Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Anatomical Studies on Trichosanthes cucumerina L. (Cucurbitaceae)

C. Ekeke, Josephine U. Agogbua

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/44982

Studies on morphological, anatomical and proximate characteristics of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. (Cucurbitaceae) was carried out using morphological observation and microtomy in order to determine the relationship between this species and other cucurbits and complement the existing data on the taxon. T. cucumerina is a climber that grows up to 30m tall. The leaves are persistent partly ovate, trilobate to heptalobate, slightly hairy to densely hairy with glandular trichomes and non-glandular trichomes (2–5 celled, with a prominent flattened disk of two rows of cells). Tendril bifid, ovary consists of 3 syncarpous carpels and fruits 23.0 – 56.4 cm long. The species is hypostomatic with mainly anomocytic and tetracytic stomata and the epidermal cells appeared irregular in shape. Stem, peduncle, and tendril were angled with 5 – 13 bicollateral vascular bundles in open rings. The petiole and the midrib comprised 1 – 3 accessory vascular bundles. The sclerenchymatous cells were continuous or non-continuous. The tendril and stem have hollow pith. The similarity in morphological and anatomical features of this species and other members of cucurbits depicts taxonomic and evolutionary relationship among them, however; the type of trichomes we observed suggests that this species could be T. cucumerina var. anguina and not T. cucumerina. Further studies using electron microscope is therefore needed to affirm this finding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes to Liquid Effluents from a Non-alcoholic Beverage Company in Ibadan, Nigeria

O. J. Olawuyi, A. O. Akanmu, B. A. Ogunlewe

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/45331

Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of liquid effluents discharged from a non-alcoholic beverage company on the growth of maize genotypes.

Study Design: The screenhouse experiment was laid out in complete randomised design.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the nursery farm of the Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, between January and February and repeated between March and April, 2018.

Materials and Methods: Maize genotypes; TZM – 1439, TZM – 29, TZM – 1288 and TZM - 1165 were obtained from maize germplasm in IITA Ibadan while the liquid effluent was collected from a bottling company in Ibadan and diluted with sterile distilled water into four different concentrations (0, 80, 90 and 100%). The varying concentration levels were evaluated on each maize genotype. Effluent was applied in the soil of the respective treatment at 200ml /pot/ day starting from the 10th day after planting. Data gathered on plants’ growth characters were subjected to ANOVA α0.05.

Results: Maize cultivars treated with effluents concentrations, especially at 100% level significantly (p < 0.05) resulted in increased plant height (31.17 and 28.67 cm), stem length (7.81 and 7.53 cm), leaf length (22.18 and 20.63 cm) and leaf number (3.72, 3.61%) compare to the control respectively. Among the maize genotypes evaluated, TZM–1439, TZM-29 and TZM–1288 showed the most significant (p<0.05) effect on all the growth characters measured. No significant correlation exists between the effluent concentrations and genotypes with the growth characters, while the eigen proportion ranged from Prin 1 (67.10%) to Prin 5 (2.22%).

Conclusion: The effluent from non-alcoholic beverage company’s treated maize plants recorded better growth performances at higher concentrations compare to the control experiment and could be further investigated for use in irrigation farming towards sustainability in agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Mineral Content of Wood Ashes of Selected Plants Used for Soil Amendments in Eritrea

Goitom Kfle, Tesfamichael Haile, Mussie Sium, Semere Debretsion, Henok Abrham, Martha Ghirmay, Helen Tsegay, Filimon Nega

