Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Timber Yield, Biomass, CAI and Carbon Sequestration to Varied Pruning Intensities of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. in Agrisilviculture System in Central India

Satyajeet Kar, M. L. Sahu, R. Bajpai, S. B. Agrawal, R. B. Singh, Sandeep Rout

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330969

In Central India, an experiment was carried out on a 22 year old Dalbergia sissoo based agrisilviculture model in 2020-21 to investigate the response of different pruning intensities on Rabi seasonal diameter growth, timber production, CAI of total biomass, and carbon sequestration potential. Each year, paddy followed by wheat is grown under trees spaced at 5m × 5m continuously being treated with four different pruning intensities, i.e., 0% (P0: No pruning), 25% (P25: Light pruning), 50% (P50: Moderate pruning) and 75% (P75: Heavy pruning) of the total tree height. It was reported that different rates of pruning had a significant effect. Maximum Rabi seasonal D.B.H. increment was recorded in P0 (0.68 cm) and minimum in P75 (0.49 cm). Maximum seasonal yield of large-sized timber, small-sized timber, and fuelwood (5.80 m3 ha-1, 0.62 m3 ha-1 and 7.48 q ha-1, respectively) were recorded under light pruning treatment (P25). However, the minimum seasonal yield of large-sized timber and fuelwood (5.80 m3 ha-1 and 5.14 q ha-1, respectively) were under heavy pruning (P75) and the minimum seasonal yield of small-sized timber (0.32 m3 ha-1) under moderate pruning (P50).  Maximum annual above-ground biomass, annual below-ground biomass and current annual increment of total biomass (171.63 q ha-1 yr-1, 34.33 q ha-1 yr-1, and 205.95 t ha-1 respectively) were recorded under light pruning treatment (P25), while minimum (84.50 q ha-1 yr-1, 16.90 q ha-1 yr-1 and 101.40 t ha-1 respectively) under heavy pruning (P75). Carbon sequestration potential was reported to be higher with light pruning (92.68 q ha-1 yr-1), followed by moderate pruning (63.69 q ha-1 yr-1), while minimum under heavy pruning (45.63 q ha-1 yr-1) and no pruning (46.91 q ha-1 yr-1) at all. It was concluded that light pruning of 25% was best among the four treatments in terms of timber and biomass yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Component Characters Association with Flower Yield of Dahlia (Dahlia variabilis L.) Genotypes

Bhagyashree Narayana Hegde, A. M. Shirol, M. Harshavardhan, P. Pavan Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 9-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330970

Thirty five genotypes of dahlia (Dahlia variabilis L.) were studied for fifteen different growth, flowering, quality and yield traits for the association of different characters with flower yield per plant (g). The results indicated a significant and desirable correlation between flower yield per plant with the characters like number of secondary branches per plant, number of leaves, leaf area, duration of the crop, flower diameter, number of petals per flower, stalk length, individual flower weight, number of flowers per plant, number of tubers per plant at genotypic and phenotypic level respectively.. This provides a knowledge regarding association of various characters among themselves and to estimate the inherent association between genes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Geometry and Sulphur on yield, Oil Content and Economics of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

Vibhav Singh, Rajesh Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330971

A field experiment entitled “Effect of Plant geometry and Sulphur on yield and Economics of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)” was conducted during Zaid season 2021 at Krishi Vigyan kendra, SHUATS, Allahabad, (U.P.). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 6.7). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments consisted of Spacing (25x15cm2,30x15cm2,35x15cm2) and Sulphur (20 kg,30kg,40kg/ha) which were replicated thrice and effect was observed on Gujarat til-4 sesame variety. The result showed that there were significant increase in growth and yield parameters viz., The results obtained that yield parameters such as capsule (35.87/plant), seeds (38.47 /capsule), test weight (2.90 g), seed yield (867.97 kg/ha), stover yield (1554.20 kg/ha), harvest index (39.36%) and oil content (48.32%) were recorded maximum in the treatment combination of 30 cm x 15 cm + 40 kg sulphur at Harvest. However, in economic point of view, maximum gross returns (INR 82,456.83/ha), net returns (INR 56,779.83/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (2.2) were obtained highest in the treatment combination of 30 cm x 15 cm + 40 kg Sulphur respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Tillage Methods, Farmyard Manure and Potassium Rates on Cassava Yield and Root Quality in Kagera Region, Tanzania

