Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Postharvest Chemical Treatments on Quality and Longevity of Cut Chrysanthemum

F. U. Khan, Nisar Ahmad Shah, Neelofar ., Muneeb Ahmad Wani, F. A. Khan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43735

The investigation was carried out to study the response of cut stem to sucrose and chemicals in terms of quality and vase life. The Experiment was comprised of 14 holding solutions containing sucrose 3 percent, biocide citric acid (200 and 400 ppm), aluminium sulphate (50 and 100 ppm) and growth regulator benzyl adenine (10 and 200 ppm). Sucrose and chemicals were used in isolation or in combination, and distilled water was used as a control. Results revealed that sucrose 3% + Al2(SO4)3 50 ppm helped stem to maintain favourable water relation, evaluated in terms of  water uptake, water loss, water uptake/water loss ratio and water balance followed by sucrose 3 5% + Al2(SO4)3 50 ppm and citric acid 200 and 400 ppm exhibited less decline in fresh weight as compared to those in sucrose alone or control. Longest vase life of 14.64 days was recorded with sucrose 3% + Al2(SO4)3 50 ppm whereas, vase life in sucrose alone was 9.90 day only.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Rhizosphere Bacterial Consortium on the Manifestation of Tobamoviral Infection Symptoms on Tomato

Oluwafemi M. Adedire, Adefoyeke O. Aduramigba-Modupe, Stephen O. Olaoye, Wuraola F. Ogundipe, Adekunle O. Farinu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/44637

Contrary to available reports on the prevalence of microbial diseases of tomato in Nigeria, the emergence of mosaic viral disease on tomato farms is gradually becoming a very significant additional threat to the production of this economically important vegetable crop. In addition, the resistance of Tobamoviral diseases to chemical control measures makes them particularly difficult to control, once established. Unlocking the specificity of rhizosphere microbiome towards the general health and performance of tomato is key to achieving a safer means of combating microbial diseases of tomato. In this study, the predominant rhizosphere bacteria associated with healthy and infected tomato were compared, and the effect of tomato seed treatment (with selected rhizobacterial consortium) on the incidence of Tobamoviral infection symptoms was determined. Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus macerans and Bacillus cereus were isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy tomato plants using the pour plate isolation method, while P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis were not isolated from rhizosphere samples associated with infected tomato. Tomato seeds were treated with the predominant rhizobacterial consortium isolated from healthy tomato plants, while seedlings were mechanically inoculated with triturated tissue extracts from infected plants. Significant reduction in the incidence of Tobamoviral disease symptoms were recorded on tomato plants grown from treated seeds. Additional (new) Tobamoviral disease symptoms were not recorded at the second, fifth and sixth weeks after the transmission of the pathogen in treated plants while disease incidence values of 23.83, 3.03 and 3.33% were recorded on untreated plant set respectively. Average growth performance measures, including the fruit count, fruit weight, stem girth and the number of flower clusters per plant at 16.76, 43.80 g, 0.93 cm and 9.67 respectively were significantly higher in treated tomato plants than in plants grown without the seed treatment. Consequently, it could be inferred that the healthy-tomato associated rhizosphere bacterial consortium used in this study influenced the resistance of mechanically inoculated tomato to the manifestation of Tobamoviral infection symptoms and the overall performance of the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Zea mays as Influenced By variety, Inorganic Fertilizer and Plant Density

I. Kareem, O. S. Taiwo, Y. A. Abayomi, W. B. Bello, O. F. Adekola, T. B. Salami, Yusuff Oladosu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/14279

A study was conducted to assess growth and yield performances of maize under the influence of inorganic fertilizer, population density and variety. Treatments used were factorial combinations of two maize varieties (DMR-ESR-Y and Suwan-1-SR),  70 × 30 cm and 100 × 40 cm plant spacing and three levels of  NPK 15:15:15 (0, 60 and 120 kg NPK/ha). Data were collected on leaf production, plant height, ear height, leaf area, leaf area index, days to 50% flowering, days to tassel and silk appearances, stem dry weight, root dry weight, cob weight, kernel rows per cob, harvest index and final grain yield. It was revealed that combination of 120 kgN/ha with DMR‐ESR‐Y and 47619 plants/ha could improve dry matter, yield and yield components. Therefore, production of DMR‐ESR‐Y maize variety with application of 120 kgNPK/ha at population density of 47619 plants/ha can be used for better maize yield improvement to cater for the ever increasing population of consumers especially in the ecological zone where the research was conducted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Floristic Diversity and Vegetation-Soil Correlations in Wadi Qusai, Jazan, Saudi Arabia

Marei A. Hamed, Wael T. Kasem, Lamiaa F. Shalabi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/44508

Aims: To study Floristic diversity, life-form, chorology, edaphic factors affecting the ‎species distribution of Wadi Qusai.

Study Design: Several field trips were carried out to the study area – sites soil analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Wadi Qusai - Jazan - Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: Floristic composition, vegetation diversity, life form, chorology, soil analysis and cover estimation by TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA.

Results: A total of 103 species belonging to 77 genera and 33 families were recorded from 20 sample sites. Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Amaranthaceae are the most highly represented families. Therophytes and phanerophytes are the dominant life forms. Chronological analysis revealed that biregional elements that belong to the Saharo-Arabian and the Sudano-Zambezian together have the highest share of species representing 36 species (35% of the total species).

Conclusion: Five vegetation groups were recognized by TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA analysis; group A (Aloe fleurentiniorum, Cadaba glandulosa and Delonix elata) inhabiting the high wadi slope, group B (Anisotes trisulcus‎, Fagonia indica, Pulicaria undulataAcacia ehrenbergiana and Panicum turgidum) was occupied the low slope and wadi terraces, group C (Ziziphus spina-christiAbutilon pannosum and Fagonia indica) was represented the medium wadi slope, Group D (Leptadenia arboreaSalvadora persicaDobera glabra and Jatropha pelargoniifolia) was performed the dry wadi bed and group E (Cyperus articulates, Desmostachya bipinnata, Saccharum spontaneumTypha domingensis and) was recorded in the wet wadi bed. Groups A, B and C were positively correlated with axis 2 whereas Groups D and E were positively correlated with axis 1.Rhazya stricta has been recorded for the first time in the wadi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Short Term Influence of Salinity on Uptake of Phosphorus by Ipomoea aquatica

Md. Zulfikar Khan, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Golam Azom, Md. Sadiqul Amin

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/44822

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the short-term influence of different levels of salinity on the growth, yield and phosphorus (P) uptake of Ipomoea aquatica during the period of 03rd September to 03rdOctober, 2015. Two non-saline soils with different textural classes were collected from the Ganges Tidal Floodplain (Dumuria soil series) and Ganges Meander Floodplain sites (Barisal soil series). The experiment was laid to fit a completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments (0 dS m-1, 3 dS m-1, 6 dS m-1, 12 dS m-1) each having three replications for this experiment. After plant harvesting, the laboratory investigation was carried out in the Soil, Water and Environment Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh. For both soil series, yield contributing characters like plant height, shoot length, root length, number of leaves, fresh weight and dry weight were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by different levels of salinity treatments. In Dumuria soil series, all yield character was decreased in order to 0 dS m-1>3 dS m-1>6 dS m-1>12 dS m-1 salinity level for Ipomoea aquatica which was the same sequence for Barisal soil series. In addition, Phosphorus (P) uptake, the sequence was 0 dS m-1>3 dS m-1>6 dS m-1>12 dS m-1, respectively for both (Dumuria and Barisal) soil series. The sequence clearly indicates that salinity level reduces the uptake of P and ultimately reduces the yield. The changes were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in case of both soil series.