Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Suitability of Groundwater for Irrigation at Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State

S. O. Odoemena, O. G. Ogundeji, E. A. Igomu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/34777

Irrigation water suitability assessment plays an imperative role for sustainable utilization of scarce physical land resources. The study was aimed at assessing the suitability of groundwater quality for irrigation purpose at the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Random sampling techniques were utilized in the selection of samples of groundwater. Accordingly, five groundwater samples were collected from five boreholes for chemical analysis. The groundwater samples were analyzed for Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, and NO3- besides pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Also, the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) for the groundwater samples and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) for the soil samples were computed. Out of the analyzed 5 groundwater samples, 2 showed EC values below 250 and the remaining between 750 and 1161 dS/m, and pH values ranged from 6.3 to 7.6. Chloride ion concentrations in groundwater ranged from 64 to 78 mg/l; bicarbonate (HCO3-) values ranged from 0.18 to 0.23 (mg/l); and nitrate (NO3 - N) values were below 5 mg/l except in one sample that had 5.87 mg/l as its value. The results indicated that the groundwater in general was suitable for irrigation purpose. However, in order to achieve and sustain full yield potentials for a long period of time, and to avoid increase in salinity and avoid the occurrence of sodicity and toxicity hazard in future, proper irrigation scheme is required in the form of crop selection, fertilizer usage and suitable alternative management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Watering Regime and Rhizobium Inoculation on the Growth, Functional and Yield Traits of Four Legume Species

S. O. Agele, A. J. Ajayi, F. M. Olawanle

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32891

The effects of watering regime and rhizobial inoculation on the growth, nodulation and seed yields of some legume species was evaluated in the screenhouse of the Department of Crop, Soil & Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. The experimental layout was 5 x 3 x 2 factorial with 3 replications given a total of 90 treatments. Seeds of five staple and forage legume species: Pakala (Phaseolus lunatus), Soy bean (TGX 199057f’ and TGX198057), Stylozanthes (Stylozanthes macrocephala) and the Greenleaf Desmodium (Desmodium intortum (Mill.) Urb.) were sown into plastic pots which were watered at 4-, 8- and 12- days intervals, with or without rhizobium inoculation using a rhizobium strain, Rhizobium phaseoli. The plastic pots (5 litre capacity were perforated at bottom to allow for drainage and were filled with pure river sand. The effect of watering regimes on legume species was significant on leaf development, soybean variety, TGX199057f had the highest number of leaves while Desmodium had the least number of leaves. Seedlings that were watered at 4- and 8-days interval had better vigour of growth compared to 12- days watering interval. Compared with 12-days watering interval, both inoculated and non-inoculated seedlings subjected to 4- and 8-days watering intervals had higher root and shoot biomass. TGX 199057f non- inoculated at 8-days watering intervals had the highest value for number of pods and TGX198057 watered at 12- day intervals had higher pod weight. Rhizobium inoculated legumes produced more vigorous plants in addition to higher root nodules, plant height and number of leaves compared with the non-inoculated species. The highest number of leaves and nodules were produced by Phaseolus lunatus when inoculated with the rhizobium strain. However, the highest number of pods was obtained for inoculated soybean (TGX 199057f) compared with the non-inoculated plants. The highest seed yield was obtained from rhizobium inoculated soybean (TGX 198057). Desmodium produced few seeds compared to Phaseolus lunatus and Styolzanthes. The effects of watering regimes and rhizobium inoculation varied on leaf proximate and chemical composition of legume species. The nitrogen, crude protein, ash, chlorophyll, soluble carbohydrates content in leaf differed among the legume species. The legume species inoculated and grown at 4- days watering intervals had the highest contents of moisture, nitrogen, chlorophyll, soluble carbohydrates and ash compared to non-inoculated legume species. Application of rhizobium strain significantly increased seed yield in soybean and Desmodium and caused substantial increase in nodulation. The study has shown that to increase legume productivity under soil moisture deficit stress of marginal/degraded soil, application of rhizobium inoculant is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Morphological Properties, Classification, Suitability and Capability Classification on Dabora-Yelwa Toposequence, Adamawa State, Northeastern Nigeria

Solomon Adamu Gisilanbe, Salihu Ardo Musa, Ifraimu Joel Lebbiso, Saminu Sani Bilayabu, Hadiza Dahiru Ali