Mgeta Steven Merumba, Johnson Mashambo Semoka, Ernest Semu, Balthazar Michael Msanya, Jojianas Kokulamka Kibura

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 33-50
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330972

A study was conducted in Bukoba, Missenyi and Biharamulo districts in the Kagera region Tanzania during the 2018/19 and 2019/20 cropping seasons to determine the effect of tillage methods, farmyard manure (FYM) and potassium (K) rates on cassava yield and root quality. Three tillage methods (flat tillage, tied ridging and open ridging), eleven fertilizer rates (FYM at 4 or 8 MT ha-1, N40P30 + K at 40, 80 or 120 kg ha-1, FYM at 4 or 8 MT ha-1 + K at 40, 80 or 120 kg ha-1) and the control, were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications, using a split-plot design. Tillage methods were the main plots and fertilizer rates were the subplots. The plot size was 6 m x 5 m with a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. Root yield ha-1 was collected during harvesting and about 500 g of cassava roots from each treatment were oven-dried at 105 oC to constant weight for determining dry matter content using the equation by [31]. Root starch content in each treatment was determined using the method by [32]. The results indicate that cassava planted on ridges gave significantly (P <.001) higher cassava root yields (18.98 - 34.84 MT ha-1) than flat tillage (16.86 - 29.74 MT ha-1). The combined use of FYM at 4 MT ha-1 or FYM at 8 MT ha-1 and potassium fertilizer at 40, 80 or 120 kg K ha-1 significantly (P <.001) increased cassava root yield (14.56 - 39.94 MT ha-1) as compared to other fertilizer rates (8.90 – 29.63 MT ha-1). In addition, the combined use of inorganic N40P30K120 or the combined use of FYM at 8 MT ha-1 and potassium fertilizer at 80 or 120 kg K ha-1 gave significantly (P <.001) higher starch (28. 04 - 34.06 %) and dry matter (39.57 - 44.93 %) content in cassava roots than other fertilizer rates. Therefore, planting cassava on ridges and the combined use of FYM at 4 MT ha-1 and potassium fertilizer at 40, 80 or 120 kg K ha-1 is desirable for increasing cassava root yield. Moreover, the combined use of inorganic N40P30K120 fertilizers or the combined use of FYM at 8 MT ha-1 and potassium fertilizer at 80 or 120 kg K ha-1 is desirable for increasing the content of starch and dry matter in cassava roots.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Organic and Inorganic Nutrient Sources on Yield Attributes and Yield of Maize-Mustard Cropping System

Abhimanyu Yadav, Awadhesh Kumar Singh, Pankaj Singh, Nishant Singh, Kumar Anshuman, Adesh Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330973

Soil quality deterioration, especially in intensive cropping system has become a serious problem for crop productivity. Consequently, strategies for sustainable crop production and soil health are urgently required. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to study the impact of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on yield attributes and yield of maize-mustard cropping system during two consecutive kharif and rabi seasons of 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design assigning eight treatments of organic and inorganic nutrient sources comprising of (T1) RDF (120:60:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1), (T2) RDF + Zn, (T3) RDF + S, (T4) RDF + Zn + S, (T5) RDF + VC (5 t ha-1), (T6) RDF + VC (10 t ha-1), (T7) RDF + FYM (5 t ha-1) and (T8) RDF + FYM (10 t ha-1) and were replicated thrice. The results reported that the higher yield attributes and yield of maize viz., number of cobs plant-1, number of seeds cob-1, cob length, seed yield, stover yield and biological yield and for mustard viz., siliquae plant-1, number of seeds siliquae-1, length of siliquae, seed yield, stover yield and biological yield were recorded with application of RDF + VC (10 t ha-1) which was statistically at par with RDF + FYM (10 t ha-1). However, seed index/test weight and harvest index of maize-mustard cropping was failed to show any significant effect due to above treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Productivity of some Barely Genotypes under Deficient Water Application in Clayey Soils

Rashad Abo Elenein, Mohamed Mansour, Tahany Noreldin, El-Sayed E. El-Shawy, Sally E. Elwakeel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 51-64
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330974

