Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Volatile Compounds in Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix) Leaves Grown in Soilless Substrate Analyzed Using Electronic Nose

Ramasamy Ravi, Steven Kennedy, Dharma Pitchay

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i930321

Objective: The key objective of this research is to investigate the aroma profle of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) leaves grown under greenhouse and peatlite soilless substrate conditions using the electronic nose system.

Methodology: Fresh Citrus hystrix samples of recently matured (RML) and old (OL) leaves were analyzed using electronic nose. A total of 79 volatiles were identified and those equivalent to 90% were reported.

Results: The RML and OL leaves had similar volatiles such as Citronellal, N-Nonanal, Myrcene, Pentyl Octanoate and γ-Terpinene with no significant difference in the concentration. Citronellal was the major volatile found more than 20% in both recently matured and old leaves. Recently matured and old leaves also had dissimilar volatiles such as 5-Propyldihydro-2(3H)-Furanone(32.9%), β-Pinene (7.6%), Terpinen-4-ol (2.4%), 1-Hexanol (1.3%) and (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol-Acetate (1.0%) were only found in the recently matured leaves, whereas 1-Nonanol (30.8%), 3-Methyl Butanoic Acid(4.6%), p-Methyl Acetophenone (1.5%), Trans-Hex-2-Enyl Acetate (1.4%) and Methyl Eugenol (1.1%) were detected only in OL.

Conclusion: The results are very useful in food and cosmetics industries to develop innovative products based on kaffirlime leaves/oil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Stress Alter Leaf Hydric Status and Flower Bud Development in Apricot cv. “Royal”

H. Ramírez, A. I. Melendres- Alvarez, A. Zermeño- González, D. Jasso- Cantú, J. A. Villarreal- Quintanilla

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i930322

Aims: The apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), is a drought-sensitive deciduous fruit. This concept arises from the fact that soil moisture stress can: Decrease the number and quality of flower buds differentiated; delay the time of flower differentiation and decrease the number of flower buds per shoot. The objectives of this investigation were to determine: The extent to which drought influences water status in the leaves; its effect on flower buds development and on bloom in apricot cv. “Royal”.

Study Design: Trees were divided into 6 groups of six replicate each under a random block design. Results were analyzed using the statistical program 'RStudio' for Windows version 10 and data obtained subjected to a comparison of means with the Tukey (P≤0.05) test.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Department of Horticulture in Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Mexico, during 2018-2019.

Methodology: Seven-year-old apricot trees growing in containers were subjected to a 4 to 5week period of water stress at different times during the growing season. Leaf water potential was periodically measured and flower bud development was followed from early differentiation up to full bloom.

Results: Leaf water potential in water stressed trees was constantly low. Water stress early in the season induced a delay in bud development during late summer and fall. Water stress late in the season did not appreciably affect the rate of bud development. Full bloom was delayed when water stress was applied in late summer and fall. Water stress at flower bud initiation and differentiation, together with high temperatures, may have induced flowers with double pistils. Water stress from April through October did not induce flower drop.

Conclusion: Soil water stress severely affect leaf water potential; delays flower bud development and may induce flowers with double pistils without flower drop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring Yield Potential of Pigeonpea and Soybean Intercropping Systems in NEHZ

Lowrence Kithan, Malini B. Sharma, Akumla Longchar, Tinatoly Sema, Kavi Sumi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i930324

A field study was conducted on yield potential of Pigeonpea and Soybean intercropping systems at the experimental farm of School of Agriculural Sciences and Rural Development (SASRD) on AICRP on Pigeonpea Nagaland University Medziphema Campus under rainfed conditions during 2016 and 2017. The treatment comprised of different row ratios of Pigeonpea and Soybean i.e 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 2:2 respectively with sole Pigeonpea and Soybean. The variety used for Pigeonpea was UPAS 120 and for Soybean was JS-9752 respectively. The experiment was laid in RBD with 3 Replications and 6 Treatments. Sole Pigeonpea performed better with respect to growth and yield. Among the different intercropping systems paired rows (2:2) ratios of Pigeonpea and Soybean performed significantly better in terms of yield (1025.64 Kg/ha) which was at par with (2:1) row ratios. As for economics paired row (2:2) ratios of Pigeonpea and Soybean proved superior to all other treatments in LER (1.89), Net return (Rs 86877/ha), Gross return (Rs 133177.8/ha) and Pigeonpea Equivalent yield (876.9 Kg/ha) which was at par with (1:2) row ratios of Pigeonpea and Soybean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Soil Fertility Status in a Cereal Based Cropping System at Outer Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh

Gazala Nazir, V. K. Sharma, . Anjali, Deepika Suri

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i930325

Soil fertility management plays a key role in sustaining different production systems. Present investigation aimed at determining available nutrient status in cultivated soils under maize-wheat and paddy-wheat cropping sequences in outer Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh. Based on the standard GPS based soil sampling methodology, composite surface soil samples (0-15 cm) from 38 and 15 representative sites were collected from soils under maize-wheat and paddy-wheat cropping sequences, respectively. Six to eight cores of surface soils were collected from croplands to make one composite sample in 2016 & 2017. Out of 38 (maize-wheat) sites, 24 and 14 sites represent the cultivated Entisols and Inceptisols. Similarly, under paddy-wheat, 8 and 7 sites represent Entisols and Inceptisols. The results of the investigation revealed that soils were medium in available N & K, low in available P & S, high in available Ca & Mg, sufficient in available Cu, Fe & Mn and deficient to sufficient in available Zn and B. Inceptisols had higher value of all the nutrients as compared to Entisols. The available nutrient status viz., N, P, S, Zn and B were deficient to the extent of 26, 42, 57, 40 and 42 per cent, respectively. The overall evaluation of the study area revealed very high variation on the fertility status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Fertility Assessment of Semiarid Soils from Nigeria Cropped to Sorghum

Nasiru M. Danmowa, Peter Nkedi- Kizza, Kelly T. Morgan, Kamal Mahmoud

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 36-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i930326

The aim of this study is to characterize the fertility status of the Dingyadi soils from semiarid Northern Nigeria, by using different methods of extraction to assess the potential for soil available macro and micronutrients to the sorghum crop. The study also compared concentrations of extractable nutrients between extractants for ascertaining the possibility of using one method to quantify a variety of plant-available nutrients in soils. Surface (0-15 cm) and sub-surface (15-30 cm) soil samples were collected along a topo-sequence at Dingyadi Sokoto-Nigeria, where sorghum had been grown, to characterize the soil chemical and physical properties that can influence soil fertility for sorghum production. The topo-sequence consisted of valley floor (TLL1), middle (TUP2), and crest (TUP3) positions of the slope. At each position 60 concentrations of each plant nutrient were used for the comparisons.Soil extraction for nutrients was carried out at the Environmental Soil Physics laboratory, Soil and Water Sciences Department, University of Florida, while analysis of aliquots for the elements was carried out at the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, Florida. The study was carried out over a period of eight months, in 2016-2017. Soil samples were extracted using different extraction methods (Mehlich-3, Bray-1, Ammonium acetate, and DI-Water). A soil to solution ratio of 1:1 was used across all extraction methods to facilitate comparison between methods. However, a test was carried out to examine the effect of soil to solution ratio of (1:10) on extractable macro nutrients using Mehlich3 for randomly selected soil samples across the topo-sequence. Soil samples were also analyzed for texture, pH, organic matter, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). All soil soils were sandy, low in organic matter content, and CEC.With respect to sorghum production, the soils had adequate nutrients (Mg, Ca, K, and P) and soil pH. All soil samples contained no exchangeable K. Mehlich3 extracted higher available P than Bray1 in TLL1, but equal amounts in TUP2 and TUP3. Good correlations exist between extracting methods for macro nutrients (Mg, Ca, K, and P). Bray1 method used for available P is not suitable for soils that have pH greater than 7 determined in water. Mehlich3 is more suitable for the semiarid soils of Northern Nigeria that are acidic or alkaline. The Mehlich3 method should be calibrated with yield response of crops to substitute for Bray1 available phosphorus. Also, Mehlich3 method could be used for the multi-nutrient test with a good correlation with other methods like ammonium acetate for exchangeable bases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Graded Levels of Sulphur on Growth and Yield Attributes of Two Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Varieties at Two Different Soil Sulphur Status

L. Venkatakrishnan, M. R. Backiyavathy, S. Meena, T. Kalaiselvi, D. Amirtham

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 65-71
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i930328

Field experiment was conducted at farmer’s field in Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu with two different soil sulphur status i.e., soil with sufficient and deficient levels of sulphur status in order to study the response of graded doses of sulphur on two different sesamum varieties. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with two factors viz., Two sesamum varieties (TMV 7 - Black var., SVPR 1 - White var.) and Six sulphur levels (0, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 kg S ha-1). Application of 30 and 50 kg S ha-1 at sulphur sufficient and sulphur deficient soils has increased the plant height at VS and FS, at harvest the highest plant height was recorded. Whereas, other important traits like number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, length of capsule and dry matter accumulation has registered the highest response for sulphur application at 30 kg ha-1 which was on par with higher doses in sulphur sufficient soil and in case of deficient soil significant response was observed till 50 kg S ha-1. Among the two varieties, TMV 7 has performed better when compared with SVPR 1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Supply of Compost and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi for Enhancing Quality of Ceiba pentandra (Kapok Tree) Seedlings

B. L. A. Anguiby, E. L. Bomisso, K. S. B. N’goran, S. Ake

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 72-85
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i930329

