Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Nitrogen and Plant Growth Regulators on Nutrient Concentration and Uptake of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L. Sprague)

Sheeshpal Choudhary, A. C. Shivran, B.L. Dudwal, Meena Choudhary, Rajendra Jakhar, Shiv Prasad Daroga

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 73-77
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230962

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2016-17 entitled “Effect of nitrogen and plant growth regulators on nutrient concentration and uptake of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L. sprague)” at Agronomy farm, Sri Karan Narendra College of Agriculture, Jobner in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. The experiment comprising of total twenty treatment combinations consisting four levels of nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90 kg ha-1) and five levels of plant growth regulators (control, NAA 50 ppm at 40 day after sowing, NAA 50 ppm at 40 and 60 day after sowing, thiourea 500 ppm at 40 day after sowing, thiourea 500 ppm at 40 and 60 day after sowing) laid out in factorial randomized block design replicated thrice. The results showed that application of nitrogen up to 30 kg ha-1 significantly higher nitrogen concentration in grain and straw over control. However, total nitrogen uptake was significantly increased with application of 60 kg N ha-1 over lower levels, but remained at par with 90 kg N ha-1. Foliar application of plant growth regulators significantly increased nitrogen concentration in grain, straw and total nitrogen uptake of ajwain over control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fluoride in Groundwater, Its Variation with Seasons and Relationship with Other Water Quality Parameters in Rangareddy District of Telangana, India

M. Ranjith, S. Sridevi, K. Jeevan Rao, T. Ramesh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230952

Fluorine, which occurs naturally as fluoride in the earth’s crust in small amounts, is essential to humans and animals and is known to stimulate plant growth when present in small concentrations. However, higher concentrations of fluoride in drinking water cause dental and skeletal fluorosis in animals and humans and when present in high concentrations in groundwater used for irrigation, it accumulates in the plants and the soil and causes undesirable effects. A study was carried out during kharif, 2015 and rabi season of 2015-16 in Talakondapalle Mandal of Rangareddy District, Telangana state, India, to measure and map the distribution of fluoride in groundwater in borewells used for irrigation, to observe seasonal variation in fluoride content and to examine the relationship of fluoride with other water quality parameters such as pH, EC, Cl-1, CO3-, HCO3-, SO4-2, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+, RSC and SAR. Fluoride in groundwater ranged between 0.72 to 4.50 ppm with a mean of 2.84 ppm and standard deviation of 1.30 ppm in kharif season and from 1.32 to 4.92 ppm with a mean of 3.29 ppm and standard deviation of 0.24 ppm in rabi season. Except for two borewells in kharif, fluoride concentration was higher than the permissible limit of 1 ppm. Groundwater fluoride map of the study area was generated using kriging technique. Fluoride concentration was higher in all the borewells in rabi over kharif with mean fluoride concentration being 15.8% higher in rabi season. Fluoride concentration was significantly positively correlated with pH, HCO3-, Na+, SAR and RSC of ground water and significantly negatively correlated with Ca+2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Weed Management on Weed Growth, Performance, Profitability and Economics of Wheat in Transitional Plain of Luni Basin

Arjun Lal Bijarnia, P. C. Yadav, A. S. Godara, N. V. Saresh, D. M. Meena, Sohan Lal Boori

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 19-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230955

A experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Keshwana, Jalore under arid climate conditions in Rabi season during 2018-19 with the object of effect of herbicide on weed, wheat growth, yield and economics. The data shows that the treatment 2,4 D @ 0.5 kg ha-1 at 35 DAS+ hand hoeing 45 DAS recorded lower dry matter of weeds at harvest  (18.3 g), maximum growth, spike length (8.5 cm), No. of spikelet (17), No. of seeds per spike (54.7), seed yield (40.1 q) and Straw yield (59.1 q) of wheat, and at par with the treatment Metsulfuron 4 g ha-1 35 DAS + hand hoeing 45 DAS.  The treatment 2,4 D @ 0.5 kg ha-1 at 35 DAS+ hand hoeing 45 DAS also produced the maximum gross return (Rs 117763 ), net return (Rs 70886 ) and B:C ratio (2.51).

