Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sources, Split and Foliar Application of KCl and KClO3 on Availability and Uptake of Phosphorus in Aerobic Rice

P. Anji Babu, K. Omar Hattab, L. Aruna, R. Mohan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1030467

Aim: To investigate the effect of KCl and KClO3 as sources of potassium in aerobic rice with four types of split doses and two levels of foliar applications of potassium.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal, Puducherry.

Methodology : The rice variety PMK 4 was tested with two sources of potassium viz., Potassium chloride (KCl) and Potassium chlorate (KClO3), four types of split application viz., K control (S1), basal with no split (S2), two splits (S3) and three splits (S4) along with foliar application treatments viz., no foliar (F1) and foliar spray (F2).

Results: The results of a field experiment revealed that the two splits of potassium increased the available P at the active tillering stage and harvest stage. Whereas, three splits increased the available P at panicle imitation and flowering stage. The KCl recorded higher available P at panicle initiation and harvest stages. The high phosphorus uptake was recorded in panicle initiation and flowering stages by three splits application of potassium. In grain also, especially the three splits through KClO3 recorded higher P uptake.

Conclusion: The split applications tested in this investigation influenced the available phosphorus status in soil and phosphorus uptake. Increase in splits of potassium increased the P uptake. This result is in agreement with the results of Mitra et al. [1] who observed a significant increase in the uptake of N, P, K and S by increased level of K in Kharif rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Dynamics of Pratylenchus brachyurus in Maize Treated with Inorganic Fertilizer

Ayoola Abiodun Adesuyi, Adedotun Daniel Adewumi, Tobi Susan Elufisan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 12-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1030468

Field studies were conducted in the early and late season of 2010 in the tropical rainforest zone of Nigeria to investigate the effects of NPK fertilizer as an inorganic soil amendment at 75 kg/ha and 150 kg/ha in four replications on population densities of Pratylenchus brachyurus and on crop yield of maize. Seeds of maize variety, DMR LSR-Y were collected from Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan. The experimental field was naturally infested with Pratylenchus spp. due to subsequent continuous cultivation of susceptible crop on the field. Seeds were planted and NPK was applied around the roots of maize plants 3 weeks after seedling emergence. Soil samples were taken on treatment plots at planting and harvest to determine the percentage change in nematode population. At the end of experiment, NPK application resulted in the increase in the nematode population. However, the grain yield of maize was not reduced by the increased nematode densities. The results of this study suggests that the usage of NPK caused a surge in the nematode reproduction on the field due to the availability of more feeding sites on the actively growing root system of the crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Phosphorus, Phosphorus Solubilising Bacteria and Farmyard Manure on Nutrient Content and Uptake by Bt-Cotton

K. V. S. L. Raj Rushi, P. Prasuna Rani, P. R. K. Prasad, P. Anil Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 17-27
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1030469

Aim: To determine the effect of integrated use of inorganic phosphorus along with phosphorus solubilising bacteria and farmyard manure on nutrient Content and uptake in Bt-Cotton.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications.

Place of Study: At College Farm, Agricultural College, Bapatla, Guntur district.

Methodology: After the preliminary layout, the Tulasi-BG II hybrid of cotton was used as a test crop, with a spacing of 90 cm x 60 cm in the experimental site. Plant samples were collected at 45, 90 DAS, and harvest. Plant samples were shade dried and kept in hot air oven at 75°C until a constant weight was obtained. Samples were powdered and then analysed using standard chemical procedures.

Results: The uptake of macronutrients viz., N, P, and K was markedly influenced by the treatments with maximum values recorded by the treatment that received 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 + FYM + PSB. Their uptake significantly differed with increase in dose of phosphorus applied at all growth stages. Combined use of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 + FYM + PSB resulted in a significant increase in uptake of all micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe) at all stages except Cu at 90 DAS.

