Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity of Lentil as Affected by Micronutrient Application at Old Alluvial Zone of West Bengal, India

Shyamashree Roy, Tapas Kumar Pandit

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030917

Field trial was conducted to optimize the micronutrient application in lentil crop (Variety-WBL-77) at Regional Research Station (Old Alluvial Zone), Uttar BangaKrishi Viswavidyalaya, Majhian during 2019-20 and 2020-21. Foliar application of Fe, Zn and B (at 50 and 100 ppm each) were applied twice, first at pre anthesis stage and second at pod development stage. Parameters such as plant height (cm), dry matter (g/m2), number of nodules per plant and number of pods per plant were observed highest with T8(RDF+50 ppm Zn+Fe+B foliar spray) treatment whereas the T1 (RDF) showed the lowest value for each parameter.  T3 (RDF+100 ppm Zn foliar spray) resulted with maximum 1000 seed weight (g). T8 (RDF+50 ppm Zn+Fe+B foliar spray) was also recorded with the highest seed yield (kg/ha), stover yield (kg/ha). Both T7 (RDF+100 ppm B foliar spray) and T8 (RDF+50 ppm Zn+Fe+B foliar spray) treatments were resulted with the same value of harvest index followed by the rest of the treatments. Therefore, the treatment T8 (RDF+50 ppm Zn+Fe+B foliar spray) proved best among the treatments selected and can be recommended for lentil  (Variety-WBL-77).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation the Genetic Variability and Association Analysis of Soybean (Glycine max (l.) Merrill for Some Physiological Parameters

Monika Soni, M. K. Shrivastava, Yogendra Singh, Stuti Sharma, Pawan K. Amrate, Jhilick Banerjee

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 17-26
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030919

The present study was carried out to estimate the important genetic parameters, heritability, genetic advance correlation, and path coefficient analysis in fifty advanced breeding lines of soybean. Randomized Block design (RBD) with three replications was used to design this experiment at the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, JNKVV, Jabalpur in 2020. Genotypes were evaluated for eight traits based on important physiological growth parameters such as leaf area index 1 (30 DAS), leaf area index 2 (45 DAS) leaf area index 3 (60 DAS), leaf area duration 1, (30-45 DAS), leaf area duration 2 (45-60 DAS), seed filling duration, harvest index, seed yield per plant. All statistical analysis was done in CRAN R package. ANOVA revealed a sufficient amount of variability was found among soybean genotypes for all traits assessed, which gives an opportunity to plant breeders for the enhancement of these traits. The value of the phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) is greater than the genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV). The high GCV and PCV were observed for leaf Area Index 1, leaf Area Index 3, leaf Area Duration 2, seed filling duration, harvest index and seed yield. High heritability (0.8) coupled with high genetic advance as percentage mean (66.4) were recorded for leaf area index 1 (30 DAS). It indicates that the trait is governed by additive gene action and directional selection for this trait would be more effective for desired genetic improvement. Correlation coefficient study indicated that Leaf area index 1, leaf area duration1 and harvest index showed a significant positive correlation with seed yield. Greater LAI of soybean genotypes would be enabled greater radiation absorption during the seed filling period. Harvest index showed a significant positive direct effect along with a positive correlation with seed yield, which can be considered as suitable selection criteria for the development of high-yielding soybean genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Sugar, Sugar Candy, Jaggery and Honey Levels on Physico-chemical Changes of Bourbon Rose Petal Jam at Ambient Storage

Rajkumar Jat, L. N. Mahawer, H. L. Bairwa, S. Pilania, J. K. Tak, Hari Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 27-36
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030920

An experiment was carried out at Post Harvest Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan to analyze the physico-chemical changes during storage at ambient conditions. The bourbon rose petal jam ingredient combinations were studied at monthly intervals up to 90 days at ambient storage for physico-chemical parameters. Quality changes exhibited increasing trends for total soluble solids, acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars, NEB and a* value whereas declined trends were recorded for ascorbic acid, pH, non-reducing sugars, total anthocyanins, total phenolics content, L* and b* value throughout storage period. The bourbon rose petal jam treatment combination T3 - rose petal + sugar (1:1.25w/w) recorded higher level of total soluble solids (75 0B), pH (5.04), total sugars (63.34%), non-reducing sugars (55.10%) with minimum increase in percent titratable acidity (0.10% to 0.19%) and considerably retarded loss of total antocyanins and phenolics content throughout 90 days storage duration. However, reducing sugars (47.69%) was found higher in T6 - rose petal + honey (1:1.25w/w) and ascorbic acid content (13.47 mg 100 g-1) in treatment T2 - rose petal + sugar (1:1w/w) at 90 days of ambient storage. Considering the chemical constituents mentioned above, treatment combination T3 - rose petal + sugar (1:1.25w/w) was found best over rest of the treatments during storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Different Approaches of Nutrient Recommendations for Aerobic Rice on Soil Fertility of Alfisols of Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka

