Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) as Influenced by Different Planting Techniques and Nutrient Management Practices in Arid Western Rajasthan

Sheilendra Kumar, S. M. Kumawat, Tanuja Poonia, Ashok Choudhary, Sanju Kumawat, Pramod Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i430850

The productivity of arid region is much lower and resource degradation is much faster comparatively other ecosystem due to aberrant climatic conditions and anthropogenic activities. Lower production in arid region is due to lower nutrient and water holding capacity of soil, erratic rainfall pattern and inappropriate crop management practices. Therefore, present study was conducted with six planting techniques and four nutrient management practices in split plot design and replicated thrice, to find outsuitable planting techniques and nutrient management practices and their influence on growth, productivity of pearl millet in arid western Rajasthan.Results of the study showed that pit planting technique treatment PT6 noted taller plant over rest of the treatments during 2018 and 2019. Among various planting techniques, pit technique realized significantly higher relative growth rate(RGR) as compared ridge planting (PT2 and PT3) and direct seed sowing (PT1) also. However, pit planting technique PT4 recorded highest RGR of 1.87 & 1.77 g g-1 day-1during 20 days after sowing/transplanting (DAS/DAT) to 40 DAS/DAT and 2.26 & 2.23 g g-1 day-1during 40 DAS/DAT to at harvest during 2018 and 2019, respectively, which registered significantly edge over rest all treatments of sowing/transplanting. Though ridge planting techniques PT2 and PT3, computed significantly highest crop growth rate (CGR) as compared to rest all planting treatments yet formerly both treatment remained statistically at par with each other.  Pearl millet planted by pit planting technique PT6 recorded highest grain yield during both the years. Moreover, growth parameters and grain yield also increased with increasing dose of nutrients fromnutrient management practice NMP1 to nutrient management practiceNMP3 over control (NMP0). Highest plant height, crop growth rate (g m-1 day-1) and relative growth rate (g g-1 day-1) at different intervals and grain yieldwere recorded maximum in nutrient management practice NMP3, while minimum values of all above parameters were observed in no fertilization control (NMP0) treatment during individual years of 2018 and 2019.

Open Access Original Research Article

Current Review on Socio-Economic Traits of Mango Growers

Ankit Kumar, N. R. Meena, R. K. Doharey, Vinita Singh, Manoj Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i430851

The current review was directed in Lucknow District of Uttar Pradesh. Malihabad and Bakshi Ka Talab were selected proportionally for the study. 120 ranchers were remembered for the example for the current examination. Results uncovers that greater part of respondents were found in larger part of the respondents (46.66 percent) were seen in the middle age classification of up to 40-60 years. Thus, most of the respondents (Farmers) fall in the class old enough gathering up to 40 - 60 years. That is majority of respondents found under the married Category 80.33 % followed by unmarried category 13.33 % and other specific 5.83 %. It revealed that the fact is majority of respondents 95.83 % belongs Joint family system. Along these lines, it is presumed that most of the respondents was found in classification of little family size. The average income was observed to Rs. 138,000 with a range of minimum Rs. 38000 and maximum Rs. 750,000. It is clear that larger part of the respondents 36.66 % were having support in multiple associations. That the vast majority of the respondents were found with medium (60%) level of logical direction followed by High 28.33 % degree and afterward finally Low (11.66 % level of logical direction. That is out of 16 variables studied. The Six variables are Attitude, Adoption, Social participation, Caste, Education; Extension contact has highly significant and positive correlation. Size of family and Age are two variables which is Highly Significant and negative correlation with knowledge. Type of Family, Risk orientation, Economic Motivation, Scientific orientation are non significant and the correlation is negative with Knowledge. Annual Income is single variable which correlated with Knowledge which is non significant and positive correlation with knowledge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessments of the Effects of Legume Species Intercropping on Radiation Use Efficiency of Sorghum

