Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Sulphur Levels and Different Micronutrients on Yield and its Attributing Traits of Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

Praveen Choyal, O. P. Garhwal, M. R. Choudhary, Manju Netwal, Kamal Mahala

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i530861

The field experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Farm, Sri Karan Narendra College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan) during 2019-20 and 2020-21. The experiment consisted of 20 treatment combinations with four soil application of sulphur (S0-control, S1-sulphur 20 kg/ha, S2-sulphur 40 kg/ha and S3-sulphur 60 kg/ha) and five levels of foliar application of micronutrients (M0-Control, M1-zinc sulphate @ 0.6%, M2-ferrous sulphate @ 0.2%, M3-borax @ 0.5 and M4-Ammonium molybdate @ 0.5%) in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results of the study have clearly indicated that among sulphur levels, application of sulphur 60 kg/ha significantly improved growth parameters viz., neck thickness, number of cloves per plant, clove length, clove girth, polar diameter, equatorial diameter, enhanced significantly by application of sulphur 60 kg/ha (S3) in both the years as well as in pooled analysis. Similarly, among micronutrients foliar application of zinc sulphate @ 0.6% significantly influenced all the growth, yield attributes viz., neck thickness, number of cloves per plant, clove length, clove girth, polar diameter, equatorial diameter of garlic in both the years as well as in pooled analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geo-spatial Assessment of Soil Quality Index of Alirajpur District of Madhya Pradesh, India

T. C. Yadav, G. S. Tagore, Garima Padwar, R. K. Sahu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 7-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i530862

Information regarding spatial variability and distribution of soil properties is critical for stakeholders attempting to increase nutrients use efficiency and crop productivity. The soils of Alirajpur district having the bulk density, pH, EC, OC and CaCO3 varied from4.70 to 8.40, 0.03 to 0.90 dSm-1, 0.47 to 12.92 g kg-1 and 5.0 to 115.0 g kg-1 soil, respectively. Available N, P, K and S content in soils of Alirajpur district ranged from 76.0 to 382.0 kg ha-1, 1.34 to 62.13 kg ha-1, 53.52 to 529.85 kg ha-1 and 0.55 to 33.90 mg kg-1 soil, respectively. Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and B contents in soil varied from 0.03 to 1.98, 0.06 to 3.74, 1.07 to 36.0, 1.34 to 43.0 and 0.03 to 4.76 mg kg-1 soil, respectively. The categories of the soil fertility status were made with respect to N, P, K and S as medium, high, medium and low (M-H-M-L). The 64.71%, 93.01% and 25.37% soil samples were observed to be low in S, Zn and Fe, respectively. The results revealed that none of the samples were tested low in Cu and Mn and these are not a major problem in Alirajpur district. Correlation analyses among the above highly weighted variables were done to remove the redundant variables, accordingly OC and N, Fe and Mn, CaCO3 and Zn were highly correlated, and finally OC, Fe and Zn were retained owing to their high factor loading. The sensitive indicators (Minimum dataset) under the soils of Alirajpur District in descending order of importance as revealed by factor analysis were as follows: OC > Fe > Zn > B > EC > K > MBC.

The sensitive indicators under the soils of Alirajpur district in descending order of importance as revealed by factor analysis were as follows: OC > Fe > Zn > B > EC > K > MBC. This suggests that these indicators may be used in future for characterizing the state of soil conditions of district. Soil quality index rating ranged from 0.22 to 0.31 under the different blocks and 0.22 for district as whole with l parameter soil quality index 0.31 for Alirajpur district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zn and Fe Enriched FYM on Yield, Nutrient Content and Uptake by Cowpea Irrigated with Sodic Water

Santosh Yadav, B. L. Yadav, Poonam Kumari Yadav, Amit Dhudhwal, Ajit Kumar Meena, Bharti Yadav, Sarita Choudhary, Manisha Choudhary, Rahul Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 19-26
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i530863

