Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Different Moisture Stress Tolerant Rice Varieties in Kalahandi District of Odisha

H. N. Malik, A. Panda, S. Behera, F. H. Rahman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i730299

Plant growth and productivity of rice is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. Water deficit is one of the major abiotic stresses, which affects crop growth and yield. Majority of rice cultivated areas in south Asia is under rainfed, where water stress at any stages of growth causes sharp decline in yield. The present study was carried out through front line demonstration under a ‘National Innovation in Climate Resilient Agriculture’ (NICRA) project during kharif seasons of 2018 and 2019 in two villages namely Pipalpada and Kinipadar of Kalahandi district of Odisha with an objective to evaluate the performance of short duration rice varieties viz. Swarna Shreya, Sahabhagidhan, DRR-42 and Naveen as compared to the farmers variety (MTU-1010). Swarna Shreya matured in 115 days and recorded higher plant height (126.83 cm), effective tillers/hill (19.33), length of panicle (28.50 cm), number of panicle/m2 (305.0), filled grains/panicle (128.72) and 1000 grain weight (25.51 g) over other varieties. This variety also produced the highest grain yield of 4.16 t ha-1 with harvest index of 0.56 and total dry matter of 538.10 /m2. The Swarn Shreya produced higher net return of Rs. 41,975/ha with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.20 and additional net return of Rs. 9735/ha as compared to farmers’ variety. The growth and yield performance of Swarna Shreya was found to be satisfactory in spite of occurrence of frequent dry spells during different crop growth stages. Thus, the existing variety, MTU-1010, may be replaced with Swarna Shreya for more productivity, income tolerant during moisture stress conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis Studies on Grain Yield and Its Contributing Characters in Maize (Zea mays L.)

O. P. Taiwo, A. I. Nwonuala, Foby I. B., D. O. Olawamide, I. K. Agbugba

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 7-13
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i730300

In crop breeding, the selection for yield is made complex because of the quantitative and polygenic nature of the character. This study was undertaken to assess character association and show the contribution of various yield contributing characters in some maize varieties through the help of correlation and path coefficient analyses in order to identify appropriate plant characters for selection to improve maize grain yield. Seventeen maize varieties were sown in a randomized complete block design with three replications in a humid environment of Port Harcourt, Nigeria in 2018 under rainfed condition. Data were recorded for days to 50% anthesis, days to 50% silking, anthesis-silking interval, plant height (cm) and ear height (cm), number of plants per plot, number of plants harvested, number of ears harvested, moisture content (%), field weight (kg), and grain yield (t ha-1). Results showed number of plants per plot, number of plants harvested, number of ears harvested and field weight correlated positively and significantly both phenotypically and genotypically with grain yield. Path coefficient analysis at the genotypic level also revealed field weight and days to 50% anthesis as the characters exerting the highest positive direct effect on grain yield. Therefore, maize grain yield could be improved through indirect selection for these characters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Anthropic and Topographic Factors on the Physicochemical Properties of the Soil around Temporary Pools in Ferlo, North Senegal

Ndiabou Faye, Mariama Dalanda Diallo, Jean Luc Peiry, Aly Diallo, Aliou Guisse

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 26-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i730302

The temporary ponds at Ferlo constitute wetlands whose pastoral activity is of paramount importance in the economy of Senegal. These zones are characterized by a fairly specific microclimate (soft and humid), a shallow depth of the water table, alternating phases of submersion and exudation whose functioning is linked to the soil. Thus the restoration and conservation of these wetlands requires a good knowledge of the soil factors.

The objective of this study is to compare the physico-chemical parameters of the soil around temporary pools in grazed and ungrazed areas and different topographical units in order to determine their relative similarities.

The samples taken at different horizons from seven soil pits (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7) opened in the different morpho-pedological facies of two grazed ponds and one ungrazed pond were analyzed in the laboratory.

