Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Inter-relatedness of Agronomic Traits of Single Cross Hybrid Maize in Contrasting Soil Nitrogen-nutritional Conditions

Dotun Joseph Ogunniyan, Samuel A. Olakojo, David K. Ojo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i430147

Background: Lowering the nitrogen demand is the most cost effective and sustainable option to increase grain yield of maize in poor fertility soil.

Aim: This study was conducted to estimate the variability and inter-traits’ association of white and yellow hybrid maize in soil nitrogen-nutritional stress and optimal conditions.

Materials and Methods: 150 white and 66 yellow single cross hybrid maize were evaluated in contrasting soil (stress and optimal) N conditions in Ibadan in 2014 and 2015. The trial for the white maize was laid out in 19 × 8 lattice design while the yellow maize was experimented in randomized complete block design. Each trial was replicated three times. Data were collected on days to anthesis (DTA), days to silking (DTS), plant height (PH), ear height (EH), anthesis-silking-interval (ASI) and grain yield (GY) were estimated while leaf senescence (LS), plant aspect (PASP) and ear aspect (EASP) were scored. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance while variances and broad sense heritability were calculated and rated.

Results: Greater variability existed among white maize than the yellow maize for the traits. Inheritance of the traits can be predicted in optimal N than stress condition. Additive genes action was responsible for inheritance of DTA and DTS while both additive and non-additive control the GY, PH, EH and LS of the white maize in both N conditions. For yellow maize, the DTA and DTS were controlled by additive genes action in both N conditions. The GY, ASI, PH, EH and LS were governed by both additive and non-additive genes actions in N stress condition. Additive genes action is responsible for inheritance of PH and EH while both additive and non-additive actions govern inheritance of GY, ASI and LS in optimal condition. The GY had positive relationship with the DTA, DTS and LS in both N conditions for the white maize while the GY positively correlated with PH, EH and LS in N stress, but with ASI only in optimal condition for the yellow maize.

Conclusion: Grain yield, flowering, height and leaf senescence can be used in selecting maize for nitrogen-use-efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different Nutritional and Soil Sources Fertilizers on the Early Growth of Moringa oleifera (Lam)

M. O. Ojo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i430148

In any plantation establishment programme there should be adequate number of healthy seedlings and this depends on the nutrition and care given to them at the nursery stage. Pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of Moringa oleifera (Lam) seedlings to different soil and nutritional sources at nursery stage. One hundred seeds were obtained from Centre for Environmental Renewable Resources Research and Development (CENRAD) Ibadan, Nigeria and sown in germination trays. Seed germination was completed between 10-15 days, 36 uniformly growing seedlings were transplanted into polythene pots of size 29×25 cm and were filled  with different soil sources at 500 gm (arable) soil, forest reserve soil and natural forest mixed with nutritional sources of the same ratio (10 gm) i.e. poultry manure, cow dung and N.P.K 15.15.15.  The experiment was factorial arranged in a completely randomized design. Result showed that  pots with natural forest soil mixed with 10 gm N.P.K (s3f3) produced seedlings with highest value In plant height (76.30 cm), stem diameter (3.47 mm) and number of branches (10.00) which was significantly different (p< 0.01) from the other treatments. The least value in plant height (30.70 cm) stem diameter (1.50 mm) and number of branches (3.3) were recorded in pots with forest reserve soil mixed with cow dung (s2f2). Interaction effect of soil and nutritional sources were significant for all the growth parameters assessed (p<0.01). Results showed that Natural forest soils treated with N.P.K 15.15.15 could be employed in raising Moringa oleifera seedlings at nursery stage for optimum performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rationalization of Water Consumption for Taro Plant through the Rationing of Irrigation and Expand the Plant Ability to Resist Stress Conditions

M. M. M. Abd El-Aal, A. M. A. El-Anany, S. M. Rizk

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i430149

A field experiments were conducted at Horticulture Research Station, El-Kanater El-Khiria, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Egypt during 2016 and 2017 seasons to investigate the effect of different irrigation water levels i.e.,100, 75 and 50% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and foliar application with some stimulant substances i.e., proline at 150 mgl-1, potassium silicate at 2500 mgl-1 and putrescine at 10 mgl-1 as well as mulching treatments i.e., black polyethylene plastic, rice straw and sawdust mulches individually or in combination of treatments on vegetative growth characteristics, some bioconstituents, total yield and its components of taro plant under drip irrigation system and results interpreted. The results showed that that increasing water stress level from 75% to 50% of Etc decreased gradually all studied growth characteristics of taro plant (plant height, leaves number plant-1, lamina dry weight plant-1 and leaf area (cm2) plant-1 in the two seasons. In addition, increasing irrigation water stress resulted in decreasing of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) content in taro leaves. Moreover, the increase in water shortage is regularly increased the proline content and antioxidant enzymes activity i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in taro leaves compared to the full irrigation level (100% of ETc). Furthermore, different estimated yield characteristics of taro plant i.e., main corm length (cm), main corm diameter (cm), corms number plant-1, corms fresh weight (kg) plant-1, main corm fresh weight (g), corms fresh weight (kg) plot-1, corms fresh yield (ton) fed.-1 and corm dry matter % as well as taro corm bioconstituents of N, P, K, crude protein and starch contents decreased by reducing irrigation water levels. In this respect, water stress level at 50% of ETc recorded the highest reductions in different estimated characteristics compared to 75% of ETc level and unstressed plant (100% of ETc).

Regarding, the effect of foliar application with stimulant substances and mulching treatments, proline at 150 mgl-1 followed by potassium silicate at 2500 mgl-1 and putrescine at 10 mgl-1 as well as black polyethylene plastic mulch were the most effective treatments, respectively.