N. Bhavya, P. K. Basavaraja, R. Krishna Murthy, H. Mohammed Saquebulla, G. V. Gangamurtha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 37-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030921

A field experiment to study the impact of different approaches of nutrient recommendations for aerobic on soil fertility of Alfisols of Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka was conducted during Kharif 2020 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS), GKVK, Bengaluru. The experiment was laid out in RCBD comprising twelve treatments replicated thrice. The results revealed that significantly higher grain yield (68.85 q ha-1) was recorded in treatment receiving fertilizer nutrients based on Soil Test Crop Response (STCR) inorganic approach for the targeted yield of 65 q ha-1 based on predicted soil test values which was superior compared to Low-Medium-High (LMH) approach and Blanket recommendation The higher post- harvest soil available nutrient status was registered in STCR integrated approach based on predicted soil test values compared to package of practice and LMH approach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Vertisols in Semi-arid Tropical Region of Chinnapalem Village of Guntur District in Andhra Pradesh

R. S. Raghu, P. R. K. Prasad, K. V. Ramana, Ch. Sujani Rao, B. Venkateswarlu, V. Srinivasa Rao, M. V. S. Naidu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 47-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030922

Eight representative pedons were selected from the study area and the soil samples collected from each horizon in these  eight  pedons were analysed for physical properties viz., particle size analysis, soil density, water holding capacity, volume expansion, pore space, COLE and LOI; physico-chemical properties like pH, EC and organic carbon; electro-chemical characteristics such as CEC, exchangeable bases, base saturation and ESP and chemical properties such as available macronutrients (N, P2O5, K2O, and S) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn). The Pedons 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8 exhibited an increasing trend in clay content with depth. However, no specific trend with depth was observed in the remaining pedons. Physical constants like water holding capacity, loss on ignition and volume expansion followed the trend of clay content. Bulk density showed an increasing trend with depth corresponding to decreasing organic carbon with depth in all the pedons. COLE values not followed any specific trend with depth in any of the pedons. The soils were neutral to moderately alkaline in reaction, non-saline to slightly saline in nature and low to medium in organic carbon. The CEC values were medium to high and exchange complex was dominated by Ca2+ followed by Mg2+, Na+ and K+. Soils were low to medium in available nitrogen, low to high in available phosphorous, high in potassium and deficient to sufficient in available sulphur. However, the soils were sufficient in DTPA extractable Cu, Fe and Mn and deficient to sufficient in DTPA extractable Zn.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Potentiality of Different Mango Genotypes for Flowering, Fruiting and Yield of fruits under the Red and Lateritic Zone of West Bengal

Anita Rasaily, Prerna Baraily, Goutam Mandal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 97-102
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030923

The present investigation was carried out at mango orchard of Rathindra Krishi Vigyan Kendra, near Palli-Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Sriniketan, Visva- Bharati, West Bengal, during the period of 2014- 2015 to study the potentiality of different cultivars of mango with regards to flowering, fruiting and yield of fruits. Total nine mango cultivars namely, Amrapali, Mallika, Kohitur, Ranipasand, Golabkhas, Bombai, Kohinoor, Enayat pasand and Safdar pasand were selected. One mango tree represents a single replication and each treatment or a cultivar was replicated three times. The observations were recorded as tree height(cm), tree spread(cm), trunk girth shoot length(cm), shoot girth (cm), primary shoot girth (cm), number of panicles per branch, length of panicle at anthesis, full bloom period (days), number of fruits per panicle at maturity, number of fruits per tree and fruit yield (kg/tree). Amongst all the evaluated Cv. Mallika, Golabkhas and Kohinor was found to be superior under the red and lateritic zone of West Bengal. As per the result found these identified cultivar may be considered as a good donor for hybridization programme to evolve the superior varieties and can be recommend for commercial multiplication and production specially under the red and lateritic zone of West Bengal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on the Foraging Preference of Indian Honey Bee, Apis cerana indica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera, Apidae) Visiting Sunflower Helianthus annus L. Crop