The results obtained show that the soils of Ferlo have a sandy texture and low fertility in the slopes and plateaus. However, they have a balanced texture and average fertility in ponds and ungrazed areas. The factorial analysis made it possible to highlight three distinct soil classes. A class of sandy texture soil with very low chemical fertility comes from the plateau. A class of soil with a balanced texture which is rich in cation and calcium exchange capacity found in the low zones of strong mineralization. A last class rich in chemical element with a silty texture which is found in wooded areas.

These results thus reveal the predominant influence of anthropic and topographic factors on the evolution and physico-chemical composition of the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Drip Fertigation System for Aerobic Rice in Western Zone of Tamil Nadu

S. K. Natarajan, V. K. Duraisamy, G. Thiyagarajan, M. Manikandan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i730303

The productivity of rice is in decreasing trend due to non-availability of irrigation water. Hence, rice cultivation with minimum water which paves way for the research on aerobic rice (i.e., growing in the non-flooded and non-puddled situation). Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Bhavanisagar during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to evaluate the drip fertigation system and to work out the economics in aerobic rice at different irrigation and nitrogen levels. The treatments included four irrigation levels (irrigation at 100%, 125%, 150% PE daily and conventional irrigation at IW/CPE = 1.25) with a combination of three fertigation levels (100,150 and 200 kg N ha-1) of nitrogen. The experiment was laid in split plot design replicated thrice. The test variety is PMK 3, with a duration of 130-135 days. Entire quantity of phosphorus and 50 per cent of potassium was applied basally. Different doses of nitrogen and remaining 50 per cent of potassium was applied as fertigation in weekly intervals from 21 days after sowing. Irrigation was given daily basis with daily Pan Evaporation rate. Concerning different irrigation levels, 150 per cent PE on daily basis recorded significantly higher grain yield (5069 kg ha-1), WUE (7.37 kg/ha mm) and net income of Rs. 33607 ha-1 and B:C ratio of 1.88. For nitrogen levels, 150 kg N per ha recorded significantly higher grain yield (4146 kg ha-1), WUE (6.69 kg/ha mm) and net income of Rs. 20464 ha-1 and B:C ratio of 1.53. For aerobic rice, the irrigation at 150 per cent PE on daily basis combined with 150 kg N per ha recorded significantly higher grain (5483 kg ha-1), WUE (8.18 kg/ha mm) and higher net income of Rs. 39448 ha-1 and B:C ratio of 2.03.

Open Access Original Research Article

Different Fertilizer Packages has Positive Effect on the Yield Performance of Cauliflower and Tomato in the Upland and Hill Valley

Md. Zonayet, Alok Kumar Paul, Mostak Ahmed

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i730305

The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of different fertilizer packages on the yield performance of cauliflower and tomato in the upland and hill valley. Influences of different fertilizer packages on yields and fruit quality of cauliflower and tomato were compared during 2015 to 2017 growing periods under field conditions. The experiments were conducted in two hill district of Bangladesh (CHTs) i.e Bandarban and Khagrachari under the AEZ 29 (Northern and Eastern Hills Tract). In this experiments Cauliflower and Tomato in the upland hill valley soil were used as the test crop. The experiment was designed on Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with three replication. The treatments consider as Cauliflower: *T1= Farmers Practice, T2= N100P50K90 S18 Zn2.3 B0.5 kg/ha, Cowdung 5 ton/ha, T3= 125% of T2 and T4= 150% of T2. Tomato: *T1= Control, T2= N100P50K90 S18 Zn2.3 B0.5 kg/ha, Cowdung 5 ton/ha & lime 1.5 t/ha, T3= 125% of T2 and T4= 150% of T2. In khagrachari, the highest yield of cauliflower (44.98, 59.07 and 45.67 t/ha) and in Bandarban site (57.98, 53.47 and 55.66 t/ha) was recorded with T4 treatment that received 150% of T2 while the lowest yield was observed with T1 treatment receiving no fertilizer. In case of tomato, the highest yield (59.72, 55.73 and 36.07 t/ha) in Khagrachari site and in Bandarban site (56.43, 58.33 and 59.64 t/ha) was recorded with T4 treatment that received 150% of T2while the lowest yield was observed with T1 treatment receiving no fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Heavy Metals’ Contamination of Soils and Vegetable from Farmlands on Selected Floodplains in Akure and Environs, Nigeria

Ademola Aiyesanmi, Precious Chukwunenye, Johnson Odukoya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 76-86
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i730308

Aim: Among other absorption pathways, heavy metals affect human health via their introduction into the diet through the soil-food chain. This study was carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metals in soils and plant’s part of Amaranthus hybridus from five farmlands on floodplains in Akure and environs.

