Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zinc and Iron Fertilization on Soil Nutrient Status of Direct Sown Rice

S. Janardhan, I. Usha Rani, P. Prasuna Rani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130932

A field experiment was conducted to find out the effect of Direct sown rice to zinc and iron nutrition at Agriculture College Farm, Bapatla during kharif, 2017. The experimental treatments include RDF (180 :60 :40 N-P2O5-K2O (kg ha-1); RDF + ZnSO4 @ 50kg ha-1 through soil application; RDF + FeSO4 @ 25kg ha-1 through soil application; RDF + ZnSO4 @ 50 kg ha-1 + FeSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 through soil application; RDF + foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.2% at 20 and 45 DAS; RDF + foliar  spray of FeSO4 @0.5% at 20 and 45 DAS; RDF + foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.2% and FeSO4 @ 0.5% at 20 and 45 DAS. The results revealed that, the soil properties viz., available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were not significantly influenced by fertilization of zinc and iron. Among the micronutrients there was significant influence on Zn and Fe content, while Mn and Cu were not significantly influenced by zinc and iron fertilization along with recommended dose of fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seaweed (Gracilaria edulis) Extract and Phosphorus on Growth and Economic of a Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.)

S. Sam Praveen Kumar; Shikha Singh, Neela Avani Pradeepika

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 6-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130933

A field experiment trial on blackgram was conducted during Zaid, 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P), India. The soil of the experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.3), organic carbon (0.73%), available nitrogen (274.46 kg/ha), available phosphorus (31.10 kg/ha), and available potassium (328 kg/ha). The foliar spray was applied thrice at different concentrations (5.0, 7.5, 10, and 15.0% v/v) of seaweed extract of Gracilaria edulis (G. Sap) with different levels of phosphorus (30 and 40 kg/ha) and control plot with water spray. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice. The results showed that viz: plant height (42.84 cm), number of branches per plant (7.07), number of nodules per plant (14.11), root dry weight (0.41 g/plant) were recorded significantly higher with 15% G. Sap + Phosphorus 40 kg ha-1. Whereas, plant dry weight (17.55 g/plant) was recorded significantly higher with 10% G. Sap + Phosphorus 40 kg ha-1. Also, the highest gross returns (62,716.50 INR/ha), net returns (26,259.00 INR/ha), and benefit-cost ratio (1.72) were obtained with the application of 15% G. Sap + Phosphorus 40 kg ha-1 when compared to other treatments. Thus, foliar application of seaweed extract could be a promising option for yield enhancement in blackgram.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact Fly Ash on Nutrient Status of Wetland Rice Cultivation

N. Maragatham, C. Pradipa, V. Geethalakshmi, M. Maheswari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 15-22
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130934

The phrase, “Rice is life” aptly describes the importance of rice in food as well in nutritional security, particularly in Asian countries. Soil nutrient management in case of rice cultivation mainly focus on the major nutrient application but rice plants require high quantity of silicate and micro nutrient but the cost is not affordable. Hence, Coal combustion fly ash has a high available Si content, alkaline pH as well as micronutrient was selected as a potential source in this study and the field experiment was conducted. Abundant supply of micronutrients like Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn along with P and K was recorded in the soil samples of plot treated with fly ash when compared with the plots with NPK alone. The availability of these nutrients has resulted in increased yield. Hence this would be scaled as an economically viable solution for hidden hunger in the areas in and around thermal power plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Inorganic Iron and Siderophore Producing Microbes on Growth and Content of Nutrient in Indian Sorrel Leaves (Rumex vasicarias)

Anshumala Kujur, Syed Ismail

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 23-32
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130935

A pot culture experiment entitled “Biofortification of Iron in Indian Sorel Leaves using Graded Levels of Iron and Siderophore Producing Microbial Cultures” was planned and conducted during summer season of 2021 at Department of soil science and Agricultural Chemistry, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani. The experimental results revealed that significant higher values of biometric observation in 45, 55 DAS and nutrient content a nd uptake in sorrel leaves at after harvest of crop were recorded. The maximum value regarding growth attributes as well as quality parameter was recorded under the treatment of 100% RDF + 60 mg FeSO4 kg-1 soil + Azospirillum lipoferum. In which maximum plant height recorded with 23.14, and 29.44cm, leaves number (10.50 and 21.92) at 45 and 55 DAS respectively, chlorophyll 3.42 mg g-1, fresh leaf yield and dry matter yield (214.33, 30.87 g pot-1) respectively which were superior among the rest of treatments. Moreover, regarding to quality attributes of sorrel leaves via. macro and micronutrient uptake significantly higher under the treatment of 100% RDF + 60 mg FeSO4 kg-1 soil + Azospirillum lipoferum as compared to control (only RDF).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Preplant Application of Post Emergent Herbicide Glyphosate on the Events of Germination, Growth and Biochemical Composition of Blackgram Seedlings

