Open Access Original Research Article

Salinity Change in Different Soil Layers of Tomato Irrigated with Salty Water

Harun Kaman, Ahmet Kurunç, Halil Demir, Ahmet Tezcan, Halil Demir, Ahmet Tezcan, Abdullah Sayici, Mehmet Can, Ufuk Gökçen

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/37062

Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stress factors that limit crop productivity, especially affecting the growth of plants in arid and semi-arid regions. These adverse effects of salt stress, which affects growth and development due to osmotic and ion stress in plants depend on the variety of salt, stress level and duration, development stage of genotype of plant which is exposed stress. Chance of survival of plants can reduce if metabolic events, especially photosynthetic activity on plants which are exposed to salinity are affected. In this study, determination of salinity change in the tomato root zone depending on the soil layers in different depth was handled. The research was carried out in a greenhouse. In the study, salty irrigation water was applied by drip irrigation method. Treatments were 0.7 dS/m (Salinity, S1), 1.5 dS/m (S2), 3.0 dS/m (S3) and 6.0 dS/m (S4) according to the electrical conductivity of water salinity. The study was set up in a random parcels design with three replications. In order to evaluate the salt accumulation in the soil, samples were taken at different depths of the plant root zone. Then, EC readings were realized from these saturated paste extracts. As a result of the research, it was determined that different irrigation water salinity applications were caused different salt accumulations in the soil. At the end of the season, the highest salinity value (7.61 dS/m) was measured for S4 whereas the lowest salinity value (1.66 dS/m) for S1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Short Term Effects of the Shea Tree Caterpillars (Cirina butyrospermi Vuillet) Manure on the Chemical Properties of the Soil in the Soudanian Area of Burkina Faso

Kalifa Coulibaly, Alain P. K. Gomgnimbou, Jérôme T. Yameogo, Moussa Gnissien, Hassan B. Nacro

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36371

Aims: There is an acute decrease in soil productivity in the soudano-sahelian areas of West Africa. This has called for research to develop mitigation measures in order to restore soil fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the manure of shea tree caterpillars on the chemical parameters of the soil.

Methodology: To achieve that aim, 2 experiments were conducted, an in-pot trial with 8 treatments (T0 to T7) and a field trial with 3 treatments (T1 to T3) were set up.

Results: The treatments T5 (5T ha-1 of caterpillar manure + 150 kg ha-1 of NPK) and T4 (5 T ha-1 of caterpillar manure) showed significant and positive effects (P = 0.05) on pH, C and N. The treatment T1 of the in-pot trial (1.5 T ha-1 of caterpillar manure) (pH=5.78), had a significant effect only on the pH, compared with the absolute control T0 (no fertilizer, pH = 5.64) and the treatment T7 (farmers’ practice, 150 kg ha-1 of NPK and 50 kg ha-1 of urea, pH=5.35). The caterpillars manure did not show any significant short-term effect on the total phosphorus and the total potassium neither in-pot nor in the field trial.

Conclusion: For a best valorization of the caterpillar manure produced in situ in the shea tree fields, there must be an appropriate combination with mineral fertilizers and application near seed-holes.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on the Effect of Foliar Application of NPK and ‎Different Mediums on Melia azedarach L. Growth

Hardy Kakakhan Awla Shekhany

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/37033

An experiment was conducted to study the effects of NPK foliar application and three different Mediums including (Sand, Compost and Peat moss) on the growth of pre-sowing Melia azedarach L. seeds. NPK application (20-20-20) at 500 ppm concentration significantly increased of shoot length 202.58 mm, shoot dry weight 1.93 g, root fresh weight 0.68 g and root dry weight 0.37 g. Seeds sowed in three different mediums; Sand, Compost and Peat moss the results showed that Peat moss had best performance in almost all the parameters shoot diameter 2.52 mm, shoot length 248.92 mm, shoot dry weight 2.23 g and root fresh weight 0.83 g. Interaction of medium Peat moss with NPK 500 ppm significantly increased all the studied parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Allelopathic Root Leachate Effects of Lolium multiflorum x L. perenne on Crops and the Concomitant Changes in Metabolic Potential of the Soil Microbial Community as Indicated by the Biolog Ecoplate™

M. I. Ferreira, C. F. Reinhardt, M. van der Rijst, A. Marais, A. Botha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/36918

