Open Access Short Research Article

Impact of Auxins on Rooting and Establishment of Seedless Lemon (Citrus limonL. Burm.) Air-layers for Successful Propagation

Shubham Singh Rathour, K. S. Tomar, . Poonam, Shubham Bhadoriya, R. S. Katoriya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i830453

Study Design:  Randomized Block Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, RVSKVV, Gwalior, MP between 2018 - 2019.

Methodology:In 2018-19 the study conducted amidst rainy season and Gird agro-climatic context of Madhya Pradesh to evaluate the effect of phytohormones on rooting and establishment of seedless lemon air layers. Experiment consisting nine treatments replicated three times under Randomized Block Design. Treatments comprising of two plant hormones namely IBA and NAA each with four concentration levels i.e. 1250, 2500, 3750 and 5000ppm including control. Plants age were seven years.

Results:The results revealed maximal rooting percentage (92.00), number of primary roots (22.72) and secondary roots (49.97), length of primary roots (5.05 cm) and secondary roots (2.25 cm), diameter of primary roots (1.68 mm) and secondary roots (0.84 mm) and dry weight of roots (2.32g) and planted air-layers (89.21 %) were recorded with application of IBA @ 5000ppm.

Conclusion:Indole-3-butyric acid performed better than naphthalene acetic acid for promoting rooting and establishment in seedless lemon air-layers. Application of IBA @ 5000ppm significantly increased rooting characters followed by NAA @5000ppm for better establishment of Lemon air layers for its propagation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Pathogenicity of Symbiotic Bacteria of Entomopathogenic Nematodes against the Larvae of Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura F. (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae)

S. Adithya, M. K. Shivaprakash

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i830452

The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous pest with attacking almost 290 host plants species globally causing a wide range of yield losses to the agricultural crops. In this investigation symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against larvae of S. litura under lab conditions. The intact cell suspension and cell-free extract were screened for their bacterial pathogenicity and the results showed mortality of larvae after 24h of post treatment. The percent mortality treated with intact cell suspension was significantly higher in larvae treated with EPB3 strain with 90% which was on par with the reference strain Bacillus thuringiensis after 72h of post treatment. There is no significant difference among the larval mortality treated with cell-free supernatant. The virulence test was carried out to find out the LD50 and LT50 against the larvae and the results showed that EPB3 and B. thuringiensis required 104 CFU for 50% lethality of larvae with a media lethal time of 24h and 22h, respectively when treated with cell suspension. In case of larvae treated with cell-free extract, LD50 value with 105-106 CFU with a median lethal time ranging from 33-45h. The results showed that the isolates EPB3 (Xenorhabdus nematophilus) is comparatively more virulent than other Photorhabdus isolates against the test insect S. litura. Further these symbiotic bacteria can be screened for their biocontrol efficiency under greenhouse and field conditions and can be developed as potential biopesticides against the insect pests.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Gibberellins and Cytokinins in Saladette Tomato Seeds

H. Ramírez, M. C. Castillo-Robles, A. I. Melendres-Alvarez, U. A. Macías Castillo, A. Zermeño-González, D. Jasso-Cantú, J. A. Villarreal-Quintanilla

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i830454

Aims: Tomato (SolanumlycopersicumL.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide, mainly as a result of its economic and nutritive contribution to human society. The presence of endogenous gibberellins and cytokinins in seeds of several crops has been related to a good germination; however, little is known in tomato. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and identify the presence of gibberellins and cytokinins in saladette tomato seeds.

Study Design: Laboratory analysis for gibberellins and cytokinins were conducted in solvent solutions groups with three technical replicates using a complete randomized design and results when applicable were analyzed using the statistical program 'RStudio' (version 10) and data obtained subjected to a comparison of means with the Tukey (P≤0.05) test.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Department of Horticulture in Universidad AutónomaAgraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Mexico, during 2020-2021.

Methodology: Lots of 50 grams dry weight of saladette “SVTE8832” tomato seed samples were freeze dried and prepared with several organic solvents for the extraction, purification and identification of gibberellins and cytokinins using the techniques of gas chromatography mass spectrometry(GC-MS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry with selection ion monitoring(GCMS-SIM) respectively.

Results: Gibberellins A1, A4, A7, A9, A12, A15, A17, A20, A44 and A53 were found in tomato seed tissue. The cytokininszeatin and zeatin-ribozide were also detected in analyzed tomato samples.

Conclusion:The endogenous gibberellins A1, A4, A7, A9, A12, A15, A17, A20, A44, A53 and the cytokininszeatin and zeatin-riboside are present in saladette“SVTE8832” tomato seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Sowing Window for Summer Fodder Sorghum Cultivars by Thermo Radiation Requirements Under Southern Agroclimatic Zone of Andhra Pradesh in India

K. Saimaheswari, T. Prathima, D. Subramanyam, P. Latha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 29-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i830455

