Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Carbon Dynamics, Sequestration and Productivity of Predominant Cropping Systems under Long Term (9 years) Inorganic and Organic Fertilization in Semi-Arid Deccan Plateau, India

G. Kiran Reddy, S. Sridevi, M. Goverdhan, M. Venkataramana, Ch Pragathi Kumari, Md Latheef Pasha, M. Santhosh Kumar, G. Vinay

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i830893

Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils is one of major agricultural strategies to mitigate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as it is a potential sink for atmosphere carbon. Cropping systems and management practices adopted will affect the SOC sequestration. Dynamics of SOC is very important for understanding the pathways of C stabilization into different SOC pools. An attempt was made to assess the importance of different cropping systems on C sequestration and its stabilization in a 9 year old experiment at PJTSAU, Hyderabad, India. In comparison to initial TOC, cropping system perennial super napier fodder showed greater C build up (46.5%) followed by maize intercropped with pigeonpea followed by sunhemp (23.1%). In fact, all the cropping systems there were net increases in TOC. There was only 6.86% of C applied through various sources was stabilized as SOC. A minimal input of 1.24 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 is needed to maintain SOC level. Cropping system perennial super napier fodder showed a higher carbon management index (145.9), sustainable yield index (64.1), BC ratio (16.99) and least amount is required to sequester the kg of carbon to soil (Rs. 59).

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Quality Response of Sweet Potato to Different Rates of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers

Albert Nyarko, Joseph Sarkodie-Addo, Kwadwo Adofo, Osborn Addae-Duah, Michael Odenkey Quaye

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i830894

The effects of organic manure, inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and the combination of the two on the roots of sweet potato were studied under field condition. Two sweet potato varieties, that is, ‘Apomuden’ and ‘Santom Pona’ were used for the experiment. The result indicated that on the average, NPK 15-15-15 + Cow dung (CD) (4 tons per hectare) (t/ha); NPK 15-15-15 + Poultry manure (PM) (3t/ha); and NPK 7.5-7.5-7.5 + CD (6t/ha) produced significantly highest responses (32.6%, 31.1%, and 30.9%) root dry matter content respectively. NPK 22.5-22.5-22.5 +CD (2t/ha); sole poultry manure (6t/ha), and NPK 15-15-15 + CD (4t/ha) recorded the greatest protein content (6.1% each) individually. Integrated application of organic manure and inorganic fertilizers (NPK, 15-15-15) is recommended for improved sweet potato production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Oil Field Effluent on Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Soil, Quality and Growth of Tea in the Plantation of Small Growers of Dibrugarh, Assam

Pubali Neog, Eimon Bharadwaj, Mridul Deka, Aditi Smith Gogoi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 16-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i830895

Aims: To study the impact of the oil field effluents discharged to the plantation on soil physicochemical, quality and growth of the tea crop.

Study Design: The experimental design was 4x2 Factorial Randomized Block Design with 3 replications.

Place and Duration of Study:  It was conducted in Department of Tea Husbandry & Technology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during September, 2019 and November, 2019.

Methodology: The total number of bushes per treatment are 35 each of +12 years age. The soil and plant samples were collected from four different levels of distance are D1: 0-21m; D2: 21-42m; D3: 42-63m and DC: beyond 63m (Control).

Results: The results showed that, disregarding the Flushing season the tea grown in the vicinity of the oil pit recorded the lowest value of caffeine content (1.58%), total chlorophyll (1.54 mg g-1) total polyphenol content (21.47%) which was significantly lower than the tea grown away from the oil pit. The plucking point density and number of primaries per plant recorded the lowest value in the vicinity of the effluent pit. In case of soil physical parameters, both porosity and hydraulic conductivity recorded lowest value of 45.64% and 0.25 cm min-1, respectively. The bulk density of soil near the oil effluent pit recorded the highest value (1.31 Mg m-3) and gradually decreases. Soil pH, organic carbon content and electrical conductivity recorded highest value in the vicinity of the effluent pit. Regardless of the flushing season the available nitrogen and potassium recorded the highest. Available phosphorous of the soil adjacent to the effluent pit recorded the lowest value. Both quality and growth parameters had significantly higher value in the rain flush than the autumn flush. The soil parameters did not record any significant variation among the seasons.

