Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Insect Infestation on Plant Damage and Yield of Roselle [Hibiscus sabdariffa L.] in Benue State, Nigeria

L. D. Simon, E. O. Ogunwolu, E. Okoroafor

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/45446

Impact of insect infestation on growth and yield of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was evaluated at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Agriculture, Makurdi, in the 2016 cropping season. An early and late crop (as main plot), of the red (H. sabdariffa sabdariffa) and green (H. sabdariffa altissima) types (as subplot) were planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split-split-plot arrangement. Four weekly application of 100 g a.i/ha of cypermethrin + 400 g a. i./ha of dimethoate constituted sub-subplot treatments. All treatments were replicated three times. Insects were visually counted in 1 marea in two rows of each plot. The dominant insect pests included Monolepta thomsoni, Nisotra sjostedti, Dysdercus volkeri and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis. The early crop differed significantly (having 9 % wider stem girth, 2x more branches/stem, and 1.5x more leaf damage) from the late crop. The green Roselle had more pod (2.5x) and seed (1.1x) damage and gave from 1.3 – 1.5x lower calyx, pod and seed yield. Plant growth and productivity were significantly higher in sprayed than in the unsprayed plots. Plants sprayed at both vegetative and reproductive stages were the most productive having significantly more fresh leaf biomass (2.5-103.6x), calyx yield (2.6-2.8x), pod yield (2.2-7.4x), seed yield (3.1-11.0x) sequel to more vigorous growth and less pod damage (2.0-44.6x) and seed damage (1.8-8.6x). Cost-benefit analysis indicated that the red Roselle was more profitable than the green, the late crop was more profitable than the early, and protection at both vegetative and reproductive stages was more profitable than other spray regimes returning N440,291.25/ha, N755,291.5/ha, and N397,236.0/ha for leaf, calyx and seed valuation, respectively. Insecticidal protection of the crop has been shown to mitigate drop damage and return profit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Relationship among the Various Physico-Chemical Soil Properties and Identification of Soil Acidifying Components

Shayan Dey, Pramit Pandit, Sourav Roy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/45937

Soil acidity is one of the major obstacles to crop growth to a great extent. IN different districts of West Bengal, soil acidity has been reported as a considerable factor behind crop growth restriction. Hence, a comprehensive study has been conducted with a view to study the relationship among the various forms of soil acidity and other physico-chemical soil properties, covering Godkhali, Coochbehar and Purulia under investigation. Outcomes of the investigation clearly reveal that all the physico-chemical properties has been found to have significant influence on different forms of acidity. Along with this, it can be also inferred that among the forms of different soil acidity, for all the forms, significant positive linear association has been observed. It has been also obtained that hydrolytic acidity, extractable acidity and pH-dependent acidity can be considered as the most vital soil acidifying component.

Open Access Original Research Article

Root Iron Localization and Proteomic Impairment in Anaerobic Rice Cultivars Exposed to Excess Iron

T. Saikia, R. Stafford, J. Bhuyan, A. Borthakur

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/46148

Plant faces iron (Fe) toxicity when the concentration of this mineral is high in soils under anaerobic conditions. Excess soil Fe2+may cause severe impairment in rice photosynthe­sis, morphological parameters, and may induce oxidative damage with significant alteration in protein profiles. Present study aimed to investigate the extension of oxidative stress on exposure to excess Fe2+ ion and its effects on the rate of photosynthesis and modifications in protein profiles of rice cultivars with differential sensitivity. A pot experiment was conducted with three Sali rice cultivars, one conventional tolerant cultivar Mahsuri and two iron sensitive varieties Siyal Sali and Ranjit. Constant waterlog environment with four different Fe2+ doses +100 ppm, +200 ppm and +300 ppm treatments and a control without external Fe, were executed. Mahsuri displayed well adaptation to iron overload recording superior morphological parameters with better photosynthetic activity compared to Fe intolerant varieties. The SDS-PAGE results of leaf protein showed that Mahsuri had greater numbers of intense bands indicating more leaf proteins accumulation in all treatments. In contrast Ranjit and Siyal Sali expressed only few weak bands when supplemented with higher Fe2+ doses. Thus proteomic comparison between tolerant and sensitive cultivars after iron overload provides insight into the transcriptional regulation of the variety to tolerance response. These findings establish the foundations of introducing iron tolerance into farmers’ friendly rice cultivars triggering better nutritional values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Peat and Chiken Litter on Three Cultivars of Plantain in Plants Vivo: FHIA 21, PITA 3 and Horn 1

Francis Koffi Bedie, Louise Turquin, Deless Edmond Fulgence Thiemele

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/46147

Aims: This study was carried out to test various substrates made of a mixture of earth with different proportions of organic fertilizing substances to improve the technique of mass production of plantain plantain material, and the multiplication of shelled strains (MSD).

Place and Duration of Study: The study of the growth and development of plantain cultivars FHIA 21, PITA 3 and Horn 1 was carried out in the region of Azaguié, at the production station of plantain banana (Musa pardisiaca) plants of the National Center for Agricultural Research (CNRA) under tunnel and shade for a period of 8 months.

Methodology: The substrates tested were chicken litter and peat mixed with soil in 25%, 50% and 75% proportions. Our study took place from March to November 2014.

Results: For tunnel results, S7 (soil 25% - mature chicken litter 75%) and S6 (soil 50% - mature chicken litter 50%) had positive impacts on the height of the three cultivars, particularly Horn 1 while the dry matter was improved by the substrate S1 earth (100%). The S7 substrate allowed good root production regardless of the cultivar and also increased root branching levels. Under the shade, substrates S7 and S6 negatively influenced the height. The number of roots and the degree of branching of the roots were improved by the substrates S2 (50% earth - 50% peat) and S3 (25% earth - 75% peat). The amounts of dry matter fluctuated without any significant difference. The influence of the two environments on the development and growth parameters of the in vivo plants revealed that the highest values were obtained under tunnel with the exception of the dry matter.

Conclusion: This study confirmed that, there was influence of substrates on the growth and development of plantain banana plants. Substrate S7 gave the best result under tunnel and under shaded substrates S2 and S3. In both environments, S7 substrates had a positive effect on the number of roots emitted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Potentials of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) on a Crude Oil Polluted Soil: A Screen House Experiment

Okunwaye, Iris, Ogboghodo, Ikponmwosa, Ewansiha, Sylvester, Oriakpono, Obemeata

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/41254

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of the application of cow dung to crude oil polluted soils on the growth of cowpea. It was a screen house experiment. Four rates of cow dung (0, 1, 2 and 3 g) and four rates (0, 5, 10 and 15 ml) of crude oil per 10 kg of soil were used giving a total of sixteen (16) treatment combinations. Each treatment was replicated three times, for a total of forty eight (48) pots. The rate used is equivalent to 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg/ha and 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 litres/ha of cow dung and crude oil respectively. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized designed. Some plant growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves and leaf areas were recorded at 7DAP, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks after planting. The plant dry matter yield was also determined. Results obtained at the end of the field experiment showed that plant height increased from 5.8 cm to 114.6 cm at the rate of 5 ml crude oil and cow dung application of no amendment. There was a continuous increase in percentage germination, number of leaves, leaf area and dry matter yield. Generally remediation for the oil contaminated soil at the end of tenth week revealed a positive correlation coefficient in the degree of remediation during the trial periods.