M. Keerthana, C. R. Chinnamuthu, P. Murali Arthanari, N. Sakthivel, V. Rajasree, R. Shanmugasundaram

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130936

Weed causes heavy yield loss when it competes with crops especially for light, water, nutrient and space. In crop production, weed management is a necessary operation to get a higher yield. Manual weeding operation is an easy and environmentally friendly method but it increases the cost of cultivation and makes the crop production practice a non-profitable business venture. Under this situation, the herbicide can be used as the most practical and effective alternative means of weed control. In intensive agriculture heavy use of herbicide affects the growth and biochemical composition of the crop. The objective of this study was to find out the effect of pre-plant soil application of post emergence glyphosate on the germination, growth and biochemical composition of blackgram seedlings. Results showed that glyphosate 1000 ppm did not significantly affect the germination of blackgram seeds. However, the higher concentration of 1000 ppm affects the root (1.08 cm) and shoot length (6.16 cm) compared to control (6.16 and 12.27 cm, respectively) and the lower concentration at the rate of 10 ppm enhance the root (6.26 cm) and shoot length (12.49 cm). Soluble protein content was higher in glyphosate 1000 ppm (70.60 mg g-1) compare to control (59.40 mg g-1). The finding concludes that the pre-plant application of post emergence herbicide glyphosate didn’t affect the germination. However it has reduced the root and shoot length of blackgram when applied at higher concentrations. Contrary to the higher dose the lower dose of glyphosate stimulates the growth and development of blackgram seedlings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Characteristics and Nutrient Status of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Orchards in North-Western India

Charan Singh, Parmod Kumar Yadav, Ram Prakash, Jitender Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 57-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130938

One hundred eight soil samples were collected from 12 guava orchards existing at different locations as well as 108 soil samples from non-orchard soils adjoining in the vicinity of selected orchards spread over five blocks of district Rewari namely Bawal, Rewari, Jatusana, Khol and Nahar. The samples were collected from 3 depths (0-15, 15-30, 30-60 cm) and analyzed for physico-chemical properties and available nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The composite leaf sample of guava plants was also collected from each orchard. Rewari district soils (orchard and non-orchard) were sandy loam to loamy sand in nature. The calcium carbonate content in soils showed an increasing trend with depth and it increased significantly with an increase in sand and pH. Soils were alkaline with low organic carbon and nearly one-third of samples were saline. Available nitrogen was low, available phosphorus was low to medium while available potassium was medium to high in soil samples. Despite the high content of available potassium in soils, the plant leaves were found deficient in potassium. Therefore, the use of balanced fertilizers is required for sustainable and enhanced productivity of the guava orchards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Compost Along with Bio Agents on Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L., Walp)

G. E. D. Sai Kumar, Sobita Simon

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 68-73
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130939

Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus L., Moench] a native of South-Africa and commonly known as ‘Bhindi’ is an annual malvaceous vegetable crop, especially grown in tropical and subtropical climates. It is also called “perfect villager’s vegetable”. Root-knot nematodes are considered among the top five major plant pathogens and the first among the ten most important genera of plant parasitic nematodes in the world. Amongst nematodes, root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica) causes severe damage to okra. Trichoderma viride, Pseudomonas fluorescene and Rhizobium were tested under field conditions during Rabi 2020-2021 for their efficacy against the Root knot nematode and growth & nematode population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Groundwater Quality Assessment of Shallow Coastal Aquifer in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh

P. Venkata Subbaiah, K. Anny Mrudhula, M. J. Kaledhonkar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 74-88
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130940

