Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Yield and Yield Components of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Varieties in Lemu Bilbilo District of Arsi Zone, Southeastern Ethiopia

Gobena Negasa, Bobe Bedadi, Tolera Abera

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i330106

Faba bean production is a common practice in Lemu Bilbilo areas. However, faba bean productivity is affected and limited by poor soil fertility and lack of alternative technologies such as application of optimum phosphorus fertilizer for different faba bean varieties. In view of this, a field experiment was conducted on farmer’s field during the 2017 main cropping season at Lemu Bilbilo with the objectives to determine the response of faba bean varieties to different rates of P fertilizer and its influence on yield and yield components of faba bean varieties.  The treatments include three faba bean varieties (Tumsa, Gebelcho and Dosha) and five phosphorus levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg P ha-1) from Triple Super Phosphate. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete blocked design with 3 x 5 factorial arrangements with three replications. Significantly (P<0 .05) higher plant height was recorded from Tumsa variety. Total productive tillers per plant, thousand seed weights, and harvest index and biomass yield of faba bean were significantly affected by main effect of varieties. Higher total productive tillers per plant (1.53) were obtained from application of 30 kg P ha-1. Higher plant height (153 cm), biomass yield (14158 kg ha-1) and grain yield (6323 kg ha-1) were obtained from application of 40 kg P ha-1. Application of 10, 20 and 30 kg P ha-1 gave marginal rate of return of 1404694 and 502% for faba bean production, which are well above the minimum acceptable rate of return. Therefore, application of 20 kg ha-1 of P with Tumsa, Gebelcho and Dosha faba bean varieties were proved to be productive and superior both in seed yield as well as economic advantage and recommended for faba bean production in Lemu Bilbilo area. Further study should be conducted in the future both over locations and years in order to give full recommendation for practical application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Single Leaf Area of Acacia mangium Willd

Vinicius de Souza Oliveira, Jean Karlos Barros Galote, Ivani Vieira Damaceno, Natália de Souza Furtado, Karina Tiemi Hassuda dos Santos, Jéssica Sayuri Hassuda Santos, Gleyce Pereira Santos, Hérica Chisté, Omar Schmildt, Marcio Paulo Czepak, Sara Dousseau Arantes, Edney Leandro da Vitória, Edilson Romais Schmildt

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i330107

The objective of this study was to determine the best equation for estimating the leaf area of ​​Acacia mangium Willd. from the linear dimensions of the leaflets of non-destructive form. For this, 476 leaflets of plants belonging to Lajeado farm were collected in the municipality of Ecoporanga, in the north of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. From each leaflet was determined the length (L) along the main midrib, the largest width (W), the product of the multiplication between the length and the width (LW) the observed leaf area (OLA). For the modeling, we used 382 leaflets in which OLA was the dependent variable in function of L, W or LW as independent variable, being adjusted the linear models of first degree, quadratic and power. For the validation, the values ​​of L, W and LW of 94 leaflets were replaced in the equations obtained in the modeling thus obtaining the estimated leaf area (ELA). The means of ELA and OLA were compared by Student's t test at 5% probability. . It was also determined the mean absolute error (MAE), the root mean square error (RMSE) and Willmott's index d. In order to select the best equation, the following criteria were used: : not significant of the comparison of the means of ELA and OLA, values ​​of MAE and RMSE with closer to zero and index d closer to one. The power model equation represented by is the most adequate to predict the leaf area of ​​Acacia mangium Willd. quickly and non-destructively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Initial Development of Clonal Seedlings of Coffea canephora Submitted to Different Irrigation Depth

