Open Access Original Research Article

Field Screening and Marker Assisted Selection of Late Blight Resistant Potato Lines

Saiful Islam, Adeeba Raihan, A. S. M. Nahiyan, M. A. Siddique, Lutfur Rahman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/45301

Late blight (LB), caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is the most destructive disease of potato. The main objective of this study was to evaluate 72 potato lines, derived from crosses of the recipient cv. ACI Pakri-1 (female) and a LB resistant donor variety (male), against LB disease. Parent materials, LB susceptible varieties Diamant and BARI Alu-40 and LB resistant variety BARI Alu-77 were used as check varieties. The experiment was conducted with three levels of inoculums pressure (i) LB inoculation & no fungicide, (ii) No LB inoculation & no fungicide and (iii) No LB inoculation & fungicide. LB infection was assessed at 10 day intervals by scoring the percentage of foliage destruction. Subsequently, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), relative AUDPC and susceptible scale value were estimated. Three categories of potato lines were selected considering level of LB infection and tuber appearance - (a) LB resistant - 8 lines, (b) LB tolerant - 14 lines, and (c) LB susceptible - 14 lines. The foliage destruction of selected LB resistant lines was considered to be between 1 to 25%, in LB tolerant lines between 25 to 50%, and in LB susceptible lines between 51 to 90% at 85 DAP. The recipient ACI Pakri-1 had 100% foliage destruction at 63-65 DAP. In LB resistant lines low AUDPC, rAUDPC and susceptible scale value were found. The highest susceptible scale value 9 was recorded mostly in LB susceptible cv.ACI Pakri-1 and BARI Alu-40; where the range of susceptible scale value of LB resistant lines was 0.1 to 2.13. LB resistance genes Rpi-abpt and Rpi-blb1, amplified by PCR using primers R2-F1/R2-R3 and 1521/518 respectively, were identified through marker assisted selection (MAS) in the donor variety and crossed LB resistant line 13, 41, 61, 72 and 54 but absent in susceptible ACI Pakri-1.Round tubers, mostly of uniform size, deep to light red and white skin, red and deep eye were found in 8 resistant lines. The highest number of tubers/ hill (20) was recorded in line 8 under natural inoculums pressure, and the highest weight of tuber/hill (460 g) was found in line 61 projecting a yield of 38.3 Mt/ha, which was higher than the donor variety (31.5 Mt/ha) and the recipient ACI Pakri-1 (29.0 Mt/ha) under fungicide application treatment. However, resistance breeding for resistance against potato diseases is developing day by day in Bangladesh. In this regard, our study might contribute in resistance breeding to LB resistance potato variety development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Performance of Early Maturing Maize Cultivars as Influenced by Different NPK Fertilizer in Kabba, Kogi State, Nigeria

S. K. Ogundare, O. O. Etukudo, N. K. Ibitoye-Ayeni

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43961

The experiment was carried out for two consecutive growing seasons (2016 and 2017) at the Research Site of Agronomy Section, College of Agriculture, Kabba to evaluate the growth and yield performance of early maturing maize cultivars as influenced by different NPK fertiliser in Kabba, Kogi State, Nigeria. The experiment was a split plot in a randomised complete block design with three replicates. The main plot treatments were the compoundfertilizer, and the subplot treatments were the four maize cultivars. Data were collected from fifteen randomly selected plants in each plot. Data were taken on the basis of agronomic traits such as on plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of branches, stem girth, leave the area, number of seeds per pod and number of seeds per cob. All the data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the significance of variations among the treatments and means were separated using Least Significance Difference (LSD) test at 5% level of probability. From the result of the experiment, the following conclusions were drawn: The early maturing cultivar performed significantly better than the local cultivar (gorogoro) in both growth and yield. Among the early maturing cultivar planted, sammaz 39 recorded the highest yield. Plots with fertiliser application recorded better growth and yield compared to the no fertiliser plots irrespective of the fertiliser used. Among the compound fertilisers, plots with NPK 15-15-15 showed greater growth and yield performance in this experiment. Farmers in the study area should plant sammaz 39 and amend the soil with NPK 15-15-15 fertiliser for optimum yield of maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Responses of Growth and Yield of Rice Varieties to Contrasting Hydrothermal Regimes during Vegetative and Reproductive Growth Phases in Akure, a Rainforest Zone of Nigeria

