on the production of Pioneer 30F90 simple hybrid corn (Zea mays L.) seeds. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design, consisting of seven treatments (Control; detasseling; detasseling + defoliation of the top leaf; detasseling + defoliation of the two upper leaves; detasseling + defoliation of the three upper leaves; detasseling + defoliation of the upper four leaves; detasseling + defoliation of the upper five leaves), with 4 replicates. The plots were composed of 6 spaced rows of 0.90 cm by 6.00 m in length. At the time of the issue of 50% of the tassel were carried out the treatments. For the evaluations the two central lines of each plot were collected, eliminating 1.00 m from each end, totaling a useful area of 7.2 m². At harvest, the crop presented a final stand of 5 plants m² (50000 ha-1). According to the results obtained, it was concluded that the detasseling positively influenced the production components, due to the decrease of the auto-shading. The higher the level of defoliation, the lower the active photosynthetic area of the plant, and consequently the lower the productivity. The most affected production components in defoliation are grain numbers in the row, grain numbers in the ear and weight of 1000 grains. detasseling and defoliation do not interfere with the germination of corn seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Characterization of Blends Based on Milk and Catole Coconut Pulp

Joana D’arc P. Matos, Rossana Maria F. Figueirêdo, Luis Paulo F. R. Silva, Maria Suiane de Moraes, Semirames do N. Silva, Zanelli Russeley T. da Costa, José Alexandre de M. Queiroz, Larissa Monique de S. Rodrigues, Agdylannah F. Vieira

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i430117

Aims: Coconut catole is the fruit of the Syagrus cearenses palm tree, whose pulp is usually eaten in its natural form. The formulation of blends is intended to improve the acceptance of fruit with potential to be exploited. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics of the whole coconut pulp and the blends formulated with the pulp and milk.

Place and Duration of Study: The coconut catole (Syagrus cearensis) were collected in the surroundings of location 551'30 "S, 35º21'13 "O, in Rio Grande do Norte. The work was carried out from January to February 2019.

Methodology: The formulations were elaborated by mixing the proportions of 30 and 50% of standardized commercial milk with the whole catole coconut pulp. The products were submitted to the analysis of moisture, water activity (aw), titratable total acidity (TTA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TTA ratio, pH, ascorbic acid, ash, lipids, proteins, color (L*, a*, b*), total sugars, reducers and non-reducers.

Results: From the results, it was observed that the addition of milk to the pulp resulted in clear samples and that a higher proportion of the milk statistically influenced the results.

Conclusion: The mixture of couscous coconut pulp and milk gave the product better nutritional characteristics, especially protein content and lipid reduction. The addition of the milk to the cocoa pulp influenced the results statistically, showing that the addition of the milk contributed to enhance the pulp.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emission of CO2 and Organic Carbon Content in Different Pasture Management Systems

Déborah Hoffmam Crause, Edney Leandro da Vitória, Carla da Penha Simon, Élcio das Graça Lacerda, Tatiana Fiorotti Rodrigues, Yago Soares Avancini, Juliana Menegassi Valle, Joyce Lopes dos Santos

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i430118

Inadequate soil management is one of the primary causes of pasture degradation, aggravated by the replacement of natural forest environments with cultivated pastures. Thus, the objective of the present study was to quantify the flux of CO2 and organic carbon of the soil in grasslands undergoing intensive and extensive management, and in a native forest. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with three treatments: intensive management system (IMS), extensive management system (EMS), and native vegetation (NV). The collected soil variables consisted of CO2 flux, organic carbon, temperature, and humidity. The CO2 flux quantification was obtained using LI-COR 8100-A equipment, chamber model 103. Carbon determination was performed according to EMBRAPA methodology, and soil temperature and humidity were plotted using a model 5TM Decagon Devices® sensor. The respective mean CO2 flux values for the IMS, EMS, and NV were 2.18; 4.04, and 1.69 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, and the values ​​found for organic carbon content were 32.9; 24.3, and 14.9 g kg-1, respectively. The intensive management system exhibited higher CO2 flux from the soil to the atmosphere, and the soil containing native vegetation displayed greater values of organic carbon content.