Conclusion: Application of phosphorus combined with FYM and PSB not only reduce inorganic phosphorus fertilization but also enhance the uptake of nutrients and plant nutrient content by providing favourable conditions for plant growth. Application of 30 kg P2O5 ha-1+ PSB + FYM was found to be on a par with addition of only 60 kg ha-1P2O5. Hence the P dose can be reduced to half by integrating with PSB and FYM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct and Residual Effect of Integrated Nitrogen Management on Productivity of Rice-maize Cropping System

D. K. D. Deekshitha, Ch. Sujani Rao, P. V. Subbaiah, M. Martin Luther, V. Srinivasa Rao

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 28-39
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1030470

Aim: To find out the direct and residual effect of application of organics, inorganics and their combination on yield and yield parameters of rice-maize cropping system.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in randomized block design during kharif season and split plot design during rabi.

Place and duration of Study: At Agricultural college farm, Bapatla during 2018-19 and 2019-20.

Methodology: After the preliminary layout, paddy was sown in kharif and maize was sown in rabi season. Vermicompost and green leaf manure were applied two weeks before sowing of paddy. Treatments applied for paddy were considered as main plots and each main plot was divided into two sub plots during rabi.

Results: Higher grain yield, straw yield, drymatter production at tillering stage were recorded with the application of 50% RDN through vermicompost +50% RDN through inorganics (T9) during both the years of study. However, in succeeding maize, the kernel yield, straw yield and yield attributing characters (drymatter, cob length and test weight) were significantly highest in the treatment which received 75% RDN through green leaf manure+ 25% RDN through inorganic (T5). Among the fertilizer levels applied to maize, S2 (100% RDF) recorded significantly higher dry matter production over S1 (50% RDF) at all the stages of crop growth and during two years of experimentation.

Conclusion: Substitution of 50 % N through vermicompost improved rice yield and yield attributes whereas substitution of 75% N through GLM have shown better residual effect in terms of improvement of yield and yield attributing characters of maize. Among the subplots application of 100% RDF significantly increased the yield when compared to 50% RDF.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Use of Organic Manures and Chemical Fertilizers under Soil Test Crop Response Approach on Soil Properties and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.)

Varsha Pandey, Ajaya Srivastava

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 40-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1030471

A field experiment was conducted at Crop Research Centre, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, during kharif 2019 to study the effect of integrated use of organic manures and chemical fertilizers under STCR approach on physico-chemical, biological properties of soil and yield of maize crop in a Mollisol. The experiment comprised of 9 treatments replicated thrice.  The treatment details were Control (no fertilizers), RDF, STCR (inorganic mode), STCR INM mode, 75% STCR dose of N (inorganic mode) + Green manure, 50% STCR dose of N (inorganic mode) + Green Manure, 75% RDN +  Green Manure, 50% RDN + Green Manure and FYM + Green Manure + Intercropping with urd. The lowest yield and soil properties were observed under control. The highest water holding capacity (63.20%), available N (183.98 kg ha-1), available P (28.94 kg ha-1), microbial biomass carbon (335.35 µg/g soil) and urease enzyme activity (30.06 µg urea/g soil/h) was observed under T4 (STCR INM mode). The highest organic carbon (0.99%), available K (200.85 kg ha-1) and dehydrogenase activity (223.60 µgTPF/gsoil/day) was observed under T5 (75% STCR dose of N (inorganic mode) + Green manure). The highest maize yield was observed under T4 (STCR INM mode). Therefore, the present investigation clearly reveals the significance of balanced and efficient utilization of resources under STCR approach on soil and crop productivity of maize crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

AMMI Appended with BLUP to Assess the Superiority of Hullness Barley Genotypes Evaluated under Coordinated System of the Country

Ajay Verma, R. P. S. Verma, J. Singh, L. Kumar, G. P. Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 48-61
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1030472