Agele, Samuel, Ajao, Mary

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43451

Experiments were conducted in the screenhouse to determine the effects of watering and temperature regimes on the growth, seed yield and yield components of rice. The experiment was a split-plot scheme involving 4 x 3 x 2 factorial combinations of rice varieties (Igbemo, Millina, Cherie and Nerica 7), watering regimes, ambient and high temperature conditions arranged in Completely Randomized Design with four replications. Watering regimes (40, 70 and 100% field capacity (FC) consisted of water application at 1.5, 1.0, 0.6 litres of water per pot at 4 days interval) were imposed two weeks after germination. At the onset of flowering, a set of experimental materials grown under the watering regimes were retained under ambient temperature (29-32°C) and atmospheric dryness (vapour pressure deficit: 2.3 – 2.8 kPa: moderate humidity) and another set were grown under conditions of high temperatures (35-42°C) and VPD (3.2 - 3.8 kPa: low humidity). Data were collected on root and shoot weights, number of green and dead leaves, tillers/stand, spikelets/panicle, seed and panicle weights.  The tested rice varieties differed in growth and yield characters. In general, the landraces (Igbemo and Benue types) produced a higher number of tillers and filled grains and heavier seeds/panicle. The 100 and 70% FC watering enhanced rice performance: height, leaf area, number of tillers and panicle and seed yield, 100 seeds weight compared to the 40% FC soil moisture conditions. However, compared with growth under field capacity moisture, rice had declined growth and yield characters under 70 and 40% FC. The chlorophyll and soluble carbohydrate contents in leaf and stem which differed among the varieties were also affected by watering regimes and growing environment conditions. The responses of rice varieties varied under conditions of high temperature and low humidity during the reproductive phase in combination with variable root zone moisture. Under low humidity and high temperature conditions during reproductive phase: Compared with the landraces, Nerica 7 was best for leaf area and 100 seed weight and lowest unfilled grains/panicle. High air temperatures and low humidity during reproductive phase enhanced leaf senescence and sterility of spikelets and seeds (empty seeds). The strong interplay between soil moisture deficit and temperature stress especially during the reproductive phase depressed rice growth and yield. High temperature and low humidity appeared to have accentuated soil moisture deficit constraints on the growth and yield of rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Mineral Fertiliser on Vegetative Parameters of Fluted Pumpkins (Telfairia occidentalis Cucurbitaceae) in Buea, Cameroon

Tange Denis Achiri, Victorine Bongkisheri

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/45428

Telfairia occidentalis commonly called fluted pumpkin is an indigenous vegetable of Central Africa particularly in Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon. The leaves and seeds are widely implicated in the local gastronomy of these regions. The potential of this plant in the field of medicine is being investigated. Unlike Nigeria, fluted pumpkin is still in subsistent production in Cameroon. Among other factors, fertiliser plays a fundamental role in our understanding for mass production of many vegetables. We evaluated the role of urea (46% N) and NPK fertiliser on the vegetative parameters of fluted pumpkin in Buea, at the foot of Mount Fako South West Region of Cameroon in 2012-13. Soil physicochemical properties were examined before the experiment. 5 g, 10 g, 15 g urea/plant and 10 g NPK/plant were applied in a ring method 1 and 5 weeks after germination with 3 replications. A repeated measure multivariate analysis revealed an interaction between time and the fertiliser regimes. Soil analysis revealed a slightly high N and P concentrations. Number of leaves was significantly (P = .05) highest (280.7) for plant treated with 15 g urea/plant 10 weeks after planting, followed by 266.7, 263.0, 232.3, and 66.3 for plants treated with 10 g urea/plant, 10 g NPK/plant, 5 g urea/plant and control respectively. High urea concentrations had an antagonistic effect on vine length. Plant treated with 15 g urea/plant had a statistically significant (P = .05) highest leaf length (8.57 cm) from all treatments except for plant treated with 10 g NPK/plant (7.77 cm) and 10 g urea/plant (7.63 cm). Correlation analysis revealed a strong positive correlation (r2 = 0.621, P = .018) between number of leaves and length of leaves. We strongly recommend that farmers use 15 g urea/plant for maximum vegetative plant output. Other ramifications of this research are discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterisation of Silver Nanoparticles Using Withania somnifera and Antifungal Effect against Fusarium solani

K. Prittesh, B. Heena, B. Rutvi, J. Sangeeta, M. Krunal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/45460

In the present study, an attempt was being made to use Withania somnifera plant leaf extract for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and establish the antifungal activity against plant pathogen Fusarium solani NVS671. Among different phytoextract concentration studied, 4% was found optimum for nanoparticles synthesis in combination with 100mM AgNO3. UV spectra analysis revealed peak at 420nm. The Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis provided further information about the morphological characteristics of the nanoparticles and confirmed that the particles were spherical with size in the range of 6.43-23.27 nm. Following TEM and spectrometry analysis, nanoparticles were amended into PDA media for the evaluation of their In vitro antifungal potential at concentrations of 25ppm, 50ppm, 100ppm and 250ppm was studied against F. solani NVS671. In all cases, Ag Nanoparticles exhibited higher inhibition of mycelial growth. In vivo analysis of silver nanoparticles against pathogenic fungus F. solani on sugarcane crop under greenhouse condition also sown promising results when evaluated plant growth and disease severity in comparison with control. It is concluded that W. somnifera leaf extract was found suitable for the green synthesis of AgNPs and suggested as an alternative and effective approach with antifungal potential which is eco-friendly and cost-effective for the control of pathogenic fungus like F. solani.