In the year 2021, a survey was conducted in the coastal mandals of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, to determine the quality of irrigated groundwater. A total of 29 representative samples were collected along with GPS locations. The water samples were tested for a variety of chemical characteristics, including: pH, EC, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+ , K+; CO3-2, HCO3-, Cl- and SO4-2. The pH, EC, SAR and RSC in groundwater ranged from 6.9-8.2, 0.6-9.2 (dSm-1), 1.75-17.59 (mmol l-1)1/2, -35-7.8 (me l-1). The concentration of cations viz., Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+ and K+ varied from 0.4-21.8, 1.2-20, 2.22-47.7 and 0.02-0.87 me l-1 with mean values of 8.51, 8.10, 19.30 and 0.23 me l-1 respectively. Concentration of anions viz., CO3-2, HCO3-, Cl- and SO4-2 varied from 0-0.8, 2.6-16.6, 2.0-52.0 and 0.4-21.8 me l-1 with an average values of 0.27, 7.19, 18.70 and 2.70 me l-1 respectively. The relative abundance of ions for most of the water samples were Na+ > Ca+2 > Mg+2 > K+ for cations and Cl- > HCO3- > SO4-2 > CO3- for anions. According to CSSRI classification of irrigation water, 41.38, 17.24, 24.13, 13.80, 0.0, 0.0 and 3.45 per cent samples were good, marginally saline, Saline, High SAR Saline, marginally alkaline, alkali and highly alkali, respectively. Spatial variability maps of pH, EC, SAR, RSC and groundwater quality of the study area were developed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Nutrient Status and Their Uptake by Melia azedarach Seedling

. Gulab, Ramesh Verma, K. S. Ahlawat, Rakesh Chugh, Chhavi Sirohi, Satish Kumar Mehta, Charan Singh, Mamta Khaiper

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 89-96
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130941

Melia azedarach belongs to the family Meliaceae, is a deciduous tree with a short bole and a spreading crown and one of the most important trees in arid and semi-arid area. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil microorganisms composing the essential components of the sustainable soil-plant system. These AMF form extensive extraradical mycelia which increases accessible soil volume for the plant to absorb phosphorus and water. The effect of three different species of Glomus (G. mosseae, G. intraradices and G. fasciculatum) of AM fungi inoculated with Melia azedarach drupes was observed in the nursery of the Forestry Department, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2019. The results revealed that application of three Glomus species in combination produced synergistic increase in soil macro and micro nutrient contents after harvest i.e. N = 119.86 kg ha-1, P = 16.91 kg ha-1, K = 260.86 kg ha-1, Fe = 5.95 ppm, Zn = 0.66 ppm, Cu =0.42 ppm and Mn = 1.63 ppm. Similarly, there was significantly higher macro and micronutrient (N = 1.39 %, P = 0.27 %, K = 0.63 %, Fe = 90.43 ppm, Zn = 32.24 ppm, Cu = 9.96 ppm and Mn = 31.28 ppm) concentrations in leaves after 180 days in the treatments when soil was inoculated with all three Glomus species. The seedlings uptake of macro and micronutrient was also found highest when three Glomus species were inoculated artificially and simultaneously in soil. Inoculation of the AM fungi improved soil fertility, nutrient content and uptake in Melia azedarach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Impact of Gas Flaring on Tea Plants in the South of Kothaloni OCS in the District of Dibrugarh, Assam, India

Ripsita Phukan, Indra Prasad Sahewalla, Diganta Kumar Bora

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 97-106
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130943

Effect of gas flaring on physiology and growth of tea plants was done by using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and analysis was done accommodating two seasons and five levels of distances during September 2019-March 2020. Plant samples were collected from (40-50) metres, (50-60) metres, (60-70) metres, (70-80) metres and control site (150-160) metres away from the tea garden situated south of kothaloni OCS in rainy and autumn seasons. The experimental plot was laid out at a distance of 40 metres away from the flare pit. The mean value of plant parameters namely relative turgidity, tea leaf area ,specific leaf weight, stomatal count, caffeine content, chlorophyll content, polyphenol content and plucking point density were decreased near the gas flaring while mean value of water saturation deficit of tea leaves recorded highest at distances closest to the flaring site.