André Lucas Reboli Pagoto, Vinicius de Souza Oliveira

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i330108

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation depth on initial development of Coffea canephora seedlings. The study was carried out at the farm Perobas, in the municipality of Rio Bananal, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments, comprising different depths of irrigation, being: 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 mm dia-1. At 55 days after planting the seedlings were evaluated for characteristics:stem diameter, plant height, dry mass of aerial part and dry mass of the root system. The stem diameter and dry mass of the root system presented an inverse behavior to the increase of the irrigation depth. The plant height and dry mass of aerial part presented an increasing effect in relation to the variation of the irrigation depth. The 5 mm dia-1 irrigation depth provides the best result for development in the initial stages of the root system of the seedlings, while the irrigation depth of 15 mm dia-1 favored a greater accumulation of dry mass of aerial part of the seedlings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Crop Establishment Methods and Weed Management Practices on Productivity and Profitability of Rice-Wheat System in Indo Gangetic Plains

H. S. Ravi Kumar, Udai Pratap Singh, Shiv Prakash Singh, Yashwant Singh, Uppu Sai Sravan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i330109

Declining productivity of rice-wheat system in Indo–Gangetic Plains poses risk to conventional practices because of high production cost and low input use efficiency. Four crop establishment methods (CEM) and four weed management practices (WMP) were compared in a 2–year study to determine the productivity and profitability of rice-wheat system. Growth, yield traits and yields of rice was uninfluenced by CEM. Zero tillage rice (ZTR)–zero tillage wheat (ZTW) exhibited highest improvement in mean wheat yield, system productivity and profitability by 7.5%, 4.0% and 16.0%, respectively over conventional tillage rice (CTR)–conventional tillage wheat (CTW). CTR–ZTW recorded minimum total weed density and biomass in system. Post emergence application of bispyribac 25 g ha-1 + azimsulfuron 35 g ha-1 (bis + azim) in rice at 20 days after sowing (DAS)/days after transplanting (DAT); clodinofop 60 g ha-1 + carfentrazone 20 g ha-1 (clod + carf) in wheat at 30–35 DAS minimized total weed density and biomass, increased growth, productivity and profitability of the system. Results suggest that higher growth, productivity and profitability of rice–wheat system may be achieved by adoption of ZTR–ZTW with application of bis + azim in rice and clod + carf in wheat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Available Sulfur in Some Soils of South Chad Irrigation Project Area, Lake Chad Basin, Borno State, Nigeria

Goni Makinta, Adam Lawan Ngala, Mohammed Kyari Sandabe

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i330111

Aims: A field study was carried out to evaluate the content and distribution of available sulfur in soils underlain by the Chad Formation under the South Chad Irrigation Project area, Borno State.

Study Design: Purposive sampling technique was employed based on homogeneity in general surface features especially vegetation, topography and morphology.

Place and Duration of Study: The study site includes the clay plains of the Lake Chad Basin where the South Chad Irrigation Project is located. The study was carried out in 2016.

Methodology: Seven profile pits were sunk at selected locations across the study areas and samples collected in each pedogenic horizons of the profiles. Surface and sub-surface samples were also collected for physico-chemical analyses using standard procedures. The available sulfur was determined turbidimetrically after extracting with calcium phosphate solution.

Results: Textural classes were generally clayey with islands of sandy loam. The soil reaction ranged from moderately acid to slightly alkaline. The percentage organic matter content was generally low, being higher in clay than sandy soil texture.  The available sulfur content was low with a range of 2.0 to 6.9 mg/kg. The distribution of available S content decreased with depth. The results also indicated that available P in profile P6 is positively correlated (r = 0.989**) with the available sulfur content. There was little or no correlation between the available sulfur and soil pH in all the profiles, except profile P1 (r = 0.531*). Significant negative correlation between organic matter content and the available sulfur in profiles P1 (r = -0.817**), P5 (r = -0.527*) and P7 (r = -0.989**) were observed. Significant negative correlation (r = -0.562*) was also observed between available sulfur and clay content in profile P1. The significant negative correlation of available sulfur with clay and organic matter could be due to adsorptive properties of clay and organic matter fractions.

Conclusion: The soils were observed to be deficient in available sulfur. The low available sulfur status of the soils indicated that supplemental application of sulfur containing fertilizer and manure would be required for maximum cereals and vegetable crop production in the study area.