Study Design: Soil and A. hybridus samples were obtained from five farmlands for the assessment of their heavy metals’ content and pollution levels.

Place and Duration of Study: The study (six months’ duration) was conducted at the Department of Chemistry, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: The assessment involved the use of standard methods of analyses and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Mathematical expressions were employed for estimating the bioconcentration factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and pollution load index. Statistical difference of the results was evaluated using One-Way Analysis of Variance.

Results: The experimental results revealed that the farmlands’ soils belong to four textural classes in which their heavy metals’ contents are all below the maximum allowable concentrations provided in the considered regulatory guidelines for soil. Evaluation of the geoaccumulation index showed that concentration of all heavy metals in the soils are not enriched above the baseline  concentration as most of the soils belong to Class 0 (uncontaminated category). Pollution load index estimated from the contamination factors also indicated no overall pollution of the farmlands. Uptake of the studied heavy metals by A. hybridus was at varied levels while vegetable samples from Ogbese farmland had the highest bioconcentration factor for copper, nickel and chromium.

Conclusion: Although most of the farmland soils have satisfactory physicochemical properties and present safe level of the studied heavy metals, the research revealed the need for cultivation of vegetables which are extremely poor bioaccumulators of heavy metals in these farmlands.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protein Content of Brachiaria ruziziensis (Poaceae) under the Direct and Residual Effects of Fertilization with Hen Droppings

Gilles Jiope Azangue, Fernand Tendonkeng, Victor François Nguetsop, David Fokom Wauffo, Etienne Tedonkeng Pamo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 96-105
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i730309

Aim: A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Farm (REF) of the University of Dschang between March 2015 and December 2016, and then at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences. The objective of this study was to evaluate the direct and residual effects of fertilization with hen droppings on the protein content of Brachiaria ruziziensis at different phenological stages.

Methodology: A factorial design comprising five levels of fertilization in terms of nitrogen in the form of hen droppings (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg N/ha), and three phenological stages of cutting (bolting, flowering and after seed set) on 6 m2 plots (3 m x 2 m) in four replicates, i.e. a total of 60 experimental plots was used. Fertilization with hen droppings was done one month after the stump chips were grown in the first year of cultivation (direct effects). In the second year of cultivation (residual effects), no fertilization was applied. The total nitrogen content of the plant samples was determined by the Kjeldhal method and the crude protein contents were obtained by multiplying the nitrogen contents by the forage-specific coefficient of 6.25.

Results: This study showed that protein contents obtained under the direct effect were significantly higher than those obtained under the residual effect of fertilization. Fertilization at 100 kg N/ha resulted in the highest protein contents under direct and residual fertilization.

Conclusion: In view of the results obtained, fertilization with hen droppings at a dose of 100 kg N/ha would be recommended for the cultivation of B. ruziziensis in order to limit mineral fertilizer inputs and improve its protein content.

Open Access Review Article

Hyperspectral Spectroscopic Study of Soil Properties- A Review

Chandan Goswami, Naorem Janaki Singh, Bijoy Krishna Handique

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 14-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i730301

Soil analysis is required for efficient use of inputs viz. seeds, fertilizers, irrigation water and other agricultural planning. However, there are several disadvantages of soil analysis such as they are time consuming, expensive and labour intensive. Many approaches are developed to overcome these difficulties. Hyperspectral spectroscopy is emerging as a promising tool for studying soil, water and vegetation. Therefore, an attempt has been made to review the scope of using hyperspectral reflectance spectroscopy for estimation of soil properties as an alternative to traditional laboratory soil analysis methods.