Open Access Original Research Article

GxE Interactions Elucidated by AMMI, BLUP and Non Parametric Measures of Wheat Genotypes by Evaluated in North Eastern Plains Zone

Ajay Verma, Gyanendra Pratap Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 107-118
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130945

Highly significant effects of environments, GxE interactions and genotypes showed by AMMI analysis with respective contributions 53.2%, 24.9%, 3.5% towards total sum of squares. Interaction Principal Components axes (IPCA) values recommended the general adaptations of the genotype.  IPCA-1 scores pointed for G4, G2, G7 while IPCA-2 selected G10, G3, G9 genotypes. Both ASV & ASV1 utilized 46.2% of interaction sum of squares recommended G4, G1, G12 wheat genotypes. Based on 97.8% of interactions sum of squares MASV1 measures identified G7, G3, G5   whereas MASV measure settled for G7, G3, G9. BLUP-based measures HMGV, RPGV and HMRPGV identified G2, G8, G1 genotypes. Non parametric composite measures viz NPi (1) observed suitability of G2, G5, G7  whereas NPi(2),   for G10, G7, G9  while NPi(3)  identified G10, G9,G7 genotypes of choice. NPi(4)  found suitability of G10, G7, G9 genotypes. Biplot analysis of considered measures had seen about 65.4% of the total variation explained by first two significant Principal Components. NPi(2) , NPi(3) , NPi(4) formed a cluster adjacent to cluster of ASV,  ASV1, MASV, MASV1, Si7 BLStd, BLCV measures. Small cluster of IPC4, IPC3 placed near to cluster of BLUP based measures. ASV and ASV1 showed moderate to strong positive correlations values while MASV and MASV1 showed moderate strong positive correlation values with Si1, Si2, Si3 Si4, Si5, Si6, Si7 NPi(1) , NPi(2) ,NPi(3), NPi(4) measures. Non parametric measures would be useful to explain the GxE interaction while augmented with other measures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Properties as Influenced by Different Land Use Systems Under Subtropical Region of Jammu

D. Mamta, K. R. Sharma, S. Vikas, P. Ramphool, A. Samanta, N. S. Raina, Naresh Kumar Yadav, Davinder Paul Singh, Sheikh Amjid

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 119-124
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130944

The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of various land use systems on physical and chemical changes in soil. Soil samples were taken from five different land use systems: agriculture, horticulture, forest, agroforestry, and grasslands. Soil bulk density, mean weight diameter, maximum water holding capacity, pH, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels were measured. Forest land use had the lowest bulk density and pH in surface and sub-surface soil layers when compared to all other land uses, but it had the highest mean weight diameter, maximum water holding capacity, nitrogen, and potassium in surface and sub-surface soil layers when compared to all other land uses. Agriculture land use had the highest available phosphorous. The forest land use is best for soil bulk density, mean weight diameter, water holding capacity, pH, nitrogen, phosphorous over all other land uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact Assessment of Soil Parameters Affected by Gas Flaring in Tea Garden in Dibrugarh District of Assam, India

Ripsita Phukan, Indra Prasad Sahewalla

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 125-132
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130946

The gas flare is considered as the challenging and environmental problem and hence this experiment was taken to study the physical and chemical properties of soil of tea garden effected by gas flare located in south of Kothaloni OCS in Dibrugarh district of Assam during September 2019- March 2020. The design selected was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The soil samples were collected  from (40-50) metres, (50-60) metres, (60-70) metres, (70-80) metres and control site (150-160) metres away from the flare site in two different seasons namely autumn and rainy seasons. Soil physical parameters such as soil temperature, soil moisture ,bulk density, porosity, hydraulic conductivity and soil chemical parameters sucha as pH, organic carbon content, electrical conductivity, available nutrients (NPK) were studied. Soil temperature recorded highest (29.83°C) at distance (40-50) metres away from the gas flaring site and decreased with its increased distances from  the flaring  site while soil moisture recorded lowest (11.48%) at distance (40-50) metres which increased with far away distances from the  flaring site. Rest of the studied soil parameters viz., bulk density, porosity, hydraulic conductivity, pH, organic carbon content, electrical conductivity and available nutrients (NPK) recorded non significant variations along distances and seasons.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Water Requirements by Several Methods and Impact of Deficit Irrigation on the Date Palm Productivity and Water use Efficiency

Maged M. Alharbi, A. M. Al-Omran, M. A. Alwabel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 140-151
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130948