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Appraisal of Wheat Progenies for Grain Yield and Yield Attributing Traits

. Anu, Vikram Singh, D. K. Janghel, . Kiran, . Neeru, Satender Yadav

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 26-34
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230956

The present investigation was carried out in F3 and F4 progenies of wheat to study gene interactions and its attributing traits during the Rabi season of 2014-15 and 2015-16. The crop was grown in research area of Wheat and Barley Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. Most of the traits were studied positively skewed and were being governed by several genes indicating quantitative inheritance. Skewness and kurtosis indicated dominance based complementary gene interaction involving large number of genes having decreasing effect in the inheritance of plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight and biological yield per plant in both the progenies However, duplicate interaction was observed for grain length, number of spikelets per spike, grain yield per plant and harvest index in both the progenies, hence, genetic gain will be rapid under mild selection. Grain yield per plant and associated traits showed platykurtic distribution indicated the involvement of few genes in inheritance of these traits. This indicates that selection could be practiced for these component traits to increase grain yield per plant. Hence, as a concluding remark based on measures of shape in both F3 and F4, progenies directional selection will effectively enhance the performance of these yield attributing traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cow-based Liquid Manure and Spraying Schedule on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under Natural Farming

Neela Avani Pradeepika, Vikram Singh, Shruti Grace George, S. Sam Praveen Kumar, Shrish Kumar Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 35-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230957

A field experiment was conducted during Zaid (summer), 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P), India. The soil of the experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), organic carbon (0.75%), available nitrogen (269.96 Kg/ha), available phosphorus (33.10 Kg/ha), and available potassium (336 Kg/ha). The treatments comprised of Panchagavya (3%), Jeevamrutha (500 lit/ha), cow urine (2500 lit./ha), and spraying schedule on (7, 10 &15) different days. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments each replicated three times. The results showed that; Plant height (91.36 cm), number of branches per plant (5.47), number of nodules per plant (15), plant dry weight (20.31 g/plant) were recorded significantly higher with Panchagavya (3%) + at an interval of 7 days. Whereas, the number of pods per plant (7.27), number of seeds per pod (12.33), seed yield (1.28 t/ha), and stover yield (4.02 t/ha) was recorded significantly higher with the application of Panchagavya (3%) + at an interval of 7 days. Thus, foliar application of cow-based liquid manure with a different spraying schedule could be a promising option for yield enhancement in cowpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Zinc Fertilization: Effects on Nutrients Availability and Productivity of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Kanhaiya Lal Regar, Vijay Kumar, Jitendra Chandra Chandola, Saurabh Shankar Patel, Abhay Kumar Singh, M. S. Kundu, Santosh Kumar Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230958

In India, zinc is considered as the fourth important yield limiting nutrient after nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and it is essential for increasing crop production and enhancing animal and human health. To address these challenges, zinc fertilizations (basal & foliar) are practised for enhancing the soil health and crop productivity. The two years (2020-21 & 2021-22) on farm trial established at farmers field of district Saran, Bihar with the aim to compare the methods of zinc fertilization on plant available nutrients and crop productivity. An on farm trial was laid out in randomised block design involved seven replication of three different treatments viz., T1: NPK- 130:40:20 kg ha-1 (Farmer’s Practice), T2: RDF (NPK-120:60:40 kg ha-1 + Zn @ 5.0 kg ha-1 and T3: RDF (NPK-120:60:40 kg ha-1) + foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 at 25 DAT. The pooled results of two years trial revealed that basal application of RDF-NPK and Zn (T2) significantly improved the soil organic carbon by 16.22%, plant available N by 11.96%, plant available P by 15.32%, plant available K by 10.99% and plant available Zn by 24.00% as compared to farmers practice. The crop productivity was also improved by 24.22% and 14.43% in treatment having basal application of Zn (T2) and foliar application of Zn (T3), respectively over farmers practice (T1). A positive polynomial relationship was obtained between soil organic carbon and plant available zinc due to soluble complexes form by zinc with soil organic matter. Thus, the basal fertilization method of zinc @ 5.0 kg ha-1 along with RDF-NPK is potentially recommended over foliar method and farmer practices to semi arid region of Bihar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating Genetic Variability and Diversity for Vein Density, Photosynthesis and Yield in Rice Genotypes

