Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Water Management Practice and Spacing on the Yield Performance of SRI Method of Rice Cultivation

M. M. Hossain, S. Imran, L. Akter, M. A. Islam, N. Islam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36358

An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to study the effect of water management practice and spacing on yield performance of BRRI dhan29. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. The treatments consisted of three factor, Factor A (Depth of Furrow) consists of tow treatments D1-Shallow furrow (up to 3 cm deep), D2- Medium furrow (up to 5 cm deep), Factor B (Intensity of Furrow) consists of five treatments F1-Furrow made after 8 rows, F2- Furrow made after 6 rows, F3- Furrow made after 4 rows, F4- Furrow made after 2 rows, F5- No furrows (standard SRI irrigation), Factor C (Spacing) consists of two treatments S2- 25cm x 25cm, S2- 30cm x 20cm. In case of depth of furrow, the highest grain yield (5.766 t ha-1) was obtained from D2 treatment and the lowest from D1 treatment. On the other hand, the highest grain yield (6.287 t ha-1) was obtained from F4 treatment in case of intensity of furrow and the lowest from F1 treatment. But in the spacing treatment the highest yield (5.552 t ha-1) was obtained from S1 spacing and the lowest from S2treatment. In the combined effect of depth of furrow and intensity of furrow; depth of furrow and spacing; intensity of furrow and spacing the highest grain yield (6.393 t ha-1) was obtained from combined effect of  intensity of furrow and spacing and the combination of treatment was F4xS1. In case of combined effect of depth of furrow, intensity of furrow and spacing the highest grain yield (6.42 t ha-1) was obtained from D2xF4xS1 treatment combination and the lowest grain yield (4.10 t ha-1) was obtained from D1xF5xS2treatment combination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rhizoctonia solani Control in Field Grown Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Using Moringa oleifera Extracts, Beatrice, Zimbabwe

M. Goss, P. Mafongoya, A. Gubba

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/29837

Aims: To determine the antifungal activity of Moringa oleifera leaf, seed, and bark extracts in suppressing Rhizoctonia solani disease in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

Study Design: The experimental design was a 3 x 3 factorial laid out in a split plot in two blocks with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were carried out in the November 2015 to April 2016 season at Victory Farm in Beatrice, Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf, bark and seed aqueous extracts in controlling bottom rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani in cabbages.

Methodology: Bottom rot and root rot diseases are mainly caused by soil-borne pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani. The fungal pathogen was isolated from diseased samples, identified and cultured. Cabbage plants were inoculated with the pathogens 5 weeks after crop emergence.  Three Moringa extract concentrations of 60%, 100%, and 140% were sprayed as foliar applications weekly from week 7 after crop emergence until the week 11 after crop emergence. The antifungal activity for each of the different Moringa extract efficacy was evaluated by recording number of totally defoliated plants once every week for the duration of the study.

Results: Moringa extracts were significant in reducing the growth of fungi in cabbages (P = 0.05). The leaf and seed extracts which were not significantly different form each other in their antifungal activity. They both revealed a high level of control of Rhizoctonia solani with indice means of 1.552 and 1.697 respectively. The bark extract with a mean of 2.075 differed significantly from the leaf and seed extract in its antifungal properties (P = 0.05) and had the highest disease mean.

Conclusion: Rhizoctonia solani fungi growth on cabbage can be effectively reduced by using either seed or leaf extract sprays. Moringa seed and leaf extracts contain antifungal properties which suppressed R. solani progression in field grown cabbage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects on Water Stress on Daily Stomatal Conductivity of Stevia rebaudiana

G. Ece Aslan, Cihan Karaca, Ahmet Kurunc, Harun Kaman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36999

Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), an herbaceous perennial plant belong to Asteraceae family, is one of the important source of natural sweetening agents with non-calorie that can be used as an alternative to artificial sweeteners. Plant originating in Paraguay and the south-west of Brazil, have some usage possibilities in many sector and can accumulate glycosides which tastes about 300 times sweeter than sugar cane. The previous studies have shown that stevia plant is affected by water stress. In case of water stress, the plants close their stomata and reduced the rate of transpiration. In this study which was carried out at the Akdeniz University in 2016 under a rainout shelter, it was aimed to determine changes in daily stomatal conductance before and after irrigation (T) for consecutive 15 days. In this scope, stevia plants were grown under 6 different irrigation regimes (I) including a control (I100), plants irrigated with 100% restitution of water consumption and additionally 120% (I120), 80% (I80), 60% (I60), 40% (I40) and 20% (I20) of the control treatment and 2 nitrogen (N) levels including zero N (control, N0) and recommended nitrogen level of 10 kg N/da (N10) in a split plot experimental design with three replicates. Irrigation schedule was based on A-Class evaporation pan and soil moisture level. As a result of study, it was determined that stomatal conductivities were decreased with increasing water stress at each N levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of the Pre-transplant Pot Media Quality on Pansy Garden Performance

G. Hakim, E. Gandolfo, E. Giardina, A. Di Benedetto

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36877

Although there is a great amount of information about the production of bedding plants, little is documented on their post-production performance. In order to determine how the crop management affects the post-production performance, two growing media with significant differences in both physical and chemical properties during the pot culture were tested. The aim of this work was to understand how the substrate quality change the physiological mechanism related to biomass accumulation both during the pot culture and during the post-production handling. The hypothesis tested was that the growing medium at the pre-transplant stage, as an abiotic stress source, affect the performance during the post-production cropping as well. These novelty data show that plant quality and garden performance are dependent on the growing media quality during the pot culture as well as the plant genotype. The physiological changes involved included leaf area accumulation and biomass accumulation as a result of both carbohydrate production and partition. The positive relationships between the rate of leaf area expansion (RLAE), the rate of leaves appearance (RLA), the relative growth rate (RGR), the net assimilation rate (NAR) and root dry weight, which would involve the synthesis of cytokinins are discussed.

Open Access Review Article

Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease of Okra: A Recent Management Technique

Amit Kumar, R. B. Verma, Ravi Kumar, Saksham Kumar Sinha, Randhir Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35387

Yellow vein mosaic is a devastating disease of okra, caused by monopartite and bipartite begomovirus and associate satellites. Yield loss due to this virus is quite high, up to 80-94 percent is reported under heavy infection. To control this disease very limited success has been achieved by chemical method, which also is not permanent. Development of host resistance is only reliable mechanism to manage the disease. Availability of source of resistance for the virus is limited in the cultivated species of Okra. However, wild species A. manihot ssp. manihotA. callei and A. tuberculatus are reported to be resistant against yellow vein mosaic virus. Understanding the genetic regulation along with the molecular mechanism of resistance to okra vein mosaic virus would result in development of resistance cultivars. Also research have been performed from all strategy behind host resistance development, need to emphasis on more advance breeding technique to be utilized for improvement of crop like okra. In this review, attempts were made to compile all information about nature of virus, its transmission through the vector whitefly, congenial environment to disease spread, strategy behind development of host resistant, source of resistant and advance breeding technique.