A pot experiment was conducted during kharif 2018-19 at S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan) to study the “Effect of Zn and Fe enriched Farmyard manure on nutrient availability and yield of cowpea [Vigna ungiculata (L.)wilczek] under sodic water irrigation” to evaluate the effect of different sodic water and sources of Zn and Fe on yield, nutrient concentration and uptake by cowpea on loamy sand soil. The experiment comprising of 15 treatment combinations replicated three times, was laid out randomized block design with three levels of sodic water (2, 4 and 6 mmol L-1 ) and five levels of sources of Zn and Fe (0, ZnSO4.7H2O, FeSO4.7H2O, Zn enriched FYM, Fe enriched FYM) as variables. The total and number of nodules per plant, nodule index, pods per plant and seeds per pod were counted at stage and harvesting respectively. Results revealed that under 6 mmol L-1 Residual sodium carbonate of irrigation water, the seed and straw yield of, nutrient concentration and uptake viz., P, K, Zn and Fe in seed and straw decreased significantly with all levels of sodic water and maximum reduction was recorded with the application of 6 mmol L-1 of sodic water, while N in seed and straw, protein content in seed increased significantly. The application of Zn enriched FYM increased seed and straw yield , nutrient concentration and uptake viz., N, P, K, Zn and Fe in seed and straw, protein content in seed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Association Analysis in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for Seed Yield Characters

Yerasi Viswanatha Reddy, G. Roopa Lavanya, Ch. Laasya Bharathi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 27-36
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i530864

During Rabi, 2019-2020, the present trial was carried out at the field experimentation centre of the Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad to assess genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in twenty-six chickpea genotypes, including one check variety Uday for twelve quantitative traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant variations across genotypes for all of the features under investigation, demonstrating a high level of genetic variability in the experimental material. The genotypes C-224, C-201, ICC-16693, C-1028, C-129, C-213, C-130 and C-1025 have been identified as the top performing lines among the genotypes studied. PCV values were found to be higher than GCV for all of the traits investigated, indicating that environmental variables influence the characters. The fact that biological yield per plant has a high PCV and GCV implies that there is a lot of genetic variability in the material for these qualities. Plant height, days to 50% flowering, harvest index, biological yield per plant, hundred seed weight, seed yield per plant and number of pods per plant were all found to have high heritability. For the traits of biological yield per plant, seed index, harvest index, number of pods per plant, seed yield per plant and plant height, high heritability was observed along with high genetic advance as percent of mean, indicating that these characters were primarily governed by additive gene effects. As a result of the accumulation of more additive genes, direct selection of these features using a simple selection strategy would be efficient, leading to further development of chickpea genotypes. Number of seeds per plant, number of pods per plant, biological yield per plant, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant and plant height all had positive significant genotypic and phenotypic associations with grain yield per plant. At the phenotypic level, biological yield per plant and number of seeds per plant both had a strong positive direct effect on grain yield per plant and contributed the most to yield per plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interactive Effect of Salinity and Potassium on Maize Yield

Rahaf Alomar, Dinabandhu Jena

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 37-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i530865

A pot culture experiment was undertaken during January 2021, in the greenhouse of Institute of Agriculture Science (IAS), SOA Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha to study the interactive effects of salinity and potassium levels on biomass yield, accumulation and uptake of K and Na by maize. The experiment was conducted in 2-factorial CRD with three replications and twelve treatments consisting of two levels of irrigation water (SW0- normal water EC-0.5 dS m-1,SW1-saline water @ 8 dS m-1), two sources of K fertilizers (KCl and K2SO4), and three doses of K (K1-0,K2-60and K3-120 kg ha-1). The results showed that continuous application of saline water (8 dS m-1) increased the soil ECe ( Electrical Conductivity of a saturated soil Extract) by 182-360 % over normal water treatments. Application of  K (120 kg ha-1) significantly decreased ECe by 29%, significantly increased the biomass yield (24%), K accumulation (14%),  K uptake (41%) and decreased Na content ( 17% ) over K control. The K+/Na+ ratio in maize in saline treatments decreased by 64% over normal water. Application of  K @120 kg ha-1 significantly increased the K+/Na+ ratio by 27% over K control. In saline stress environment, K+/Na+ ratio in plant fairly correlated with biomass yield (R2=0.73), K content (R2=0.79), and Na content (R2=0.89) in the plant.  K+/Na+ ratio in soil failed to correlate well with biomass yield. K+/Na+ ratio in the plant can be considered as the best indicator in evaluating crop performance in saline soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Aqueous, Alcoholic Extracts and Fertilizing of Jatropha curcas Leaves in the Control of Blossom end Rot of Fruit in Tomato

Kouassi N'dri Pacôme, Bolou Bi Bolou Antoine, Cherif Mamadou, Kanga N’guessan Martial, Kone Daouda

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 53-71
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i530866