This study is intended to identify barely genotypes efficient for water use. For this, a field experiment was conducted at Sakha Research Station. The experimental design was randomize complete block with three replicates during 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 growing seasons. Twenty barely genotypes were grown under two water application treatments ((full irrigation (FI) and water stress (WS)). The values of applied irrigation water were 3430 and 1995 m3/ha under WS and FI, respectively, being lower by 42%, compared to FI amount, average over the two seasons. The interaction between barley genotypes and irrigation water revealed that plant height of line-7, spike length and number of grains/spike of line-6, number of spikes/m2 of Giza133, and grain and biological yields of line-5 were the least affected by WS, compared with their values under FI.  The highest values of WUE under WS were found for line-6 and line-11, which also attained the highest WP Line-8 and line-13, expressed the highest value of mean productivity, geometric mean productivity and stress tolerance indices. Furthermore, line-7 had the highest value of stress susceptibility index. Thus, based on WUE, WP and drought tolerance indices, it could be concluded that line-6, line-7, line-8, line-11 and line-13 have the ability to withstand water stress and could be selected for breeding programs for water use efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fertility Levels and Bio-fertilizers Application on Yield, Yield Attributes, and Economics of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Pratistha Yadav, Deen Dayal Yadav, Ankit kumar, Ravindra Sachan, Smriti Yadav

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 65-69
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330975

The experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2017–18 at the Students' Instructional Farm of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh to evaluate the effect of different fertility levels and bio-fertilizers application on yield, yield attributes, and quality of late sown chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The experiment comprised of 12 treatment combinations in split plot design which comprised 4 treatments [F1 (control), F2 (RDF 100%), F3 (75% RDF), F4 (50% RDF)] in main plot and 3 treatments [B1 (Rhizobium + PSB), B2 (Rhizobium + PGPR) and B3 (Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR)] in sub plots with three replications. Results showed that among the different fertility levels, application of 100% RDF significantly enhanced yield and yield attributes over other treatment. Among the different bio-fertilizers treatments application of Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR had significantly improved yield attributes and seed yield as compared to Rhizobium + PGPR. The combined application of 100% RDF with Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR resulted in significantly higher seed yield of late sown chickpea during winter (Rabi). Higher values of economics viz., gross return, net return and B:C ratio in chickpea were observed with the application of 100% RDF + (Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR) treatments except cost of cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Multi-function Disintegrator Grinding on the Particle Size of Garcinia indica and Garcinia cambogia Rind Powder

N. Mujadadi, B. Fakrudin, U. Jayashree, M. K. Honnabyraiah, G. S. K. Swamy, K. R. Vasudeva, M. Pappireddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 70-78
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330976

Ultra-fine formulations edible dried fruit rind material provides a vast range of opportunities for the development of new products and applications in the food systems. The Garcinia indica and Garcinia cambogia, both species have a range of uses from culinary to healthcare applications. The dried rind of both species was attempted to study size and proportion of ultra-fine powder formed using Multi-function disintegrator as a function of different durations of grinding. The particle size and relative proportions were assessed using Zetasizer dynamic light scattering apparatus. A set of three major peaks in each sample was analyzed for particle size and intensity. In G. indica the result in peak1 for size and intensity, the minimum size of particle recorded was 175.8 nm from the sample ground 60 minutes. In G. cambogia minimum particle size recorded was 461.01nm from the sample ground for 60 minutes. The different particle sizes ranging from 48.13 nm to 3705.63 nm was recorded in powder resulting from different durations of grinding at full speed of the disintegrator. The results suggested that samples ground for longer duration in a simple particle disintegrator could accumulate ultra-fine particles in both G. indica and G. cambogia rind samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Long Run Rotary Tilling on Soil Structure and Maize (Zea mays L) Root Growth

Shiddanagouda Yadachi, Indra Mani, Beerge Ramesh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 79-86
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330977

An experiment was conducted to examine the influence of soil aggregate size on maize root growth and development. The loamy soil samples resulted from different number of passes of rotary tilling experimental runs under the controlled soil bin were selected. The soil texture chosen in this study was sandy loam. The soil samples were obtained after the interval of 10 passes of rotary tilling (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 passes) at moisture content of 10.28 % (w.b). Soil samples collected were kept for the pot experiment. The roots were analysed at 8DAE, 16DAE, and 24DAE for their early growth. Duncan’s multiple range tests for the effect of soil aggregate size on root growth showed the decrease in root growth in soil aggregates finer than 1.5 mm. The decline in root length considerable after 30 passes of rotary tilling (40 passes:74.32cm, 50passes:63.77cm, 60passes:46.63cm).The declined root growth in soil aggregates finer than 1.5mm  was attributed to continuous rotary tilling deteriorated the soil structure and hindered the root growth. The soil structure starts degrading with excessive application of rotavator and which in turn develops compacted soil layers in 20-30cm sub soil depth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Production and Economics of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Chandu Lakshmi Deepika, Rajesh Singh, Vangala Siva Nagi Reddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 87-92
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330978