This study was conducted on (Khalas) date palm, which is well-known for its cultivation in the regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to estimate the monthly, annual irrigation water requirements and effect of different deficit irrigation levels on yield, soil moisture distribution and water use efficiency. The experiment consisted of four levels of deficit irrigation: 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) compared with traditional irrigation. Two different water qualities: well 4.79 dS/m and treated electrical conductivity 1.86 dS/m. Several methods of estimating water requirements were used, such as the Penman Monteith method, the evaporation pan, and the water balance. The results indicated that the traditional irrigation (farm method) gave the highest amount of productivity with the most water consumption. The results showed that the water requirements of the Khalas date at the 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) were 53.57, 37.67, 58.89 m3/year/tree, calculated using water balance, the evaporation pan and Penman Monteith equations, respectively. The results indicated that an increase in the amount of well water added by the traditional irrigation compared to the deficit irrigation, whereas the increase % at 100% ETc ranged from 38.71% to 195.59% using well water, while the increase % ranged from 22.63% to 280.37 % in March and November, respectively. While in the case of comparing the quantities of water added by the traditional method with 60% ETc of the water requirements, the increase% ranged from 78.71% to 235.59% in the case of well water and 62.63% to 320.37% using treated water of March and November months, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic and Mineral Fertilizers on the Growth and Production Parameters of Maize (Zea mays L.) at Djalingo in the North Region of Cameroon

Paul Sounou Alioum, Ghislain Seuyim Kouogueu, Francine Kengne Mediesse, Christelle Yolande Ngalle Simeu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 152-161
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130949

In Cameroon, maize (Zea mays L.) remains the staple food crop the most consumed in the northern part of that country. Therefore, investigation of the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers applied singly or in combination on growth and production parameters of TZEE-W maize variety was carried out from June to September 2015 in the locality of Djalingo in the North region of Cameroon. Field experiments were designed in Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) in three replicates treatments single or combinations of organic manures (Cow dung, Poultry manure and Cotton crab) with the inorganic fertilizer (NPK 150 kg/ha). Plant maize receiving the mixture of mineral and organic fertilizers significantly improved their growth and production traits. The highest maize grain yield up to 6.33 tons/ha was registered in the maize plot treated with the mixture of 1/4 Cow dung + 1/4 Cotton crab +1/4 Poultry manure +1/4 NPK while a moderate maize grain yield of 3.87 and 3.76 tons/ha were obtained in the combination treatments of 1/2 Cotton crab+ 1/2 NPK treatment and 1/2 Cow dung + 1/2 NPK, respectively. Thus, fertilization strategies that mix inorganic fertilizer with organic manures should be developed and adopted by farmers to increase and improve maize yield, especially in the northern part of Cameroon where famine and poverty are recurrent. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Nitrogen Doses on Shelf Life of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) Cultivars

Amit Verma, A. K. Bhatia, . Monika, . Chaman, Naveen Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 133-139
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130947

Shelf life of potato is highly variable depending upon various factors including nitrogen application and storage conditions. The perishable nature of potato tubers necessitates the study of factors affecting tuber post- harvest life. Objectives of this experiment were to study the influence of nitrogen doses on storage parameters of different potato varieties, viz., physiological loss in weight, decay loss and sprouting. The treatments consisted of four doses of nitrogen (control, 80, 160, and 240 kg ha-1) and three potato cultivars viz., Kufri Pukhraj, Kufri Gaurav and AICRP-P-39. After harvesting potatoes from the field, the tubers were cleaned and stored using a complete randomized design (CRD) and three replications, in a well-ventilated room for three months to assess their shelf life. The field application of 240 kg nitrogen per hectare resulted in the poor shelf life of tubers as compared to the ones grown under lower doses. However, the superior shelf life of potato tubers was observed under control during the whole storage period. Among the cultivars, Kufri Pukhraj had better storage quality than Kufri Gaurav and AICRP-P-39. Thus, to obtain maximum shelf life of potato tubers, the variety Kufri Pukhraj with no application of nitrogen is advisable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Analysis among Genotypes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for Yield and Its component Traits under Timely Sown Conditions

. Neeru, Vikram Singh, . Anu, Satender Yadav, D. K. Janghel, . Kiran

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 162-168
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130950

Genetic diversity analysis for yield and its component traits among 60 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under timely sown conditions distributed into seven clusters via D2 statistics using Euclidean distance method which revealed that the cluster IV had maximum number of genotypes followed by cluster II, Cluster VI, cluster I, cluster V and, cluster III and VII. The highest inter-cluster genetic distance existed between cluster IV and VII and the average intra cluster distance between the genotypes of cluster V was maximum. Therefore, genotypes in these clusters may be used to produce the superior hybrids and transgressive segregants. For grain yield and effective tillers had highest mean value in cluster V and cluster VI. Cluster V and VII had highest mean value for 1000-grain weight and plant height respectively. Traits such as by plant height followed by canopy temperature, days to maturity, days to anthesis and grain filling duration contributing total of 50 per cent to the total divergence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Household Waste Based Vermicompost and Fertilizer Effect on Yield and Attributes of Pot Culture Rice (Oryza sativa)

Kumar Chiranjeeb, S. S. Prasad, Rajani ., S. P. Singh, Vikram Bharati, Anshu .