S. Divya Dharshini, SP. Ramanathan, S. Kokilavani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i430852

A field experiment was executed to assess the effect of legume species intercropping on the Radiation use efficiency of Sorghum during summer 2021. In India, Sorghum is primarily raised for poultry and animal feed and it is being cultivated under poor resource conditions. Hence, intercropping sorghum with legumes can help in improving the resource use efficiency than sole sorghum and also enable farmers to boost their livelihood. The treatments were T1-Sorghum Sole crop (SS), T2-2rows of Sorghum+2rows of Cowpea (2S:2C), T3-2rows of Sorghum+1row of Cowpea (2S:1C), T4-2rows of Sorghum+2rows of Greengram (2S:2G), T5-2rows of Sorghum+1rows of Greengram (2S:1G), T6-2rows of Sorghum+2rows of Lablab (2S:2L), T7-2rows of Sorghum+1rows of Lablab (2S:1L). An experiment was carried out in Randomized Block Design and was replicated thrice. The results were statistically analysed using SPSS software. The results revealed that Sorghum + Lablab in 2:1 registered the highest leaf area index, dry matter production which ultimately resulted in high Radiation Use Efficiency. Overall, the intercropping system had high RUE than sole Sorghum. Thus it was concluded that planting sorghum with a legume in a 2:1 pattern would be recommended as it has better resource use efficiency than sole sorghum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conjoint Application of INM Modules on Vegetative, Flowering, and Seed Yield in French marigold

Assma Rashid, Nomita Laishram, Arvinder Singh, R. K. Pandey, Sheetal Dogra

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 26-34
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i430854

The present investigation was carried out at Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Chatha, Jammu during 2018-19. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design and comprised of twenty-three treatments replicated thrice. Among the various treatments, maximum plant height (90.10 cm) and highest number of laterals (21.89) were recorded with treatment T7 comprising of 75 % RDF + Spent mushroom compost (1 kg/m2) + 1% foliar spray of MKP (00:52:34). Lesser number of days taken to 50% flowering (70.22 days), number of flowers/plant (86.78), maximum flower diameter (6.20g), weight of flower (5.78 g), flower yield per plant (500 g), seed yield/plant (105.91 g), 1000 seed weight (11.67g) was recorded with the treatment of 75 % RDF + Spent mushroom compost (1 kg/m2) + 1% foliar spray of MKP (T9). Maximum plant spread (68.44 cm) was recorded with treatment comprising of 75 % RDF + Spent mushroom compost (1 kg/m2) + Biofertilizers (T6). However, minimum electrical conductivity of seed leachate (0.688 µmhos/cm/g) was recorded with 25 % RDF + Spent mushroom compost (1 kg/m2) + Biofertilizers (T20). The effects of treatments on flowering duration (days) and shoot: root ratio was found to be non-significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Examination of Compatibility of Autochthonous Pear Cultivars from the Region of Northeastern Bosnia with Vegetative Rootstock of the Genus Cydonia sp

Besim Salkić, Ahmed Salkić, Emir Imširović, Ensar Salkić, Emina Salihović

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 35-39
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i430855

Rootstocks of the genus Pyrus are easily adapted to climatic conditions and such trees are more resistant to Erwinia amylovora, but they also have disadvantages because these trees are more lush and difficult to grow in dense composition. The production of pears in a dense composition is a tendency of intensive pear production, and quince rootstocks are used for this purpose, because it is easier to control the height of the stem.

The increase in the density of the composition in pear orchards is directly related to the use of vegetative rootstocks of less lushness, such as rootstocks of the genus Cydonia sp.The research included five autochthonous pear varieties: Takiša, Jeribasma, Šećerka, Karamut i Huseinbegovača.

The tests were performed at the location Voćni rasadnik, Špionica, City Srebrenik, Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the vegetation of 2021.

Morphometric analyzes were performed on a sample of 30 seedlings for each pear variety. Average results are presented using MS Excel software packages.

Seedlings of grafted varieties on the basis of diameter did not meet the conditions of marketing, while on the basis of vegetative growth, three varieties met the conditions of marketing of planting material. The research was conducted within the project number 02 / 9-712-1-5-4 / 21.