The success of reforestation depends on the production of quality seedlings in nurseries. Initial fertilization and mycorrhization are determinants that improve the growth of plants. The purpose of this study was to improve the quality of Ceiba pentandra seedlings using fertilization and mycorhization in nurseries. Seedlings of C. pentandra were subjected to various treatments (T1: Sterilized forest soil (100 %), T2: 90 % T1 + sterilized mycorrhizal inoculum (10 %); T3: 90 % T1 + mycorrhizal inoculum (10 %); T4: 90 % T1 + compost (10 %); T5: 80 % T1 + mycorrhizal inoculum (10 %) + compost (10 %)). The results showed an increase of 117.35 % in the dry stem weight of young Ceiba pentandra mycorrhizae (T3) seedlings compared to non-mycorrhizae (T2) seedlings. Growth parameters, roots, total leaf area were better with the treatment combining mycorrhization and compost application. Furthermore, the sturdiness quotient was identical for all substrates. Seedlings of Ceiba pentandra are highly dependent on mycorrhization. For rapid production of quality seedlings, fertilization could be coupled with mycorrhization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana lamk.) Varieties under Two Irrigation Scheduling of Saline Water in Central Gujarat Conditions in India

L. M. Patil, S. R. Gomkale, S. S. Roy, J. R. Mori, V. K. Kauthale

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 86-92
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i930332

The field experimentation was carried out at Instructional Farm, BAIF Development Research Foundation, Nanodara of Ahmadabad district during 2014 to 2018 with an objective to evaluate the response of the two ber varieties (Seb and Gola) to number of irrigations on the growth and yield of ber crop. It was also intended to understand effect of saline irrigation water on soil status as irrigation water of the study location is slightly saline in nature. The study was conducted in Split Plot Design with six replications. Treatments consisted of two irrigation schedule; normal irrigation at 15 days interval and life saving irrigation at 30 days interval and two varieties (Seb and Gola). Soil and irrigation water of the study location was analyzed using standard procedures for initial and yearly status, respectively.  Two ways ANOVA was carried out using R Studio Statistics Rx 64 software. Significance levels were tested at p≤0.05. The highest plant height (326.87 cm), girth size (60.75 cm), number of secondary branches per plant (7.24), dry leaf biomass per plant (3.96 kg), dry shoot weight per plant (16.65) as well as fruits per plant (337.58), fruit weight (56.96 g), fruit yield per plant (19.43 kg) and fruit yield per ha (5400 kg) were increased significantly with normal irrigation treatment (irrigations at 15 days interval) which was significantly superior over life saving irrigation. In case of varieties, all the parameters of the growth and yield of the crop were maximum for Gola variety compared to Seb. The pH, EC and SAR were comparatively lower in soil under life saving than normal irrigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Arsenic Mitigation Approach in Soil by Some Indigenous Sources of Biochar Made at Low Pyrolysis Temperature

N. Ferdousi, S. M. Imamul Huq

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 93-108
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i930330

Biochar is being reported now a-days to potentially reduce the bioavailability of arsenic (As). A pot culture and an in vitro incubation study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of biochar produced from different sources (viz., cow dung, poultry manure and sewage sludge) at low temperature (250ºC) on the phytoavailability of As. An experimental setup containing two sets of treatments (As and no-As) were followed. Biochar was applied at the rate of 5t/ha to the soils that received As treatment at a rate of 1mg/L As (80% arsenite and 20% arsenate). After 45 days of growth of Kalmi (Ipomoea aquatica), plant and soil samples were analyzed. Biochar insignificantly increased plant growth.  Biochar was observed to be more effective in alleviating As accumulation in plant than the biomass. The incubation study was done for 0, 15, 30 and 45 days to diagnose the temporal sorption of water soluble As by biochars. All the biochar materials reduced As availability than their corresponding biomass materials. Measurement of different physical (e.g. surface area, morphology, elemental composition), chemical (CEC, nutrient content, As) and physicochemical (pH) properties of the biochar showed that through pyrolysis process nitrogen(N), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P) content and pH of the biomass decreased and on the other hand potassium (K), As content and CEC increased. Slow pyrolysis process and variation in biomass material influenced the properties and behavior of biochar. Among the biochars, sewage sludge biochar showed the maximum and cowdAsung showed the minimum sorption capacity for As. Due to the threat of As to health and environment, this topic requires more consideration.  Moreover, covering all the above issues, this study identifies research gaps in the use of biochar as an adsorbent for As and proposes potential areas for future application of biochar.

Open Access Review Article

Risk Assessment of Selenium and Boron Pollutants in Environment

Mohammad M. Almutari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 47-64
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i930327

According to the literature, there are increasingly more scientific data regarding the environmental pollution of selenium(Se) and the boron(B). The purpose of this review is to give an overview of environmental pollutants for Se andB and the use of plants to alleviate worldwide problems associated with Se and B toxicity. Selenium is an essential element for many species, plant, as well as humans, but it is toxic at higher levels. Boron is relatively soluble in water and commonly causes environmental problems, especially for surface waters where most of the discarded B will end up. Using phytoremediation plants can address this problem. To prevent Se and B toxicity due to excess environmental Se or B, plants may be used to phytoremediate to take up Se and B from soil or water. Research in the past decades had provided a riches ofknowledge regarding the mechanisms by which plants uptake, metabolize, and accumulate Se or B.  Moreover, environment studies have revealed the important effects for plantsuptake of Se or B and interactions with herbivores, pollinators, neighbouring vegetation.