The blossom end rot of fruit caused by calcium deficiency causes extensive damage going up to more than 50% of yield loss in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The present study was carried out in a greenhouse in a semi-controlled environment to evaluate the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts and fertilizing with the powder of the leaves of Jatropha curcas on the growth parameters, the vigor of the plants, the size of the fruit, the rate of blossom end rot fruit, the yield and the accumulation of biomass Cobra 26 and Lindo varieties of tomato. The experimental system was a complete randomized block with 14 treatments repeated 3 times. Control plants were treated with tap water. Estimates of height, annulus diameter, fruit load, fruit size, blossom end rot fruit rate, yield as well as fresh and dry biomass were made. The aqueous extract at a concentration of 2 L/ha had the best vegetative development compared to all the treatments. As for the 3% alcoholic extract, it was the best in reducing the rate of blossom end rot fruits without any loss of yield and in accumulating fresh and dry aerial and root biomass. These results showed that the use of aqueous extracts, alcoholic extracts and the fertilizing with the powder of leaves of Jatropha curcas in the control of the blossom end rot of the tomato makes it possible to reduce efficiently the rate of blossom end rot fruits and the losses of yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trend and Growth Rate Estimation of Principal Crops in Karnataka State in India

Seedari Ujwala Rani, Pramod Kumar, Naveen P. Singh, R. K. Paul, R. N. Padaria, Sirisha Tadigiri

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 72-80
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i530867

The study undertaken to analyse the growth rate performance of area, production, productivity of selected  crops in Karnataka  from year 1997 to 2019. At state level, it was found that, the productivity of cereals showed positive growth with 1.22 percent. The area under maize increased by 5.30 percent by displacing Jowar, Bajra, minor millets. The rice and maize became stable crops in cultivation due its assured support prices and procurement from government. The production of pulses increased by 4.17 percent. The area under oil seeds showed negative trend with -5.87 percent which may be due to its high cost of production and unremunerative prices where as the commercial crops has recorded positive growth rates of production (2.69 percent) and productivity (2.43 percent) despite of its 0.24 percent area growth. The farmers prioritised sugarcane, cotton because of less labour requirements, good market prices. The Technology mission on oilseeds and Pulses in post 1990’s could be reason for increased production and productivity of pulses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gamma Irradiation Induced Chromosome Aberrations in Meiotic Cells of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Qamre Alam, Mushtaq Ahmad Khah, Z. R. Azaz Ahmad Azad

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 81-89
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i530868

Background and Objectives: Due to the ever-increasing human population and rapid urbanization, the available agricultural land becomes limited for the production of food grains. As a result, there is an urgent need for creating genetic variability upon which improved varieties could be made. The technology of induced mutagenesis plays an essential role in inducing genetic variations among crop species where hybridization is very challenging. Therefore, the present study has been designed to assess the mutagenic impact of gamma irradiation on the cytological behaviour of T. aestivum L in M1 and M2 generation.

Materials and Methods: Bread wheat seeds of selected cultivar were irradiated at BARC, Mumbai with five doses. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were sown under field condition with three replicates for each dose according to randomized block design to raise the M1 and M2 generations for morphological and meiotic analysis. For meiosis, immature panicles were collected in early morning and immediately fixed in carnoy’s solution for at least 24 hours. Thereafter, anthers from buds were excised and squashed in acetocarmine followed by photomicrography of suitable PMCs to estimate chromosome aberrations.

Results: The results displayed a progressive elevation in the chromosomal aberrations along with a significant influence on seedling emergence, plant survival and pollen fertility. The most frequent meiotic aberrations detected include chromatin clumping, univalents and early chromosome segregations at metaphase and lagging chromosomes, chromatin bridges and chromosome clumping at anaphase/telophase while unorientation, scattering, polarity disturbances and micronuclei were also noticed. In addition, the frequency of these chromosome aberrations significantly decreased in M2 generation depicting the reclamation in genomic structure.

Conclusion: The present investigation supports the discovery that gamma irradiations are very effective in creating rapid genetic variability in crop plants including Triticum aestivum which could be essentially exploited for future mutation breeding programmes. The results revealed that the higher treatment doses are toxic whereas lower doses of gamma irradiations seem quite beneficial in generating promising traits with less toxicity. In this study, the cytotoxicity has increased along with gamma irradiation doses and therefore, the genetic structure of the selected bread wheat cultivar is highly affected, which will possibly create new favorable genetic changes in the following generations that would be useful for plant breeders for its improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Soil Properties, Content and Dynamics of Cadmium in Creole Cocoa Genotype Grown Organically in Bocas del Toro – Panama

Jhon Alexander Villalaz Pérez, José Ezequiel Villarreal Núñez, Adolfo Santo Pineda, Agustín Merino García

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 90-107
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i530869

Introduction: Quantifying Cadmium (Cd), helps to know the excess of this element harmful to human health.