Grafted autochthonous varieties in the year of grafting showed extremely good adhesion with the vegetative rootstock BA-29, but did not have a good diameter. Due to the possibility of remanence, it is necessary to continue research after planting seedlings in plantations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Initial soil Fertility and Integrated Plant Nutrition System on Yield and NPK Uptake by Barnyard Millet

R. Selvam, R. Santhi, S. Maragatham, C. N. Chandrasekhar, Patil Santosh Ganapathi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 40-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i430856

This study examined the effect of soil fertility and Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) on the yield of barnyard millet (var. MDU 1) on the field of Eastern Block Farm in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Coimbatore. based on the inductive technique (fertility gradient concept). Among the three fertiliser strips, the first phase of the experiment involved adding graded fertilisers and growing fodder sorghum as a gradient crop to develop soil fertility variations. During the second phase, the barnyard millet test crop experiment included four levels each of N, P2O5, and K2O fertilizers, plus three levels of farmyard manure (FYM). The results show that overall yield recorded in the highest initial fertility  strip III. The highest yield of 2966 kg ha-1 was obtained with 60:30:40 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, and K2O along with 12.5 t ha-1 of FYM in strip II with initial soil available NPK status 198, 31, and 521 kg ha-1, respectively. The lowest yield 1056 kg ha-1 was recorded in strip I under absolute control and the initial soil test values were 157, 13 and 470 kg ha-1 of KMnO4-N, Olsen-P and NH4OAc-K, respectively. Application of 12.5 t ha-1 of FYM alone increased yield of barnyard was 27.73 per cent over absolute control. Barnyard millet grain production and NPK uptake rose when initial soil fertility and fertiliser N, P2O5, K2O, and FYM levels increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Phosphorus Management in Lowland Paddy Cultivation under Hnahthial District of Mizoram, India

Timothy Lalrinfela

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 48-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i430857

Rice is the first most important crop in the Northeast region of India grown under rainfed lowland soils. Due to continuous cultivation, plateauing of yield was observed with the occurrence of phosphorus deficiency in the soils, based on soil test result. A field level demonstration on management of phosphorus and other important soil nutrient was conducted based on soil test result in lowland paddy fields of South Vanlaiphai village under Hnahthial District of Mizoram covering 17 ha. It was observed that T2 treatment with NPKat a rate of 40:60:40 kg ha-1was found to give a better grain yield of 2.01 t/ha as compared to control (T0) and T1 treatment with a yield of 1.02 t/ha and 1.69 t/ha, respectively. Soil health was found to be enhanced with increase in soil physico-chemical properties like soil organic carbon (SOC) content, soil reaction (pH), available nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P2O5) and available potassium (K2O). Soil reaction (pH) and available phosphorus (P2O5) was found to increase in soil of paddy after harvest as compared to initial soil test result. Average value of soil pH, available phosphorus and potassium was found to increase from 5.12 to 6.26, 7.17 to 31.63 kg/ha and 119.2 to 167.15 kg/ha, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction for Seed Cotton Yield Performance and stability in Bt Cotton Hybrids (MON531 and MON15985)

Ashwini N. R. Samak, S. Rajeswari, R. Ravikesavan, Subbalakshmi Lokanadhan, N. Ganapathy, A. V. Kini

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 53-63
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i430858

A study was conducted to understand the stability of seed cotton yield of 105 Bt cotton hybrids (BGI and BGII) using Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interactions (AMMI) analysis across three diverse locations in India during rainy season 2018. This study holds importance as the hybrids were resistant to Helicoverpa bollworms due to Bt events (MON531 and MON15985) in them which were expected to nullify variation arising out of differential bollworm pressure in different location, unlike in non Bt hybrids where this variation also played role in the stability of the hybrids. The main effect differences among hybrids (41.23 %), environments (39.56 %) and the interaction effects (19.21%) were highly significant of the total variance of seed cotton yield indicating a large difference between the testing location causing different hybrids to perform differently across the testing environments. The first two principal components axes (IPCA I and IPCA II) were highly significant and contributed 52.12 % and 47.88% of total interaction respectively. The distance from the origin and the placement of locations in different quadrants of biplot reflected that the locations were substantially discriminatory as Aurangabad and Dharwad, which were high yielding and Raichur was low yielding. Results showed that hybrids IAHH-8096 BGII, IAHH-8103 BGI, IAHH-8061 BGII and IAHH-8007 BGII were having lowest interaction and stable across the location, whereas hybrids IAHH-8080 BGI, IAHH-8084 BGI, IAHH-8004 BGII and IAHH-8105 BGI were having more interaction and unstable genotypes. Large frequency of hybrids (57) were stable with IPCA scores nearing zero and low ASV values which is attributed resistance to bollworm due to Bt events.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Management of Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Spp.) Using Fresh Organic Manure and Crotalaria brevidens Intercrop for Improved Growth and Yield of Tomato