A Field Research done at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology, and Sciences in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh in Kharif to study the interactive effect of different levels of Nitrogen and Sulphur on yield and economics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) var. DRSH -1. Experiment was undertaken on an agricultural research farm in 2021. Nitrogen is a primary nutrient element which plays a major role in growth and development of plant and As Sunflower is an oilseed crop, requires optimum level of Sulphur to produce good quality oil. Thus optimum levels of Nitrogen and Sulphur increases the production and productivity of sunflower crop. A combination of 120 kg N/ha + 45 kg S/ha yielded the maximum Seed yield (1446.20 kg/ha), Stover yield (2794.39 kg/ha), the highest gross return (94.003 x 103 INR/ha), net return (58.619 x 103 INR/ha), and benefit: cost ratio (B:C ratio) (1.66).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sulphur and Boron on Growth and Yield of Greengram (Vigna radiata L.)

Chapirimatam Guru Deep, Vikram Singh, Shruti Grace George

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 93-98
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330979

A field experiment was conducted during Zaid season of 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agriculture Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh to evaluate the effect of different levels of sulphur and boron on growth and yield of Greengram. The treatment consists of three different levels of Sulphur (10, 20, 30 kg/ha) and Boron (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with Nine treatments replicated Thrice. Results revealed that significantly higher plant height (39.7cm), plant dry weight (13.27g/plant), number of branches per plant (6.20), Number of pods per plant (22.60), Number of seeds per pod (7.07), test weight (33.01 g), seed yield (1.58 t/ha) and Stover yield (2.67t/ha), were obtained by the application of sulphur at the rate 30 kg/ha along with boron 2 kg/ha.  The successive increase in fertilizer levels of sulphur and boron increased the growth parameters, yield attributes and yield of Greengram.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association and Path Analysis of Yield and Its Component Traits for Yield Maximization in Green Gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)

Surendra Singh, Pushpendra Singh, M. K. Bhargava

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 99-105
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330980

The present investigation was undertaken to estimate the correlation coefficients among thirteen quantitative traits and to study the direct and indirect effects of various yield contributing traits on grain yield by path analysis. Ten genetically diverse genotypes of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) were used as parents in line x tester mating design in addition to their twenty four F2 lines at Educational and Research farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Brahmanand P.G. College, Rath (Hamirpur), Uttar Pradesh during zaid, 2019 in a randomized block design with three replications each. The results of association study revealed that grain yield per plant showed highly significant and positive correlation, at both genotypic and phenotypic levels, with number of days to flowering, number of pods per cluster, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant and biological yield per plant (g) indicating possibility of simultaneous improvement for these traits. However, yield per plant for parents showed significant negative correlation with primary branches per plant and harvest index at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. In contrast, only clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, biological yield per plant, seeds per pod, seed weight per pod and 100 seed weight exhibited significant positive association in F2 generation, indicating existence of linkage. Harvest index had negative association with most of the traits at genotypic as well as phenotypic levels. Path analysis revealed that, biological yield per plant; harvest index and seeds per pod recorded the high direct effect in desirable direction. Their association with grain yield was also significant and positive except with harvest index, indicating true and perfect association between these traits at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Therefore, direct selection for these characters would help in isolating high yielding genotypes from highly segregating population. Among the traits showing negative direct effects were days to 50% flowering, branches per plant, plant height, pods per plant and seed weight per pod, however, these trait had positive association with yield. Hence, biological yield per plant, harvest index, seeds per pod and clusters per plant may be improved to enhance seed yield per plant and hybridization followed by direct and indirect selection for these traits may be undertaken for breeding high yielding cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Spacing and Plant Growth Regulators on Growth and Yield of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.)