Highly significant effects of environments (E), G×E interaction and genotypes (G) had expressed by AMMI analysis for hulless barley genotypes under coordinated barley improvement program. Environment effects explained 69.9% and 59.7% whereas Interaction effects accounted for 17% and 20.9% during cropping seasons of 2018-19 and 2019-20, respectively. Stability measure WAASB based on all significant interaction principal components ranked suitability of DWRB204, K1149 genotypes. Superiority index while weighting 0.65 and 0.35 for mean yield & stability ranked DWRB204, Karan 16 as of stable performance with high yield barley genotypes. Ranks as per composite measures MASV1 and MASV found NDB943, KB1750 as desirable genotypes. Lower values ASTAB measure achieved by Karan 16, NDB943. Biplot graphical analysis as per 40.4% of variation of the measures exhibited MASV1 clubbed with ASTAB, EV, SIPC, Za, W6, WAASB and MASV measures. Measure IPCA1 clubbed with SI corresponding yield based.  W2, W3, W4 measures observed in different group.  For the second-year lower value of WAASB measure had observed for PL891, KB1843, NDB943. Ranking of genotypes as per Superiority index found Karan16, UPB1086 as of stable performance with high yield. MASV1 and MASV identified Karan16, DWRB216 genotypes of choice for these locations. Barley genotypes Karan16, DWRB216 were selected as per values of ASTAB measure accounted AMMI analysis with BLUP of genotypes yield values. About 78.1% of variation of the measures under biplot analysis observed MASV1 grouped with ASTAB, EV, SIPC, and MASV. While Za joined together with W2, W3, W4, W5, W6, WAASB to form separate group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Weed Management Practices and Fertilizer Levels on Crop Nutrient Uptake and Weed Nutrient Removal in the Hybrid Rice

Polagani Nagarjuna, R. S. Singh, P. Varalakshmi, Y. N. Mohan Babu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 62-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1030473

Aim: Comparative evaluation of weed management practices and fertilizer levels on crop nutrient uptake and weed nutrient removal in the hybrid rice.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with weed management in main-plot and fertilizer levels in sub-plot and was replicated thrice.

Place and Duration of Study: Experiment was performed during the kharif period of 2017 at the Research Farm, TCA, Dholi, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur (BIHAR).

Methodology: The experiment was performed with twelve treatments in a split plot design. The main plot comprised four different weed management practices and under the sub-plot there were three fertilizer levels. Rice hybrid “ARIZE-6444” was taken as the test variety. Observations of the crop and weeds during the experimental duration were recorded at regular intervals, to assess the probable relationship between growth attributes and the final yield. The significance of the treatment impact was examined by the F test.

Results: Among weed management practices, maximum uptake by rice with respect to nitrogen (152.85 Kg/ha), phosphorous (45.79 Kg/ha) and potassium (187.13 Kg/ha) and minimum removal by weed regarding nitrogen (1.30 Kg/ha), phosphorous (0.54 Kg/ha) and potassium (1.85 Kg/ha) was recorded in treatment hand weeding twice which was observed statistically at par with Bispyribac-sodium @ 25 g/ha + Pyrazosulfuron @ 25 g/ha at 25 DAT.

Among fertilizer levels, application of 150 per cent RDF registered the highest portion of nitrogen (130.52 Kg/ha), phosphorous (40.40 Kg/ha) and potassium (164.49 Kg/ha) uptake by rice crop and nutrient removal through weeds is nitrogen (10.65 Kg/ha), phosphorous (4.84 Kg/ha) and potassium (15.59 Kg/ha) of, and respectively.

Conclusion: Among different weed management practices combined application of Bispyribac-sodium @ 25 g/ha + Pyrazosulfuron @ 25 g/ha at @) DAT or hand weeding twice (20 and 40 DAT) was found effective in controlling weeds and increase in the quality and quantity of rice. Among fertilizer levels application of 125% RDF was found effective in increase in the yield, nutrient content of the crop and substantially reduction of nutrients removed by weed in rice field.