Objectives: Determine the concentrations of Cd and its relationship with the management and properties of the soil, leaf tissue, fruit and cocoa beans grown organically in small farms of producers in the district of Almirante, and to study the dynamics of this element in a Creole cocoa genotype AS-CP 26-61 (mulatto).

Places and Duration of the Study: The research was carried out during the years 2019 to 2021, in 16 sites of farms of cocoa producers, organically grown, in Almirante, province of Bocas del Toro and the second, was in a house of vegetation, located in the facilities of the Institute of Agricultural Innovation of Panama, in the town of Divisa, corregimiento of Los Canelos, district of Santa María, province of Herrera, Republic of Panama.

Methodologies: The samples were carried out in the16 farm sites in a systematic way selecting points at uniform distances in an area of 300 m2 with replicas (15 subsamples at depths of 0.30 m), within these areas the samples of leaves and fruits were taken. In the dynamics of the Cd, which was carried out in the creole cocoa genotype AS-CP 26-61 (mulatto), the soil was transferred from a representative area of the Almirante district to a depth of 0.30 m, filling pots with a capacity of 15 kg of dry soil. A completely random design was used, with six (6) treatments and three (3) repetitions. The treatments were (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 mgCdkg-1) inoculated the soils with cadmium sulfate. Soil samples were taken at two depths (0 to 0.15 m and 0.15 to 0.30 m); followed for plants (roots, stems and leaves), all extracted six (6) months after applying the treatments. Total and bioavailable Cd, Ca, Mg, soil texture, pH, soil organic matter, total foliar Cd, fruits and grains were measured. The analysis of the data was by the Infostat statistician. Soil organic matter was determined by Walkley and Black and total concentrations by USEPA method 3051 A; instead, the bioavailable Cd and K were determined by Mehlich 3; Ca and Mg per KCl; texture by Boyoucos.

Results: As results in the 16 sites, the total and bioavailable Cd in the soil did not exceed the toxic levels for agricultural soils. On the other hand, the average levels of total Cd in the fruits and grains, did not present absorptions greater than 0.6 mgkg-1. While for the dynamics of Cd in the Creole cocoa genotype AS-CP 26-61 the maximum absorption form is presented by the leaves > roots > stem.

Conclusion: By increasing the organic matter of the soil, it helps to block the concentrations of Cd in the leaves, fruits and grains; the levels of concentrations of Cd in the grain, do not exceed the maximum limits allowed according to the E.U. The use of the Creole genotype AS-CP 26-61 helped us to know in which part of the plant the concentrations of Cd are most concentrated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Taxonomic Classification of Soils under a Toposequence Located at North-Eastern Ghat Agro-Climatic Zone of Odisha, India

Tupaki Lokya, Antaryami Mishra, Subhashis Saren

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 108-116
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i530870

The present investigation was carried out to study the characterization and Taxonomy classification of soils under a Toposequence located at North-Eastern Ghat Agro-Climatic zone of Odisha, India. Three representative pedons of the Nayagarh district located in different topographic positions of upland (pedon 1), medium land (pedon 2) and low land (pedon 3) respectively were studied for their morphology, physico-chemical characteristics and taxonomic classification. Results show that the bulk density and particle density found with higher values in the lower horizon and lower values in the upper horizon. Total porosity values found to be higher in upper horizons and lower in the lower most horizons. The soil pH found to gradually increase with increasing depth in all three pedons. The OC content decreasing along with depth in all the pedons. In pedon 2 and 3, fully developed genetic horizons with distinct sub-horizons within the B horizon. However, in pedon 1, no such horizons are developed. The clay content increases in pedon 2 and 3 from upper sub-horizon to the lower sub horizon of B horizon with increasing depth which could be due to the process of illuviation of clay and development of argillic horizon (Bt). Pedon 1, are classified under order Entisols; while that of pedon 2 and 3 under soil order of Alfisols. Pedon 1, are classified under sub order Orthents, great group Ustorthents and sub group Typic Ustorthents; while that of pedon 2 and 3 are classified under sub order Ustalfs, great group Haplustalfs and sub group Udic Haplustalfs.