Conclusion: The vicinity area of the effluent pit found to be the most vulnerable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Date of Sowing and Nitrogen Levels on Spot Blotch Disease of Wheat Caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana

Pankaj Tiwari, Ramesh Singh, D. N. Shukla, Rohit Tiwari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i830896

In India, wheat is grown in the Rabi season mostly under irrigated condition. The main constraints responsible for less yield of wheat in comparison to other country seem to non-availability of seeds of improved high yielding varieties to farmers, poor fertility, unirrigated land and other inputs. Experimental findings clearly indicates that yield loss due to spot blotch varied between 7 to 30 per cent and loss in 1000-grain weight between 3 to 23 per cent, depending upon the levels of disease. Delayed sowing favored incidence of spot blotch irrespective of nitrogen level and more disease developed at higher nitrogen level in all the three date of sowing. Higher levels of nitrogen at all the three date of sowing increased yield and 1000-grain weight and with delay in sowing, yield and 1000-grain weight decreased significantly at all the three nitrogen level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability Studies for Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Dark Brown Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

Gangishetti Ranjithkumar, Rajani Bisen, Vinod Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 43-49
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i830897

The present experiment was carried out during Kharif, 2019 at Jawaharlal Nehru krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. A total of 500 accessions were evaluated and observations were recorded on twelve traits viz., days to flower initiation, days to fifty percent flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, capsule length (cm), 1000 seed weight (g), seed yield per plant (g) and oil content (%).  REML analysis revealed significant differences among the 500 accessions for all the traits. It indicates an adequate amount of genetic variability present among the accessions for yield and yield attributing traits. Phenotypic coefficients variation values were higher than Genotypic coefficients variation values under the study. High heritability was recorded for all the traits under experiment. Genetic advance as percentage of mean recorded low for traits days to flower initiation, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity. Medium for traits oil content (%), plant height, number of seeds per capsule, whereas traits capsule length, number of capsule per plant,  thousand seed weight, number of primary branches per plant, seed yield per plant, number of secondary branches per plant recorded in high magnitudes. This result indicates preponderance of additive gene effect, which will help to make selection in early segregating generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Divergence for Hardseededness with Field Emergence and Storage Duration in Mungbean Genotypes [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

Debashis Paul, S. K. Chakrabarty

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 56-64
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i830899

Hardseededness in legume crops induces uneven germination or non-synchronous seedling emergence leading to poor and un-uniform plant establishment and uneven maturity, which ultimately reduces the seed yield. An experiment was conducted with 51 mungbean genotypes to assess the influence of hard seeds on field emergence and also to know the effect of storage period on the occurrence of hard seeds. The standard germination test was performed with freshly harvested seeds and also with the seeds after 18 months of ambient storage. The results indicated that percent hard seeds varied significantly across the genotypes. The percent hard seeds showed significant negative correlation with percent normal seedlings and field emergence. More interestingly, the average per cent hard seeds decreased to 5.5% in stored seeds from 18.1% in the fresh seeds. A reduction in seed hardness following storage of 18 months under ambient conditions was recorded in the identified hardseeded genotypes indicating the possibility of increased field emergence using stored seeds for sowing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Enriched Biochar Levels and Fertilizer Doses on Soil Chemical Properties under Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Production

S. D. Nimbalkar, D. S. Patil, R. C. Kote, P. R. Rajwade

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 65-71
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i830900

Intensive cultivation of vegetables and imbalanced fertilization depleted the soil nutrients and caused low yield with poor quality crops. A novel microbial enriched biochar and fertilizer combination could alleviate the soil and nutrient stress. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted with 14 treatments [4 levels of biochar (5, 7.5,10, 15 t ha-1), 3 doses of fertilizers (50, 75,100% of recommended) along with without biochar and absolute control] in spinach production. This study was conducted with randomized block designed and replicated three times in trial plot at BAIF, Central Research Station, Pune during 2020-2021.  Maximum growth parameters (plant height, leaf length, leaf width and petiole length) were recorded in (T4) with Biochar @ 10 tha-1 + 75% of RDF followed by in (T7) Biochar @ 7.5 tha-1 +50% of RDF. Whereas, the highest Spinach yield (18.58 tha-1) was recorded under (T4) Biochar @ 10 tha-1 + 75 % of RDF followed by (T3) Biochar @ 7.5 tha-1 + 75 % of RDF recorded (17.93 tha-1). The treatment (T1) @ 100 % RDF has registered as superior from an economic point of view. Furthermore, the minimum values of growth and yield were recorded under absolute control. Based on the above results it is concluded that the combined application of microbial enriched biochar(10t ha-1) and fertilizers (75% of recommended dose) enhanced the nutrient availability to spinach for maximum growth and yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Early Growth Dynamics of Selected Accessions of Garcinia indica (Choisy) in Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka

N. Mujadadi, B. Fakrudin, U. Jayashree, M. K. Honnabyraiah, G. S. K. Swamy, K. R. Vasudeva, M. Pappireddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 72-80
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i830904

A set of 60 accessions of Garcinia indica (Choisy), comprised of two to five years old, established as part of ex-situ field gene bank at the College of Horticulture, Bengaluru were evaluated for growth and development related characters over two consecutive years, 2019-20 and 2020-21.   A set of 11 growth traits significantly varied in their relative per cent increase over successive years.  Among all the growth parameters, tree volume recorded a maximum per cent increase of 186.56 per cent.   The extent of variation as measured by range for different traits varied- plant height: 176.24cm to 350.44cm; number of branches: 22 to 42.24; length of branch 6.00 cm to 168.00cm; number of leaves: 59.00 to 80.00; stem girth: 11.28 cm to 35.17cm; canopy spread (East-West): 116.15cm to 267.33cm; canopy spread (North-South): 135.00 cm to 276.00 cm; and tree volume: 1.68m3 to 13.91m3. Plant height was  150cm in 2019 and 220cm in 2020 in GI_SIR7;  210cm -290cm in GI_DAN2, 320cm-380cm in GI_YAN4 and 330-410 in GI_KAN3, respectively in two, three, four and five-year-old age groups. The traits such as number of branches, length of the branch, number of leaves, stem girth, canopy spread East-West and tree volume increased gradually over two years of study.  The results have significance in per se establishment of the species in non-traditional areas such as this agro-climatic zone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Livelihood Analysis of Small Tea Growers by Analysing their Farming Systems and Resource Utilization in Jorhat District

Shyamal Kishore Bordoloi, M. Deka, R. P. Bhuyan, A. S. Gogoi, S. K. Phukon, S. Sonowal, N. Tanti, T. Hussain

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 81-91
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i830905

The study was undertaken with the objective to examine the existing farming systems and utilization of resources in Titabar Sub division of Jorhat district, which include two development blocks viz. Titabar development block and Jorhat East development block. Primary data revealed that in the study  area, five types farming systems existed viz. Tea, Field & Horticulture crops, Plantation crops excluding tea (FS-I), Tea, Field & Horticulture crops, Plantation crops excluding tea, Fishery (FS-II), Tea, Field & Horticulture crops, Fishery (FS-III), Tea, Field & Horticulture crops (FS-IV) and Tea, Plantation crops excluding tea (FS-V). The variable cost involved in various farming systems was found to be highest in FS-II (Rs. 163946.96 farm-1yr-1) and was lowest in FS-IV (Rs. 52420.20 farm-1yr-1) whereas after undergoing ANOVA single factor analysis of the Benefit Cost ratios, it was found that FS-II has the highest mean value (2.92) and FS-IV has the lowest mean (0.89) which was due to variation in inclusion of different components in the farming systems. Small tea growers of the study area had a wide scope of augmenting the income from their limited farm resources by following proper cultivation practices, moving towards organic tea cultivation, forming farmer producer company through which they can collectively bargain for inputs and sell the tea in a common platform. Involving high yielding varieties of other components, crop rotation, diversification of enterprise, proper utilization of fallow land and market consciousness can help in increasing the income from the other components other than tea.

Open Access Review Article

Effective Diversified Uses of Tapioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) and Borkesseru (Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.): The Promising Secondary Host Plants of Eri Silkworm

Priyanka Chamuah, Aparupa Borgohain, Jyoti Prasad Baruah, Dipankar Hatibaruah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 50-55
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i830898

Eri culture is an age old traditional activity associated with the socio-economic life of the rural population of the country. Eri silkworm (Samia ricini Donovan) is a multivoltine silkworm which is polyphagous in nature. It feeds on number of primary, secondary and tertiary host plants. Tapioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) and borkesseru (Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.) are regarded as the secondary host plants of eri silkworm and these plants species have enormous potentialities due to having certain properties for utilization in multiple purposes.  Besides utilization as a host plant for silkworm rearing, the various parts of the plants can be exploited commercially. The plant parts can be used for human consumption, industrial as well as medicinal purposes. Moreover, they can also be utilized as a fodder, pesticides, fuel etc. Huge potentialities of product diversification of these plants will give a new dimension to eri industry. Hence, popularization of diversified uses of tapioca and borkesseru is very necessary to uplift the rural economy of the country. This review mainly focuses on the importance of tapioca and borkesseru not only as host plants of eri silkworm but also its utility in numerous purposes.