Naripogu Amulya Manasa, C. Umesha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 106-111
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330981

A field experiment was carried out during Kharif season of 2021 at CRF (Crop Research Farm) of SHUATS, Prayagraj to study about the Effect of Spacing and Plant growth regulators on growth and yield Of Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) The test turned into specified in randomized block design by keeping three spacing levels, i.e. S - (20 x 10 cm), S2 – (30x10cm) and S3 – (40x10cm) and Plant growth regulators i.e. Boric acid 3000ppm, Gibberellic acid 50ppm and Salicylic acid 40ppm which was replicated three times. Results revealed that application of spacing 40 x 10 cm + Gibberellic acid 50ppm was recorded  significantly maximum plant height (81.62 cm), number of tillers per plant (6.16),  Plant dry weight (15.1 g/plant) and Grain yield (4.23t/ha). However,  net return (72,650 INR/ha) and B:C ratio (2.19 ) have been recorded with treatment of  40 x 10cm spacing  + Gibberellic acid 50ppm. Therefore I concluded that spacing of 40 x 10cm + Gibberellic acid 50ppm was produced more grains and economic effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Effect of Cloprop on Crown Size and Quality of Pineapple cv. Giant Kew

Alemla Imchen, Akali Sema, C. S. Maiti, Animesh Sarkar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 112-119
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330982

Aims: The present study was carried out to determine the effect of 2-(3- chlorophenoxy) propionic acid (3- CPA) on crown size, yield and quality of pineapple cv. Giant Kew.

Study Design: Completely Randomised Design

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Horticulture, School of Agriculture Sciences and Rural Development, Nagaland University, Medziphema campus.

Methodology: Five treatments consisted of different concentrations of the growth regulator viz., C1 (Control), C2 (50 ppm), C3 (100 ppm), C4 (150 ppm) and C5 (200 ppm) were evaluated with four replications each. Treatment was applied as foliar spray on pineapple crowns when apical flowers were in final stage of dehiscence. Growth and yield attributes viz., length and circumference of crown, crown to fruit length ratio, length of fruit with and without crown, pulp weight, peel weight, pulp to peel ratio, core weight, days taken to mature and dry matter content were recorded. Furthermore, biochemical parameters viz., TSS, titratable acidity, TSS: acid ratio, ascorbic acid, total sugar, reducing sugar and non- reducing sugar were analyzed, along with shelf life and Physiological loss in weight (PLW). 

Results: The experiment revealed C3 (100 ppm) as optimum concentration for reduction of crown size with minimum crown length (14.28 cm), circumference (49.72 cm) and crown to fruit ratio (0.83) and showed 48% reduction in crown length over control. Also, maximum values for length of fruit (17.22 cm), pulp weight (1080 g), peel weight (403 g), core weight (200 g), shelf life (19.33 days) and minimum PLW were observed in C3 (100 ppm). It was found that higher concentration of 3- CPA reduced TSS and increased titratable acidity. Incidence of burns on lower leaves of crown was observed in 150 and 200 ppm treatments.

Conclusion: 2-(3- chlorophenoxy) propionic acid is effective in altering the plant physiological processes and from the present experiment, treatment with 100 ppm showed effective result in terms of crown attributes, quality and shelf life.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Evaluation of Antagonistic Activity of Native Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Isolates against Alternaria solani Causing Early Blight of Tomato

C. Lalhruaitluangi, N. Tiameren Ao, L. Daiho, Susanta Banik, M. Aleminla Ao, S. P. Kanaujia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 120-127
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1330984

The present study was carried out in 2018-2019 at Department of Plant pathology, SASRD, Nagaland University to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of 24 native isolates of Trichoderma and 18 isolates of Pseudomonas against Alternaria solani by dual culture technique method. The test pathogen was isolated from disease infected tomato plants collected from an experimental field of Department of Plant pathology, SASRD, Medziphema campus. The results showed that all the isolates had significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogen. The highest inhibition of mycelial growth of A. solani was shown by T-5 (73.34%) followed by T-11(70.23%). The lowest inhibition was shown by T-24 (51.55%). Among the Pseudomonas isolates, highest inhibition in mycelial growth of A. solani was shown by P-7 (77.73%) followed by P-12(76.00%) respectively.  The lowest inhibition was shown by P-17 (53.78%). The results indicate that different local isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens were effective against the tested pathogenic fungi which provides their potential in biological management of early blight disease of tomato.