Field experiment was conducted during summerseason,2018 on sandy loam soils of dryland farm of S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University to study radiation use efficiency of fodder sorghum crop. The experiment was in four times of sowing viz., I FN of January, II FN of January, I FN of February and II FN of February with three fodder sorghum varieties viz., CSV 21 F, CSV 30 F and CSV 32 F. Efficiency of thermal and radiation energy conversion into dry biomass was computed using thermal and radiation indices.Results obtained during study revealed that early planting of crop CSV 32 F resulted in higher thermal use efficiency and radiation use efficiencies with higher fodder yield compared to delayed sowings. The correlation studies between RUE and TUE to LAI, dry matter accumulation and green fodder yield showed at significant positive linear relationship. The regression coefficients between meteorological indices viz., RUE and TUE and crop parameters viz., LAI, dry matter production, green fodder yieldwere significantly influenced by varieties at varied times of sowing. Conversion efficiency of radiation and thermal energy to accumulation of dry matter varied much with times of sowing and varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Isolate on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Mortality under Different Concentrations in Kenya

Mellon Kabole, Dora Kilalo, Maina Muiru, Danny Coyne

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 36-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i830456

Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is a major field-to-store post-harvest pest of in the tropics and worldwide.  They cause weight loss, decreased germination potential and reduction in commercial and aesthetic value as a result of physical contamination of grain by insects, eggs and excrement, decreased nutritional value. Entomopathogenic fungi have been employed in control of a number of storage pests. Nine B. bassiana isolates were evaluated for effectiveness in controlling C. maculatus in cowpea grain under controlled laboratory conditions. Mortality of the bruchids was evaluated stepwise where the most effective isolate concentrations against C. maculatus were assessed. Initial assessment involved determination of the most effective concentration among the isolates following dilution. The most effective isolate concentrations were then doubled and halved to identify the most effective dose rate. The isolates showed significant differences on the mortality of cowpea bruchids at the different concentrations. The halved rate from the most effective rate with BBC recording 85% and 76.7 % cumulative mortality at day 3 during the first and second season respectively.  Isolate J35 had 98.2% mortality at 5 days after application during the first season and 88.3% during the second season, which was only lower to the formulated isolates BBC and BVT. At the optimal dose rate experiment, isolate J57 presented the highest cumulative mortality (25.5%) at 14 days after application while J59 recorded the lowest cumulative mortality at 11.8% at the same time. The combination of isolate J39 and RI showed the highest cumulative mortality of 40.4% and 44.4% during the first and second season respectively. Results obtained from this study support the importance of exploring the use of B. bassiana in control of C. maculatus during storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation Analysis for Leaf Pubescence, Leaf Micro-macro Nutrient Content and MYMV Disease Index in Blackgramgenotypes (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper)

B. Rajitha, V. Rajarajeswari, P. Sudhakar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 47-54
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i830457

The present field study was conducted to characterize the blackgram genotypes based on morpho and nutrient content under yellow mosaic virus disease infection. The present investigation was carried out with ten blackgram genotypes (5 known tolerant + 5 known susceptible) in Randomized Block Design (RBD) during summer 2018. Experimental crop was affected by yellow mosaic virus (YMV) naturally at 30 DAS. No management practices were taken for controlling of whitefly population during crop season. Correlation studies were done at 50 DAS which helps to find out the most resistant and most susceptible genotypes among ten backgram genotypes based on leaf pubescence and nutrient content in leaf. Leaf pubescence is one of the most important resistant factors in a number of crops and Minerals, apart from being a vital part of the plant nutrition, may manifest certain maladies in the plants either through disturbing normal metabolism and physiology of the plants or by favouring or by discouraging the plant pathogens, if in excess or otherwise deficient.

Correlation analysis of present field investigation revealed that blackgram genotypes showed strong negative correlation for leaf pubescence, leaf Phosphorous (P) and leaf potassium (K) content with percentage disease index (PDI%) as well as strong positive correlation for leaf Nitrogen (N), leaf Iron (Fe) and leaf Zinc (Zn) content under YMV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organo-nitrogen Fertilization on N-uptake and Growth Yield of Potatoes using 15N

Ahmed Moursy, M. M. Ismail

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 55-61
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i830459

Fertilization is an important and limiting factor for growth and tuber production of potatoes crop because plants non adsorption amounts of nutrients from the soil. Data obtained the tea compost spray or tea compost fertigation single or mixed with mineral-N. Resulted in grand mean the highest tuber yield of potatoes tea compost methods, the value of tuber yield value (42.34 tan ha -1) which relatively increased by about 15.68%, 11.31% over the untreated addition compost to soil and tea compost fertigation.Also data show that grand mean the highest shoot dry weight of potatoes foliar compost tea methods, the value of tuber yield value (4.79 tan ha -1) which relatively increased by about 41.54%,24.43% over the untreated addition compost to soil and tea compost fertigation. Also data show under methods, fertigaion compost tea, with treatment 50% compost tea+ 50% mineral –N  seems to be the best ones in nitrogen  uptake by tuber potato plant (131.24 kg ha-1). the compost tea fertigation, % Ndff, Ndfcompost in tuber  was much higher for tea compost fertigation (57.74 kg ha-1) ,(56.62 kg ha -1 )than for compost tea foliar methods  (50.21 kg ha-1),(51.84 kg ha-1)  and compost  addition to soil  (33.02 kg ha-1) , (27.82 kg ha-1) respectively . The percentage nitrogen use efficiency (%NUE) by tuber ranged from %9.17 to %16.27 due to (MA1)+R2 and 100 % MF , respectively.