James Ngelenzi Munywoki, Joshua Otieno Ogweno, Mwanarusi Saidi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 64-75
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i430859

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide. Tomato productivity is limited by, among other factors, biotic constraints including root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) which lower both quality and quantity of the crop. Two trials were conducted at the Horticulture Research and Teaching Field, Egerton University, Kenya, to evaluate effects of fresh organic manure and slender leaf (Crotalaria brevidens var. brevidens Benth.) intercrop on management of root-knot nematode during tomato production as well as establish their effect on tomato growth and yield. Variables measured were nematode infestation, plant height,  stem collar diameter, number of internodes and branches, number of fruits, and fresh fruit weight. Use of fresh organic manure and slender leaf intercrop suppressed the nematode population by 27.8% to 53.5% reduction and significantly increased tomato fruit numbers by 22.2% to 49.7% and fresh fruit weight by 24.5% to 80.4% when used alone or in combinations compared to the control treatment. The combination of fresh goat dung and slender leaf intercrop resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population of 53.5%  and highest increase in total number of fruits of 49.7% and fresh fruit weight of  80.4%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of STCR Based Nutrient Application on Dry Matter Accumulation, Partitioning of Potassium in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Potassium Fractions in Black Cotton Soil of Central India

Saroj Choudhary, Shekhar Singh Baghel, Sunita Choudhary, Mukta Rani, O. Siva Devika, Arjun Singh, Abhik Patra

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 76-85
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i430860

Chemical fertilizers used by the majority of Indian farmers are based on a generalized recommendation that overlooks soil fertility and crop response. These broad recommendations frequently result in under- or over-fertilization, resulting in reduced productivity, efficiency, and environmental pollution. To address these issues, the STCR-target yield approach appears to be promising. However, the dynamics of potassium (K), an important primary essential nutrient, is not fully understood under STCR based approach. Therefore, our current study was aimed to profile the dynamics of potassium in rice parts and its different forms in vertisol. The present study was conducted at the soil science research farm of Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, a part of AICRP on the effect of soil test and crop response based nutrient management on potassium partitioning in rice crop and its fractions in vertisol of Madhya Pradesh. The treatments comprised of T1 : Control (no fertilizer application); T2 : General recommended dose (120:60:40 N, P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1); T3 : Targeted Yield 50 q ha-1 (115:90:49 N, P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1);  T4 : Targeted Yield 60 q ha-1 (157:125:70 N, P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1);  T5 : Targeted Yield 50 q ha-1 with 5 t FYM ha-1 (115:90:49 N, P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1); and T6 : Targeted Yield 60 q ha-1  with 5 t FYM ha-1 (157:125:70 N, P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1). Partitioning of K into different parts of rice was anlaysed and the result showed that T6 has a significant effect on it. Highest concentration of K in root, leaves, stem, panicle and grain (0.353, 1.730, 2.510, 0.441 and 0.275%, respectively) was found in T6. STCR based fertilizer with 5 tonnes FYM ha-1 application significantly influenced the different fractions of soil K and the maximum available potassium, which is present in the form of water-soluble, exchangeable, and non-exchangeable forms, equilibrium with each other, were also found to be maximum in treatment T6. The study based on STCR demonstrated that STCR based integrated use of fertilizers and manure for targeting yield can produce targeted yield without deteriorating soil fertility.