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/45727

Wood ash  contains  all  the  components  of  wood  in  a  concentrated  form,  except  for  carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen which evaporate during the burning of wood. The mineral concentration of the ashes from seven selected trees namely Acacia seyal, Acacia etbaica, Acacia albida, Acacia tortilis, Leucaena leucocephala, Olea europea, Musa sapientum found in Eritrea was studied. Most of the trees are commonly used for household fire in the rural and urban communities of Eritrea. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of minerals and thus determine the application of the ashes of the selected trees for soil amendment. Moderately sized tree branches were ashed in a furnace at 600ºC for 6 hours and the resulting ash was homogenized, filtered and digested. Aqua-regia was used to digest the ash samples and ICP-OES was employed to analyse the levels of the elements. Based on the analysis, the digestion method was found to be effective in recovery of minerals from the wood ashes. The percentage of ashes produced from the trees, except Musa sapientum, ranged from 0.88 up to 4.66. The results of the study revealed that the ashes of the selected plants contained various concentrations of the minerals vital for soil enrichments. The major elements found in the wood ashes include Ca, K, Mg, P, S, Fe and Na. The level of the major elements in this report was consistent with previously published reports. Moreover, the concentration of heavy metals in the studied plant ashes was below the permissible limits and therefore the ashes can be employed as liming agents and sources of important nutrients in soil enrichment. This is a very first report related to the levels of minerals in wood ashes in the country and thus can be used as reference for further detailed studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability, Heritability, Character Association and Morphological Diversity in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

Khalid Syfullah, Md. Nasir Hossain Sani, Saifullah Omar Nasif, Sohely Parvin, Md. Mahasab Hossain Rony, Mohammad Saiful Islam, Md. Sarowar Hossain

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/45828

Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation coefficient analysis, path coefficient analysis and genetic divergence between yield and its contributing traits were studied in 28 okra genotypes. The phenotypic coefficient of variations was found slightly higher than the genotypic coefficient of variations for all characters studied, indicating that the apparent variation is not only genetic but also influenced by the growing environment in the expression of the traits. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation was observed primary branches (43.91 and 33.64) and fruit yield per plant (37.51 and 32.48). High heritability coupled with high genetic advance in percent of mean in number of plant height (97.32 and 29.98), no. of fruit per plant (88.55 and 50.44), fruit yield per plant (74.99 and 57.94), seed per fruit (73.02 and 34.00) and primary branches (58.70 and 53.10) suggested that these characters would be considered for varietal selection. The correlation studies revealed that fruit yield per plant showed significant positive correlation with no. of average fruit weight, number of fruit per, plant height and significantly negative correlation with seed per fruit at genotypic and phenotypic level which can be considered for selection of a good variety. Path analysis revealed days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of fruit per plant, average fruit weight had direct positive effect on pod yield per plant, indicating these traits are the main contributors to fruit yield per plant. The divergence value for cluster analysis showed the highest inter-cluster distance between clusters I and V which indicates that these genotypes may provide high heterosis in hybridization and expected to show wide variability in genetic architecture. The selection of high yielding genotypes should give emphasis to the days to flowering (earliness), number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant and less seeds per fruit.

Open Access Short Research Article

Changes in Soil Fertility and Rice Productivity in Three Consecutive Years Cropping under Different Fallow Phases Following Shifting Cultivation

Wapongnungsang ., Chowlani Manpoong, S. K. Tripathi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/46087

Shifting cultivation commonly known as Jhum is a primitive and traditional practice carried out by Jhumiasfor centuries. Soil microbes play a vital role in regulating soil fertility and nutrient cycling in different terrestrial ecosystems. The main objective of the present study is to examine changes in soil properties (soil organic carbon, SOC; total nitrogen, TN; available phosphorus, Pavail; ammonium nitrogen, NH4-N; nitrate nitrogen, NO3-N; nitrogen mineralization, Nmin) and rice productivity for three years cropping phase in shifting cultivation stand with different fallow phases (3 years old, FL-3; 5 years old, FL-5; and 10 years old fallow, FL-10) in Mizoram. The results indicated that soil physico-chemical properties were significantly higher (p<0.05) in longer fallow (FL-10) compared to shorter fallow (FL-3). The rate of Nmin showed significant differences among seasons and showed significant increase in longer fallow (FL-10) compared to shorter fallows (FL-3 and FL-5). Rice yield and productivity showed significant increase from 3 years to 10 years. Further, soil properties and rice productivity showed significant decline from first year to third year cropping. It appears that the longer fallow have conserved better soil nutrients compared to shorter fallow. Additionally, the addition of leaf litter and fine roots had strong effect on increasing fertility and organic carbon (SOC) pool in soil that helps to enhance plant productivity in different fallow lands in hilly region of Mizoram.