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32045

This study was conducted to assess soil morphological properties, soil classification, suitability and capability classification on Dabora-Yelwa toposequence with the view of improving soil management practices and increase the productive capacity of the farmers of the study area. Soil sampling units were delineated using GIS and the study area was categorized into 3 different slope positions on the toposequence and each slope position was recognized as a sampling unit. Two soil types were identified and classified into Typic Plinthustalfs (Yelwa and Sangba’a respectively) and Psammentic Paleudalfs (Dabora). Generally, structural development increased along the slope from upper slope to the bottom slope position. Capability classification resulted in the upper slope: as C3 (IIIse) with limitations in texture and erosion hazards while the soils at the lower slope resulted in class C2 (IIsw). Suitability classification indicated that these soils were moderately suitable for sorghum at the upper slope while maize was marginally suitable with limitation in drainage. Measures such as land leveling, afforestation and use of cover crops will reduce the effect of erosion at the upper slope position.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cultivars and Phosphorus Levels on Nutrient Uptake and Quality of Moth Bean [Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal]

Shishupal Singh, Versha Gupta, Anirudh Choudhary, S. P. Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/35175

A field experiment was conducted on moth bean during kharif, 2016 at Agronomy Farm, College of Agriculture, Bikaner. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of four varieties namely, RMO 40, RMO 225, RMO 435 and RMO 257 and four levels of phosphorus viz., 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg P2O5 ha-1. Variety RMO 257 found superior to RMO 225 and RMO 435 in terms of nitrogen uptake in grain, straw, total nitrogen uptake and phosphorus uptake in grain however, it was at par with RMO 40 in all these characters. Different varieties of moth bean did not show significant variations in nitrogen and phosphorus content of grain and straw, protein content of grain, phosphorus uptake in straw and total phosphorus uptake. Nitrogen content in seed and straw, protein content in seed, nitrogen uptake in straw, total nitrogen uptake, phosphorus uptake by seed and straw and total phosphorus uptake were significantly higher with 80 kg P205 ha-1 compared with preceding levels but found at par with 60 kg P205 ha-1 while nitrogen uptake by seed was significantly higher with 40 kg P205 ha-1 compared to preceding level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Responses of Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] to Phosphate Fertilizer Rates and Plant Spacing and Effects on Soil Nutrient Statues in a Degraded Tropical Ultisol Agbani Enugu South East Nigeria

E. E. Ikenganyia, M. A. N. Anikwe, O. E. Ngwu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32606

The agronomic practices such as plant spacing and phosphate fertilizer requirements for the cultivation of Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] have not yet been fully determined in Agbani agro ecology South east Nigeria. Field trials were conducted in 2015 and 2016 planting season at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani as a 4 x 3 factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were four rates of single super phosphate fertilizer (0 kg P ha-1, 25 kg P ha-1, 50 kg P ha-1and 75 kg P ha-1) and three plant spacing regimes (intra and inter row spacing) 10 cm x 45 cm (222,222 plants hectare-1) 5 cm x 45 cm (148,148 plants hectare-1) and 20 cm x 45 cm (111,111 plants hectare-1). Soil samples were collected from the top soil at a depth of 0 to 15 cm before planting, four and eight weeks after planting. The obtained results showed that Bambara groundnut spaced at 20 cm × 45 cm per plant grown on plots fertilized with 75 kg P ha-1 single super phosphate fertilizer (SSP) had significantly (P = .05) the tallest plants [24.53 cm at 4 weeks after planting (WAP), 35.23 cm at 8WAP in 2015 and 25.00 cm at 4WAP and 36.00 cm at 8WAP in 2016 respectively] compared with the other treatments. The effects of single super phosphate fertilizer treatment on leaf area index (6.04 in 2015 at 4WAP,  45.86 in 2015 at 8WAP, 6.31 at  4WAP in 2016 and 46.51 at  8WAP in 2016) were significant (P = .05) at the highest at application rate of 75 kg P ha-1 of SSP. Plots which had the lowest population density (111,111 plants hectare-1) and received the highest rate of  SSP (75 kg P ha-1) gave significantly (P = .05)  the highest number of fresh pods per plant at harvest (17.67 in 2015 and 19.00 in 2016) and weight of fresh pods per plant (248.03 g plant-1 in 2015 and 290.76g plant-1 in 2016 respectively) than the other treatments. Total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration 7 of soil were significantly (P = .05) higher in plots which received 75 kg P ha-1 SSP than the other treatments. Plant population density of 111,111 plants hectare-1 and SSP rate of 75 kg P ha-1 is recommended for optimum agronomic performance of Bambara groundnut in a degraded tropical ultisol.