Plant roots serve a multitude of functions including anchorage, provision of nutrients and water, as well as production of exudates with growth regulatory properties. Some root exudate components may act as allelochemicals and mediate interactions between plants and other organisms in the rhizosphere. The significance of micro-organisms in influencing allelopathic activity is largely not investigated in bioassays for allelopathy. The aim of this study was to test the appropriateness of Biolog EcoPlatesTM as a quick and relatively cheap method of establishing the presence of microbe interactions mediated by allelopathic pot leachates from either rotational crops or L. multiflorum x L. perenne. In this green house study, Biolog EcoPlatesTM were used to indicate the effect of pot leachates from six different donor plants on the soil microbial populations associated with the same species serving as acceptor plants, grown in pots with soil from the same origin in both sets of pots. Pot leachates from donor plants were added to the acceptor plants on a weekly basis until plants reached maturity. Soil samples from acceptor pots were used to inoculate Biolog EcoPlatesTM and the carbon utilisation patterns were compared to the pattern obtained for the soil microbial populations before treatment commenced. Findings indicate that root exudates can influence the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere and location is an important factor governing plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions. The Biolog EcoPlate™ could be used as an indicator of the allelopathic activity of crop or weed species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Survey and Assessment of Nematodes Profile Ravaging Elite Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L) Cultivars in Southern Nigeria

Godwin Michael Ubi, Nneka Constance Ogbonna, Chioma M. Okolo Adieje, Success Kalu Eni

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/25889

Aims: To identify the nematodes profile (species) and determine their population density ravaging elite plantain cultivars in southern Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was a survey of 318 plantain accessions planted in-situ and maintained in farmers’ fields within the study area. Cluster analysis was performed to generate the clusters groups or elite cultivars from which soil and root corm samples were taken from ratoon crop of each cultivar location for analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: The laboratory experiments were conducted in the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Cross River State in 2014 and 2015.

Methodology: The tray extraction (Modified Baermann) method was adopted for soil nematodes while the root maceration followed by incubation method was adopted for the root corm nematode extraction. The Genstat software was used for the analyses of data generated from the study.

Results: Results of nematode densities (population) per 10 g of root corm, ravaging elite plantain cultivars showed  significant (p<0.05) differences in the population of nematodes infesting plantain crop in the root corm for the two cropping cycles of 2014 and 2015 investigated. The burrrowing nematode populations were highest in Bakpri (dwarf mutant) plantain cultivars (461/10g corm tissue in 2014 and 493/10g corm tissue in 2015 respectlvely) compared to all other cultivars. Ekumkwam cultivar seem to have the least population of burrowing nematodes of 9/10g corm tissue in 2014 and 13/10g corm tissue in 2015 respectively.

Results of nematode densities per 100g of soil, ravaging elite plantain cultivars reveal some significant (p<0.05) differences in the population of nematodes infesting plantain crop for the two cropping cycles of 2014 and 2015 investigated. Nematodes population in root soil were highest in the Bakpri (dwarf mutant) plantain cultivars (12,344/100 cm³ soil in 2014 and 10,416/100 cm³ soil in 2015 respectively) compared to all other cultivars. Ikpobata (cooking banana) cultivar seem to have the least population of nematodes (93/100 cm³ soil in 2014 and 78/100 cm³ soil in 2015 respectlvely).

The results also shows that the profiles of nematodes found to be ravaging elite plantain cultivars in the study area were the burrowing nematodes Radophilus similis, the ectoparasitic and spiral nematodes, Helicotylenchus multicintus and the soil migratory nematodes, Practylenchus goodeyi. Of the total nematode populations extracted from both rhizosphere or root soil from the fourteen (14) locations, they varied (P<0.05) significantly in density and concentration. The results showed that the ectoparasitic and spiral nematodes, Helicotylenchus multicintus had the highest profile density of 68.45% of all nematodes extracted from the root soil in all the elite cultivars sampled. The soil migratory and sedentary nematodes, Practylenchus goodeyi had a profile population of 27.12% while the burrowing nematodes, Radophilus similis, showed the least profile density in soil consisting of 3.51% while the unidentified organisms in the extracts were 0.02% in their profile density.

Results of nematodes profile density isolated from 10g root corm of all elite plantain cultivars revealed that, the burrowing nematodes, Radophilus similis had the highest profile density in the root corm constituting about to 76.11% of the total nematodes extracted from the root corm while the migratory nematodes Practylenchus goodeyi showed a nematodes profile density of 22.84%. Unidentified organisms were 0.54% while the ectoparasitic nematodes, Helicotylenchus multicintus constituted the least 0.51% profile density.

Conclusion: This study has shown that the low yield experienced by farmers in plantain fields in this agro-ecosystem can highly be attributed to high nematodes densities and significant profile densities which have not allowed for the full realization of the productive potentials of elite plantain cultivars in the area despite their nutritional and economic benefits. In view of the perceived potential of Plantain Parasitic Nematodes to destroy and reduce the yield of plantains, conscious efforts must be made to develop a sustainable management option for these pests. The use of soil mulch, local soil additives and plant extract as alternatives to synthetic Nematicide is strongly advocated in the region in view of the effect of pesticides on the environment and food chain.