C. Sowmiya, M. Murugan, P. A. Saravanan, A. Suganthi, K. Bhuvaneswari, M. Jayakanthan, N. Senthil, M. E. Hussain

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 85-96
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030924

Aim: Forage preference of Indian honey bee on neonicotinoid insecticides treated sunflower

Study Design: Randomized Block Design (RBD)

Place and Duration of Study: Insectary, Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore between August 2021 to December 2021 during the Adipattam season

Methodology: Bee activity was recorded by in situ counting method. Seven treatments with three replications (5flowers/replication) in Randomized Block Design were followed. Different treatments viz., Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 280µl/l, Clothianidin 50 WDG @ 80µg/l, Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 250µg/l, Thiacloprid 21.7 SC @ 1100/µl, Dimethoate 30 EC @ 1400µl/l (chemical check), Water control (Water spray) and Absolute control (no spray) were given at 50% flowering period using Knapsack sprayer. The number of bees visiting 5 flowers per 5 minutes was observed during morning (09.00-11.00), afternoon (13.00-15.00) and evening (16.00-18.00) hours of the day for seven days after spray (DAS). DAS. Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) academics was used to statistically analyse the data.

Results: The mean population of Apis cerana indica Fab. was more in absolute control (5.97) followed by water control (4.77), imidacloprid (4.10), clothianidin (3.40), thiacloprid (3.21), thiamethoxam (3.14) and dimethoate (1.90) during morning hours (09.00-11.00) of the day. The mean bee visitation rate was high in control (3.40), followed by water control (2.65), imidacloprid (1.77), clothianidin (1.52), thiacloprid (1.55), thiamethoxam (1.40) and dimethoate (1.17) during afternoon hours (13.00-15.00) of the day. In the evening hours (16.00-18.00), mean bee activity was high in control (4.95) followed by water control (4.27), imidacloprid (3.40), clothianidin (3.13), thiamethoxam (2.75), thiacloprid (2.53) and dimethoate (1.88). Among these different hours, morning forage activity of the bees are high in morning hours of the day followed by evening and very less in afternoon hours.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that Indian honey bees preferred to forage both on neonicotinoid treated, however at a reduced rate, and untreated flowers. Since, neonicotinoids are odourless, tasteless compounds that increase the risk of pesticide exposure for the bee colony owing to less capability for segregation of insecticide treated surfaces.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Pineapple Yield and Quality on Pinching of Crown Leaves Combined with Bagging of Fruits

Prerna Baraily, Prahlad Deb

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 74-84
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030925

The experiment was carried out during 2014-2016 at Horticulture farm under the Department of Horticulture and Post Harvest Technology, Institute of Agriculture, Visva Bharati, Sriniketan to study the ‘Response of pineapple yield and quality on pinching of crown leaves combined with bagging of fruits’. The experiment comprised of 9 treatment combinations of pinching of leaves with different types of bagging materials that is T1:control, T2: pinching of 3 crown leaves; T3: pinching of 6 crown leaves; T4: pinching of 3 crown leaves + bagging with thin jute bag; T5: pinching of 3 crown leaves + bagging with perforated black polythene; T6: pinching of 3 crown leaves + bagging with news paper; T7: pinching of 6 crown leaves + bagging with thin jute bag; T8: pinching of 6 crown leaves + bagging with perforated black polythene; T9: pinching of 6 crown leaves + bagging with news paper . Entire experiment was done by using RBD with three replications. Observations was recorded on yield and quality attributes namely, fruit length without crown (cm), crown length (cm), fruit weight without crown (g), crown weight (g), estimated yield without crown (t/ha), fruit juice content (g), TSS (oB), acidity (%), TSS: acidity ratio, reducing sugar (%) and total sugar (%). Results denoted that the fruit size, fruit weight, and estimated yield was found best with the treatment T9 (6 crown leaves pinching with newspaper bagging) and all the fruit quality parameter like TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing and non reducing sugar, and orgenoleptic score was also found superior in T9 (6 crown leaves pinching with newspaper bagging. These result is may be due to the fact that bagging keeps the temperature lower than external environment and helps to arouse proper development and growth and pinching of leaves consequently increases the weight of fruit and also make it convenient for handling and markinteng.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Study of Different Solvent Extracts of Fruits of Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb., from Dibrugarh, Assam

Sristisri Upadhyaya, Diganta Kumar Bora, Junali Chetia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 103-109
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030926

Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. is widely cultivated plant due to its significance use as traditional medicine. The fruits of the plant were collected from Dibrugarh district of Assam, India. The present study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of the fruits of Terminalia bellerica. Antioxidant and phytochemical analysis were carried out using standard methods and the results revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, phenols and glycosides in the fruit sample. Among the solvent used for the extraction process, Ethyl acetate extract recorded the highest phenol content (6.56±0.004mgCE/gm dried body weight) and antioxidant activity (67.00± 0.12%) against DPPH. Similarly, ethyl acetate extract recorded the highest (22±1mm) inhibition against B. subtilis compared to Chloramphenicol (30mcg) and Clotrimazole (10mcg). It is concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of the fruits Terminelia bellerica yielded the best results and more efficacious in terms of antimicrobial activity which makes it more useful in new drug development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Physiological Parameters of Filler Crops Intercropped under Rubber Plantation

R. Swarna Priya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 68-73
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030927

Cut foliage’s assume a significant place in domestic and international flower markets and it make up a prime section of floral industry as fillers. Cut foliages are being used in large quantities for floral decoration either on its own or in association with flowers in bouquets and flower arrangements. Most of these are shade loving and so they are suitable for intercropping in rubber plantations under shade. In this study a total of nine species where intercropped in rubber plantations. The experiment was laid down in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The physiological parameters of filler crops were analysed. It was found that the species Dypsis lutesence exhibited highest leaf area (188.4cm2/plant), leaf area index (0.0232), Absolute Growth Rate (0.41 g/day) and Crop Growth Rate (g/m2/day) whereas the total chlorophyll content was found to be the highest (1.77 mg/g leaf tissue) in Dracaena fragrans cv. massangeana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heterosis Studies in Sweet Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] for Bio-ethanol and Its Related Traits

P. Kavya, V. Satyanarayana Rao, J. V. Ramana, B. Sreekanth, Y. Radhakrishna, S. K. Nafeez Umar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 125-139
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030928

Sweet sorghum is a potential multipurpose crop for food, feed, and fuel. The present investigation was conducted to study the possibility of exploiting heterosis in breeding for improved ethanol yield in sweet sorghum. A total of sixteen F1 hybrids crossed in L x T fashion, 8 parents (4lines x 4 testers) and check CSH-22S were evaluated in 3 locations of A.P namely., Agricultural college farm, Bapatla; Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur; Agricultural Research Station, Garikapadu in RBD fashion for days to 50 % flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of nodes per plant, stem girth, fresh stalk weight, panicle weight, 1000 grain weight, juice yield, brix %, total soluble sugars, ethanol yield and grain yield. The range of heterosis over mid parent, better parent and commercial check indicated that it was high with respect to ethanol productivity related traits particularly juice yield and brix per cent. However, it was deviating for days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, number of nodes per plant, plant height, and 1000 grain weight which has shown negative heterosis. In hybrids, there is an improvement in the juice, brix per cent and ethanol yield, but heterosis is limited for 1000 grain weight and ultimately grain yield. Out of 16 hybrids, six hybrids have performed well in respect of juice yield, brix and ethanol yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Rainfall Variability on the Occurrence of Crop Pests at Foumbot Subdivision, West Region of Cameroon

Thierry Gaitan Tchuenga Seutchueng, Mesmin Tchindjang, Nono Carine Temegne, Stéphane Martial Kamtchoum, Patrick Kenfack Fogang

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 110-124
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030929

Rainfall is an essential climate variable for plant development. Its variability has an impact on the plant phenology. The present study aimed to analyze the variation in rainfall in order to determine the rainfall hazard responsible to the occurrence of pest and diseases in tomato and maize. The study was carried out at Foumbot located in the Western Region of Cameroon, more specifically in the Noun Division. Part of this district occupies the left bank of the river Noun, more precisely the Noun plain. The rainfall data was collected from the period of 1997 to 2019 and analyzed. Monthly data was collected from 1997 to 2019 and daily data from 2010 to 2019.The surveys were made with three groups of actors: the agricultural services (the Agricultural Delegation of Foumbot), the agricultural research services (IRAD of Foumbot), and the farmers' organizations (the Common Initiative Group (CIG) and cooperatives). Stratified random sampling was used for the surveys. The results revealed that the first cropping season from March to July is characterized by an increase in consecutive dry days of 5 to more than 7 days. This situation has been confirmed by 30% of the investigated actors, who mentioned that consecutive days without rain were favorable to the appearances of pest and diseases. The SPI (Standard Precipitation Index) analysis of rainfall data showed that this can be link to the prolongation of the dryness season in the cropping season which started in March. Therefore, the monthly SPI consider March as a dry month. So, March and May are not suitable for the beginning of cropping season due to the multiplication of drought episode. The tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) and the armyworm had been identified as the pest and disease which appear during the consecutive dry days. They are characterized by an increase in temperature. The study is useful for agricultural drought management and crop productivity in an unpredictable environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Earliness of Bt Cotton Influenced by Moisture Conservation and Fertilizer Levels under Rainfed Condition