Spectral signature of soil can be used for fast and non destructive estimation of soil properties. Diffuse reflectance in 350-2500 nm range of electromagnetic spectra forms the basis of hyperspectral spectroscopy. An object is characterized by the characteristic absorptions and peaks in the electromagnetic spectra. A number of calibration techniques are applied for establishing relationship between reflectance spectra and soil properties. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) are most commonly used techniques.

MLR, PCR and PLSR are also used for prediction of several soil properties such as pH, soil organic carbon content, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum, sand silt, clay and soil moisture. Some commonly used spectral indices are also applied for prediction of soil properties. Some of the soil physical properties viz. sand, silt and clay as well as chemical properties viz. pH and organic carbon could be estimated with good to very good prediction using pure spectra of soil. However, contrasting results of prediction of soil properties using multivariate analysis techniques have also been reported. The content of this review article will be helpful for researchers who are working on alternate methods of estimation of soil properties.

Open Access Review Article

The Synergistic Effects of Humic Substances and Biofertilizers on Plant Development and Microbial Activity: A Review

Jose Franco Da Cunha Leme Filho, Wade E. Thomason, Gregory K. Evanylo, Xunzhong Zhang, Michael S. Strickland, Bee K. Chim, Andre A. Diatta

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 56-75
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i730306

Agroecosystem and ecological cycling loops are open when considering the reutilization of inputs applied in farming areas. Non-renewable resources have been transformed or relocated from the air, water and land into the system and are flowing out as wastes rather than reusable, recyclable resources. This current environmental situation is promoting the development of methods able to optimize nutrient cycling, minimize use of external inputs, and maximize input use efficiency. Some humic products are derived from lignin found in wheat straw and biofertilizers as compost and manure teas can be made using residues. Also, these biostimulants might decrease the necessity of synthetic inputs. This review strives to enhance our understanding of the conjunctive use of humic substances (HS) and biofertilizers. The biostimulant effects of each of these compounds are shown in the literature. Thus, our review question is whether the combined application of HS and biofertilizers can promote synergy between both compounds and potentially more efficacy. The effects promoted by using HS plus biofertilizers on plants and microorganisms are very interconnected, so sometimes these effects can be confounded. For instance, the root elongation promoted by HS might increase hyphal fungi colonization. Therefore, this review as divided in three sections: Responses of plants, fungi and bacteria. The findings indicate that the source and application rate of HS will have a strong impact on whether plant growth and microbial activity significantly improved. The microbial species and plant type also influence the response to HS. The prospects of the conjunctive use of and biofertilizers to stimulate plant development and microbial activity in agricultural systems are theoretically substantial when considering the total number of studies included in this review.

Open Access Review Article

Management Strategies of Forest Plant Diseases: A Review

A. O. Ogunsiji, T. O. Ibrahim, F. A. Odusanya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 87-95
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i730307

Forest serves as source of timber, fodder, fuel and forest produce to human along with conservation of soil and water, provision of food and shelter to wildlife and also adding to the aesthetic value and recreational need of human. A major injury to nursery seedlings is caused by pests (insects, mites, diseases and weeds) which has detrimental effect on the seedlings during nursery production by reducing plant growth and quality. Plant diseases are caused by insects, fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses and phytoplasmas. However, it is important to know the kind of diseases present in the nursery and the detrimental impact they cause on tree production. Basically, to reduce the risk of pest infestation (insects, mites, weeds, diseases) in the nursery it is important to first of all know the source of diseases in or around the nursery. Seedling production plays an important role in keeping the forest productive, it is therefore important that these disease causing organisms are carefully eradicated from the nursery through proper management strategies. In forest nurseries, different types of diseases such as damping off, root rot, powdery mildew, leaf curl, wilt, canker and rust among others could be found. Therefore, this review emphasizes on the causes and effective ways of managing and eradicating diseases in forest nursery.