S. Pavithra, A. Senthil, M. Djanaguiraman, M. Raveendran, R. Pushpam, N. Manikanda Boopathi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 48-56
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230959

Understanding the physiological and leaf anatomical traits having positive association with higher yields is critical to utilize these traits effectively in breeding programs for yield improvements in stable food crops. In rice, this would help in improving the productivity to feed the ever growing population. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to evaluate the variability and diversity of ninety-nine rice genotypes for photosynthesis, vein-related characters, and yield. The field trial was carried out in a wetland in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during Rabi, 2020. To investigate the genetic variability, efforts were made to estimate the percent of genotypic and phenotypic variation, heritability, and genetic advance likewise genetic diversity was estimated for twelve traits using Mahalanobis (D2) statistics. Analysis variance elucidates the existence of significant variation among the genotypes for all the twelve characters studied. The difference between GCV and PCV was narrow for all the characters studied which shows these characters are less influenced by environmental factors. The highest GVC and PCV was observed in yield and biomass simultaneously the high heritability in broad sense along with high genetic advance as percent mean was estimated in biomass, photosynthetic rate, yield, interveinal distance between major vein, leaf width, total number of veins, and total number of minor veins. These characters are considered to be inherent in nature and selection for improving these traits may be effective in the genetic improvement program. Based on the D2 value ninety-nine genotypes were diversified into five clusters in which Cluster II is the largest containing 37 genotypes followed by cluster I. The highest inter-cluster distance was estimated between cluster II and cluster IV whereas the highest intracluster distance was observed in cluster V indicating that genotypes in this cluster are highly diversified. Subsequently, the higher cluster means of most of the characters including vein characters, leaf width, and photosynthetic rate along with optimum yield and biomass fell in cluster II. Whereas in cluster IV the highest cluster means for biomass and yield was recorded. The traits biomass, yield, photosynthetic rate, interveinal distance between major veins, the total number of minor vein is the major contributors of total divergence in this population. Based on the trait contribution percentage for genetic diversity and genetic distance this study suggests that the genotypes from cluster II and cluster IV can be selected as parents for genetic improvement programs. Hence, information on the nature and degree of divergence in this population would help the plant breeder in the selection and hybridization procedure for choosing the right type of parents to improve vein characters, photosynthetic rate, yield, and biomass.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Genetic Diversity by D2-Statistics using Morpho-Physiological Traits of Late Sown Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

. Neeru, Vikram Singh, I. S. Panwar, . Anu, Satender Yadav, D. K. Janghel, . Kiran

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 66-72
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230961

The sixty-bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were distributed among the seven clusters obtained using D2 statistics Euclidean distance method on the basis of observations taken on various morphological and physiological traits namely days to heading, days to anthesis, days to physiological maturity, grain filling duration, plant height, number of effective tillers, thousand grain weight, grain yield, chlorophyll fluorescence and canopy temperature. Results obtained revealed that the cluster IV had maximum number of genotypes i.e.,17 genotypes followed by cluster I (13 genotypes), Cluster IV (10 genotypes), cluster VII, II, III and VI (9, 5, 3 and 3 respectively). The highest inter cluster genetic distance existed between cluster I and VI (6.559) and the average intra cluster distance between the genotypes of cluster VII (3.817) was maximum. Therefore, genotypes in these clusters may be used to produce the superior hybrids and transgressive segregants. For grain yield and effective tillers had highest mean value in cluster VI. Cluster III had highest mean value for 1000-grain weight and lowest values for plant height indicating genotypes were short. Traits such as days to anthesis followed by canopy temperature, days to maturity, grain filling duration, chlorophyll fluorescence and grain yield per meter contributing a total of 68.1 per cent to the total divergence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Organic Manures on Growth Performance, Yield and Economics of Kharif Maize (Zea mays L.) on Eastern Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh of Prayagraj Region

Abhishek Singh Yadav, Tarence Thomas, Ravindra Sachan, Avanish Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 78-84
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230963

