Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Anadenanthera colubrina Seedlings Subjected to Different Doses of Coconut Powder and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal for Rehabilitation of Mining Areas

Milton Marques Fernandes, Ronaldo Fernandes Pereira, Fernanda Maria Matos da Silva, Renison Neponuceno de Araujo Filho, Dayane de Souza Lima, Victor Casimiro Piscoya, Mocyr Cunha Filho

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i630225

The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of angico [Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan] seedlings produced with different doses of coconut powder and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in nursery and mining degraded area in the state of Sergipe (Brazil). The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with the following proportions of mineral substrate and coconut powder, with and without AMF. Angico growth was evaluated in nursery after 150 days, and height and diameter were evaluated. Later the seedlings were planted in a degraded area by sand and gravel mining and after 120 days of planting the height, diameter and survival rate were measured. In the nursery phase, the addition of coconut powder promoted a reduction in height and diameter of angico seedlings. Inoculation with AMF significantly increased the height and diameter of Anadenanthera colubrina seedlings in the nursery. However, the field phase results show that the addition of coconut powder to the substrate promotes better development in height and diameter of Anadenanthera colubrina seedlings in the mining degraded area. The conjugation of a low proportion of coconut powder with the inoculation of AMF on Anadenanthera colubrina seedlings resulted in higher survival in the planting of degraded area by mining.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Nitrogen Rates on Morphological Development of Upland Rice Varieties in Mwea, Kirinyaga County, Kenya

Sammy Kingei Kagito, Esther W. Gikonyoi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i630226

Rice is the third most important cereal in consumption after maize and wheat in Kenya. It has been grown as a commercial food crop under irrigated and rain fed ecologies. Low soil Nitrogen (N) fertility is a major constraint to upland rice production in smallholder farmers mostly under rain fed agriculture. This study evaluated the morphological development of upland rice varieties as influenced by different N fertilizer treatments. A field study was carried out at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization experimental farm in Kirinyaga County for two seasons. The experiment was laid down as a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in split-plot arrangement in three replications. The main plot factors were the five upland rice genotypes, MWUR1, MWUR4, NERICA4, NERICA10 and IRAT109, while the subplots factors were the four N rates, 0, 26, 52 and 78 kg N ha-1. In addition calcium ammonium nitrate (26% N) was top-dressed in two equal splits at 21 and 45 days after sowing. Data on plant growth parameters was collected at fortnight interval. The analysis of variance revealed significant (p < 0.05) variation on plant height and tiller numbers due to N rates. However, there was no significant variation in plant height and tiller numbers due to variety. In addition, shoot and root dry weight and leaf area were significantly different due to variety and N rates in both seasons. Finally root dry weight was not significantly different due to variety and N-rates in the two seasons. The current study has shown that increase in nitrogen level lead to significant increase in plant height, tiller numbers, shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The study recommends the use of N fertilizers for rice cultivation to increase N supply in the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Wheat Cultivars by CART Analysis

Ummey Shapla, M. Hasanuzzaman, Md. Omar Kayess

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i630227

This experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh to develop biometrical methods based on some morphological traits for characterization of the selected wheat varieties. Among the selected wheat varieties BARI Gom 26 requires comparatively fewer days and BARI Gom 27 requires more days for 50% heading than other varieties. The BARI Gom 28, BARI Gom 29 and BARI Gom 30 are comparatively short (< 90 cm) whereas others are medium-sized (> 90 cm) plants. BARI Gom 27 has narrow flag leaf than others. BARI Gom 28 show short spike length while BARI Gom 22, BARI Gom 26 and BARI Gom 30 show nearly a similar length of the spike. The BARI Gom 25 is large-sized in length and breadth but the grain of BARI GOM 27 is comparatively small sized. BARI Gom 22, BARI Gom 23, BARI Gom 24, BARI Gom 25 and BARI Gom 26 are classified which have <7.5 mm length of the grain. The 1000 grain weight of BARI Gom 24 is more than other wheat varieties and comparatively less in BARI Gom 22 and BARI Gom 27. BARI Gom 24 can be identified with the height of >90 cm, breath of flag leaf is >1.2 cm, spike length is >10 cm and yield per plant is >20.196 g. Based on these variations, a classification and regression tree (CART) has been developed to identify the wheat variety easily and quickly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mineralogical Composition and Bioactive Molecules in the Pulp and Seed of Patauá (Oenocarpus bataua Mart.): A Palm from the Amazon

S. A. M. Saravia, I. F. Montero, B. M. Linhares, R. A. Santos, J. A. F. Marcia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i630228

The Patauá (Oenocarpus bataua Mart.) also known as Bataua or Patuá, is a palm native from the Amazon, consumed among the local populations as well as the wine obtained from its pulp with high energy value. It is a monocle palm tree reaching between 4-26 meters tall, distributed in the Amazon rainforest both in the wet forest of floodplains. The objective of this work was to study the proximal, mineralogical composition, as well as the total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of pulp and seed of Patauá. As for mineral composition, the high concentrations of sodium for the seed (84.21 mg 100 g-1) and pulp (71.21 mg 100 g-1), as well as magnesium values of 48.31 mg 100 g-1 for the seed and 41.23 mg 100 g-1 for the pulp. Among the micronutrients, the high concentration of iron in the pulp is 1.84 mg 100 g-1 for the pulps, and the manganese was 1.10 mg 100 g-1 for the seeds. The total phenolic compounds found in the seeds were relatively higher than for the pulps with values of 356.12 ± 0.12 mg GAEq g-1 and 321.03 ± 0.43 mg GAEq g-1, as well as the more significant antioxidant activity for the seeds than for the pulp. Carotenoids concentration in the seeds found of 2.52 ± 0.04 mg mL-1 and vitamin C concentrations were also quantified in trace concentrations, presenting the fruits of Patauá high biotechnological interest in the food and cosmetic industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agroeconomic Aspects of Project Implementation of Intensive Fruit Farming

Besim Salkić, Edin Ramić, Ensar Salkić, Emina Mešinović, Adela Mujić

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i630229

Aim: The aim of this paper is to determine agroeconomic effects of intensifying the cultivation of fruits and the introduction of new technologies in fruit production.

Methods: The project involved 150 farmers. The implementation of the projects took three years. Throughout the project, continuous theoretical training was provided in the form of lectures and presentations, as well as practical training of individuals and groups of 15-20 farmers.

Results: Gradacac area (Bosnia and Herzegovina) has favorable conditions for intensive cultivation of canopy fruit. In addition to the favorable agro-environmental conditions and many unemployed people as well as the tradition of fruit cultivation, they encouraged the Lutheran World Federation -LWF to implement project of intensive fruit farming. The economy of canopy fruit production is conditioned by many factors: the choice of variety, rootstock, training system and location, moreover the intensity of application of agro and pomotechnical treatments, production costs and market price. Intensive fruit production has its specific features and large investments, but as a result it can be said that it is economically viable. The project organized for the first time in this area continuous education and long-term monitoring, introduced new grounds, a new training system and maintaining orchards.

Conclusion: It is very important to note that for the Municipality of Gradacac the inflow of funds of over BAM 2 million is enabled every year during the period of full fruiting.