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 169-179
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130951

Organic matter content in soil improves the soil health with supporting large microbial population and stabilizing soil health deterioration. The soil physical, chemical parameters improve according to the significant application of organic matter in soil. Integrated application of organic and inorganic sources and analysis of these components in response to its effect on rice growth and yield attributes at different stages is of major concerned study. Application of four levels of vermicompost (0 t ha-1, 1.25 t ha-1, 2.5 t ha-1, 3.7 t ha-1) and three levels of fertilizer (0%, 100%, 50% Recommended Dose of Fertilizer) were taken in a pot culture experiment and total of 36 pots i.e. twelve treatments replicate thrice for analyzing its effects on growth and yield attributes of rice crop (Variety-Rajendra Bhagawati) with using factorial Completely Randomized Design statistical method for data analysis and validation. Application of higher doses of vermicompost 3.7 t ha-1 and higher dose of fertilizer i.e. 100% RDF content in combination produced elevated grain and straw yield and also boosted growth attributes (Panicle length, test weight, number of tillers, grains per panicle), root volume as well as chlorophyll content from initial growth up to the harvesting time over the control due to buildup of organic matter and nutrient mobilization in soil.

Open Access Review Article

Biotechnological Aspects and Genetic Diversity Assessment in Zingiber Species

Mayank Gupta, D. K. Pandey

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 40-56
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130937

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a zingerbiaceae family member. It is a very important old-world crop with a Mediterranean provenance. Its origins may be traced back to Southeast Asia. It was first grown in India and China. Later it reached Asia Minor. It arrived in Europe in the early Middle Ages. The tropics now cultivate it widely. It is India's most important horticulture crop, used in culinary, ayurvedic medicine, and pharmaceutical industries. India has many types of ginger species. So, it's vital to research the various ginger species and kinds. It is grown in Nepal, Thailand, India, China, and throughout Asia. RAPD and ISSR are utilized as molecular markers for this purpose. For their protection, to avoid cross-species germplasm fusion, and to conserve their vital species. The growing demand for ginger in the food and beverage industry is driving market expansion. The growing use of ginger in food products such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, soups, and sauces are likely to drive the worldwide ginger market growth. Global consumer awareness of ginger's health advantages is positively fueling the ginger market. The global ginger market is likely to benefit from rising consumer demand for bakery and convenience foods. This paper aims to inspire scientists/researchers to develop efficient techniques for molecularly authenticating powerful zingiber species.

Open Access Review Article

Technologies for Enhancing Water Productivity through Remote Sensing and GIS

Ved Prakash, Hanuman Prasad Pandey, R. K. Pathak, A. K. Sachan, S. B. Pandey, Shivam Pandey

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 180-192
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1130953

Water is the essential component of the agricultural system as well as another biota so that precisely management needs to save it for the future generation. So many types of water problems are there on the earth to affect the ecosystem whereas some dangerous problems are created by the uneven management of water such as flood, drought, metallic contamination, water pollution, wastage of water, and drainage, etc. Remote sensing and GIS technology are important and useful tools for the sustainable agricultural management system. The integrated use of remote sensing and GIS technology in several areas for the sustainable agricultural management system in India. Even with their importance, data required monitoring the productivity of land and water resources over the vast areas are usually not available or accessible. Satellite measurements from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather satellite are combined in this study with the ancillary in situ data into a Geographic Information System (GIS). Remote sensing measurements are converted to crop yield, to actual evapotranspiration and indirectly to the net groundwater use. The GIS data consist of canal-water deliveries and rainfall records. For each of the canal commands, the productivity of water is calculated. Maximum variability in the data is found from different canals commands area in the Indus basin. It has resulted that water productivity is being controlled by the crop yields than by water input. Remote sensing and GIS technology are being effectively utilized in India in several areas for sustainable agricultural development and management. The areas of sustainable agricultural development include cropping system analysis, agro-ecological zonation, quantitative assessment of soil carbon dynamics and soil productivity, soil erosion inventory, integrated agricultural drought assessment and management and Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD). Remote Sensing and GIS technology demonstrated to be an effective tool for suggesting action plans or management strategies for agricultural sustainability of any region.