As for the effect of interaction, the results showed that all the interactions between irrigation water levels and foliar spray with the stimulant materials as well as mulching treatments increased different estimated traits of taro plant i.e., vegetative growth characteristics, bioconstituents, yield and its components as well as water use efficiency compared to the control. In this respect, foliar spray with proline at 150 mgl-1 was the most superior treatment followed by putrescine at 10 mgl-1 and potassium silicate at 2500 mgl-1 under water stress levels i.e., 75 and 50% of ETc when compared with the untreated plants during 2016 and 2017 seasons.

In general, it could be noticed that the applied stimulant substances i.e., proline, putrescine, potassium silicate and black plastic mulch treatments could partially reduce the harmful effects of drought stress on growth, bioconstituents, corms yield and its quality of taro plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation of Growth and Yield of Boro Rice Influenced by Transplanting Method and Gypsum Rate in the Salinity Affected Area of Noakhali in Bangladesh

S. M. A. Alim, M. A. Kader, M. A. Islam, S. Akram, M. A. Rouf, M. S. Rana

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i430150

Field experiment was carried out in Moddhochar Jabbar of Noakhali, Bangladesh during Boro season (December-April) 2018 to investigate the ameliorative effect of application of gypsum and transplanting method on the yield of BRRI dhan28 (V1) and BINAdhan-10 (V2)under salinity stress. The experiment comprised 3 factors; Transplanting method, Variety and Gypsum. This variety was evaluated under two transplanting methods i.e., Furrow transplanting (T1) and Conventional transplanting (T2) and four levels of gypsum with control G0: control, G1: 50 kg ha-1,G2: 100 kg ha-1 and G3: 150 kg ha-1 .The experiment was laid out in a Latin Square Design (LSD) with three replications. Salinity level had significant negative effect on plant characters and yield of rice.  Gypsum (@ 150 kg/ha) exerted positive significant effect on most of the plant parameters except number of non-effective tillers. Furrow transplanting method (T1) had positive significant effect on most of the plant parameters except panicle length and harvest index. Binadhan-10 shows better performance than BRRI dhan28 in case of yield and all yield contributing characters in the prevailing condition. The highest grain yield (6.63 t ha-1) found from T1V2G3 (combination of furrow transplanting method, Binadhan-10 and gypsum @ 150 kg/ha) and lowest (4.26 t ha-1) inT2V1G0 (combination of conventional transplanting method, BRRI dhan28 and gypsum @ 0 kg ha-1). It was calculated that the straw yield highest (8.14 t ha-1) in T1V2G2 (combination of furrow transplanting method, Binadhan-10 and gypsum @ 100 kg/ha) and lowest (5.61 t ha-1) in T2V1G0 (combination of conventional transplanting method, BRRI dhan28 and gypsum @ 0 kg/ha).

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Dry Cocoa Bean Shell Ash and NPK 15:15:15 for Improvement of Soil Fertility and Maize Yield on a Degraded Humid Tropical Alfisol, Southwestern Nigeria

Michael Rotimi Olojugba, David Boluwaji Oguntoyinbo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i430151

The application of dry cocoa bean shell ash (DCBSA) and NPK 15:15:15 for the improvement of soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) was studied on an Alfisol South Western Nigeria, located at Joseph Ayo Babalola University Ikeji-Arakeji, Ilesa Osun State, Nigeria Teaching and Research Farm from April to July 2017 and from August to November 2016. Four treatments of dry cocoa bean shell ash (DCBSA) at 5 tonsha-1, NPK 15:15:15 at 300 kgha-1, dry cocoa bean shell ash (DCBSA) at 2.5 tonsha-1, mixed NPK 15:15:15 at 150 kgha-1 and control (C) were used in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared by the use of Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) at 5% significance level. The study showed that dry cocoa bean shell ash (DCBSA) used alone can serve as a suitable alternative to inorganic fertilizer in the south western Nigeria, Especially, DCBSA has higher organic carbon than NPK dry cocoa bean shell ash (DCBSA) at 5 t ha-1, NPK 15:15:15 at 300 kg ha-1, dry cocoa bean shell ash (DCBSA) at 2.5 t ha-1, mixed NPK 15:15:15 at 150 kg ha-1 produced higher values for plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll, plant diameter, cob length, cob diameter and grain yield against the control that recorded the lowest value. Also. DCBSA improves soil pH as well as increases minerals such as Ca, Mg, Na and in particular, made available phosphorous due to its increment on soil pH. pH increased fro 5.3 to 7.8 DCBSA, N levels in the soil increased from 0.06g kg-1 to 2.61g kg-1 (DCBSA) and 2.10 g kg-1 (DCBTA + NPK). Organic carbon (OC) increased from 0.07 g kg-1 to 2.87g kg-1 DCBSA plot.  P level decreased from 3.7 mg dm-3 to 1.09 mg dm-3 (DCBSA) and 1.81 mg dm-3 (NPK) and 1.42 mg dm-3 (DCBSA + NPK)  which was an indication of P availability to crop during growing season.  Maize grain yield increased from 0.77 tonsha-1 in the control plot to 1.25 t ha-1 in DCBSA plot, 1.22 t ha-1 a in NPK plot and 1.26 t ha-1. in DCBSA + NPK plot.   The study recommends an application rate of 5 t ha-1 of dry cocoa shell ash (DCBSA) alone or 2.5 t ha-1 combination each of (DCBSA + NPK) for maize yield and fertility improvement on this type of soil in this agro - ecology.