A. D. Pandagale, B. V. Asewar, K. S. Baig, I. A. B. Mirza, S. S. Rathod

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 150-158
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030931

A field experiment was conducted at Cotton Research Station, Nanded (M.S.) India during kharif season of 2019 and 2020 to study effect of moisture conservation practices and fertilizer levels on earliness of Bt cotton under rainfed condition. The trial was conducted with Bt cotton hybrid NHH 44 (BG II) in split plot design and was replicated thrice. Four moisture conservation treatments (M1- flat bed, M2- opening of furrow at 60 DAS, M3- application of superabsorbent @ 12.5 kg ha-1 and M4- broad bed and furrow) were evaluated in main plot along with four NPK levels (F1- 80:40:40 kg ha-1, F2 - 100:50:50 kg ha-1, F3 -120:60:60 kg ha-1 and F4 - 140:70:70 kg ha-1) in sub plot. The broad bed and furrow (BBF) practice of moisture conservation was found to have significantly higher seed cotton yield (1369 kg ha-1) and per cent share to the total seed cotton yield was 58.58 per cent in first picking over control. However, opening of furrow recorded more seed cotton yield (1125 kg ha-1) and its share to total yield was 47.97 per cent at second picking. Seed cotton yield in second picking was significantly increased in moisture conservation practices. The BBF was found to have earliness with respect to various indices (Bartlett’s index, combined picking and day index, fraction of first picking index, mean maturity date index and production rate index) followed by other moisture conservation practices over flat bed.

Fertilizer levels didn’t affect seed cotton yield in first picking. Higher fertilizer levels of F3 and F4 being significant over lower levels for seed cotton yield in second picking; showed delayed crop maturity based on various earliness indices.

Open Access Review Article

Carrot Harvesting Methods: A Review

S. K. Gaadhe, V. K. Tiwari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 7-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030918

Carrot harvesting is one of the critical operations and is done once the carrot is matured after 90 – 110 days. Carrots grow on ridges and are harvested after loosening from the soil surface and pulling out roots by grasping the top.  For harvesting carrots manually in one hectare, an average of 250 – 300 man-hours are required which is very expensive for farmers besides the quantum of labor, manual harvesting involves considerable drudgery and human discomfort. The experiment was conduct in 2021-22 at Junagadh agricultural university. During peak time sufficient labors are not available that delay the harvesting and thus result in damage and loss to crop. The harvesting operation of carrots needs to be mechanized for time-saving, reduce drudgery involved, and also reduce harvesting cost due to these, the crop is cultivated on small scale and is one of the main bottlenecks in bringing more area under the carrot cultivation. The large-scale diversification and reduction in the cost of cultivation in carrot crops are mainly possible through the mechanization of the carrot digging process. In this study considered parameters ware digging efficiency, damage percentage, picking efficiency, conveying efficiency and field efficiency. Parameters was statistically analyzed by factorial complete randomized design method.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Drought Tolerance in Safflower

Marang Mosupiemang, Vallantino Erone Emongor, Goitseone Malambane

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 140-149
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1030930

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a multipurpose crop that can grow in arid and semi-arid environments because of its tolerance to drought stress, salinity, lower and higher temperatures. Despite safflower’s drought tolerance characteristic, drought stress can negatively impact its growth and development. Drought stress reduces plant height and biomass, leaf chlorophyll content and area, photosynthesis rate, yield components, oil content and yield, and fatty acid composition of safflower. Increased root to shoot ratio and growth of the root are some of the drought adaption mechanisms of safflower. Recent studies have reported biochemical and molecular drought tolerance mechanisms of safflower, but they are still in initial stages. Understanding these mechanisms can help in the management and breeding of cultivars with enhanced drought tolerance. This review compiles literature on the mechanisms of drought stress tolerance in safflower and approaches are proposed that can enhance better safflower management under water stress.