The present field experiment has conducted during the autumn season of 2019-20 at the crop research farm of Department of Soil Science & Agriculture Chemistry, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (UP). The aim of study to evaluate the effect of different organic manures on growth parameters, yield, yield component and economics of autumn Maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment consisted of 9 treatments in randomized block design with three replications consisted of  T1: FYM @ 5 t ha-1, T2: FYM @ 10 t ha-1, T3: FYM @ 15 t ha-1, T4: VC @ 5 t ha-1,T5: VC @ 10 t ha-1, T6: VC @ 15 t ha-1, T7: BK @ 5 t ha-1,T8: BK @ 10 t ha-1, T9: BK @ 15 t ha-1. On the basis of the results emanated from present investigation, it could be concluded that application of vermicompost @ 15 tonnes ha-1 shows higher values in terms of growth parameter i.e. plant height (261.63 cm at 90 DAS), dry matter accumulation (177.56 g), cob length (20.82 cm) and cob girth (17.39 cm) and yield component i.e. number of filled cob plant-1 (2.33), number of grains cob-1 (442.88), number of grain row cob-1 (36.99), average cob weight (261.55 g) and test weight (220.53 g). Results also showed that application of vermicompost @ 15 tonnes ha-1 significantly enhanced productivity parameter i.e. Grain yield (3544.33 kg ha-1), green fodder yield (9810.67 kg ha-1), biological yield (13355 kg ha-1) and harvest index (26.54 %) followed by Bokashi Manures @ 15 tonnes ha-1. Higher values of economics viz., gross return ( 167915.9 ha-1), net return ( 333875.9 ha-1) and B:C ratio in maize was observed with the application of vermicompost @15 tonnes ha-1 except cost of cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir Himalaya

H. M. Ummyiah, A. S. Immad, N. Gazala, M. Shehnaz

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 85-91
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230964

The diversity in germplasm can be effectively used to breed desirable cultivars and to challenge the consequences of the biological, physical and chemical stresses in the growing conditions. In the present study, 30 diverse French bean genotypes collected from different regions of Kashmir and three check varieties viz., Arka Arjun, Arka Sharath and Contender were evaluated under randomized complete block design with three replications. The genotypes were evaluated in genetic variability using various statistical procedures. The pod yield per hectare correlated positively and significantly with Plant height, Pod length, Number of pods per plant showing a scope for simultaneous improvement of yield and yield related traits. Principal Component biplot revealed that genotypes Arka Arjun, Sel-3, DARS-17, KDR-2019-3, WB-1455, WB- 9596 were the most genetically distinct genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Molybdenum and Bio-fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

Koganti Harshini, Vikram Singh, Shruti Grace George, Shrish Kumar Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 92-98
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230965

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif, 2021 at crop research farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P) with the objective to evaluate the influence of molybdenum and biofertilizers on growth and yield of cowpea. The soil texture of the experimental plot was sandy loam, nearly neutral in soil reaction having pH 7.1. The experiment was laid out in Randomized block design with ten treatments and were replicated thrice. The treatments comprising of different levels of molybdenum and bio-fertilizers i.e. Rhizobium and Phosphate solubilizing bacteria whose effect was observed in Cowpea. The treatment 6 with application of molybdenum 4g/kg seed and Rhizobium + PSB recorded significantly higher in plant height (78.64cm), branches/plant (15.07), nodules/plant (37.87) and dry weight (45.11g/plant). Molybdenum 4g/kg seed and Rhizobium + PSB also recorded significantly higher in yield and yield attributes viz. pods/plant (16.20), seeds/pod (12.80), seed yield (1.50t/ha), stover yield (4.17t/ha). Therefore, treatment with application of Molybdenum 4g/kg seed along with Rhizobium and PSB was more productive and can be recommended to farmers after further trails.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Soil Chemical and Biological Properties under Dolichos Bean Cultivation

Anshunam Tomar, Jumi Saikia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 99-105
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230966

A field experiment to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on soil chemical and biological properties under dolichos bean cultivation was conducted during the months of June-October 2020, at the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-13. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with seven treatments which were replicated three times. The results revealed that the maximum available nitrogen (372 kg ha-1), phosphorus (47.13 kg ha-1), potassium (184.67 kg ha-1) were observed in T5 (25 % RD of NPK + Enriched Vermicompost @ 2t ha-1) and organic carbon (0.98 %) also found highest in T5 (25 % RD of NPK + Enriched Vermicompost @ 2t ha-1). The microbial population, soil enzymes activity i.e dehydrogenase (DH) activity (122.20 µg TPF g-1 soil 24 hr-1), phosphomonoesterase activity (50.90 µg p-nitrophenol g-1 soil hr-1) and soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) (240 µg g-1 24hr-1) were observed highest in T5 (25 % RD of NPK + Enriched Vermicompost @ 2t ha-1).

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Biochar Application on the Chemical Properties of Acidic and Neutral Soil

K. Haseena, Fasiha Balehonnur, Rinku Verma, K. T. Prasanna

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230954

Charcoal  produced from plant matter and stored in the soil as a means of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The purpose of this research was to study the impact of biochar application on soil pH and chemical properties in both acidic and neutral soils. Three types of biochar were used in a greenhouse experiment: 1) red gram straw biochar produced at 400°C, 2) pongamia fruit husk biochar produced at 500°C, 3) Calophyllum fruit husk biochar produced at 500°C, and a control in which neither of the biochar was used. Each treatment was applied with four levels of 4t/ha,8t/ha.12t/ha and 16t/ha biochars. Each treatment was replicated five times and whole experiment set up was done in factorial CRD (Completely randomised design). Two-way ANOVA was also used to analyze the impact of the biochars on soil acidity and other chemical properties. The results showed the application of biochar increased the soil pH in both soils. The increase in pH was more noticeable in acidic soil. In acidic soil calophyllum fruit husk biochar produced at 500 °C applied at 16t/ha showed highest pH at all intervals except at 120 days. The increase in pH in neutral soil doesn’t show any particular pattern throughout the incubation period. In acidic soil exchangeable bases such as Ca, Mg, K and Na were highest in red gram straw produced at 400°C. In both acidic and neutral soils, there was no definite trend in micronutrient contents such as extractible Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu. The incorporation of biochar can cause beneficial changes in soil chemical properties and improve the bioavailability of plant essential nutrients.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Soil Salinity on Citrus: A Review

Devi Darshan, Hanuman Prasad Pandey, R. K. Pathak, S. B. Pandey, Vipnesh Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 57-65
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230960

Citrus fruits are one of the most important fruit crops in the world. However, these are vulnerable to a variety of environmental stresses, including drought, over watering (water logging), extreme temperatures (cold, frost, and heat), salinity, and mineral toxicity. Above these factors, salinity is the one of the most significant. Because of its hyperosmotic and hyperionic effects on the soil rhizosphere, salinity is an abiotic factor that has detrimental effect of reducing plant development and yield. Citrus is a salt-susceptible crop as compared to other fruit crops, because citrus development and yield are dramatically reduced under salt stress conditions. There are a variety of approaches that can be used to mitigate the harmful effects of salinity, including alternative irrigation and the selection of salt-resistant root stocks. This review will therefore, concentrate on the influence of soil salinity on citrus production and feasible mitigation techniques to reduce production losses.

Open Access Review Article

Phosphorus Fractions in Soils of India: A Review

N. B. Misal, Narendra Singh, V. A. Patel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 106-112
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1230967

The different nutrient element are exist in different fractions in the soil. The available form of nutrients is responsible for the change in yield of crop significantly. The availability of different pools involves not only their physico-chemical nature but also the ability of the plant to forage them with plant root system. In Indian soil total phosphorus ranges from 100 to 2000 ppm but the available phosphorus ranges from 2 to 20 ppm. The forms of phosphorus present in soil viz. organic and inorganic. The inorganic form of phosphorus constitute about 30-35 per cent of total phosphorus. The inorganic P consist of different pool such as aluminum, iron and calcium bound phosphorus constitutes active form of inorganic P. The reductant-soluble and occluded forms of phosphorus are relatively less active. Different types of phosphorus are interrelated and add to the pool of plant-accessible P as per their physical and chemical properties such as surface area, composition and solubility.